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科学家解释如何拍到巨型乌贼 – 译学馆
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科学家解释如何拍到巨型乌贼

Scientist Explains How She Captured Rare Giant Squid Footage | WIRED

From 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea to the tale of the mythical Kraken,
从海底两万米到神秘的海妖传说
the giant squid has long loomed large in the popular imagination.
在大众印象中巨型乌贼都很长很长
But for actual science, the creature has eluded us.
但是就实际科学来说这种生物我们很难抓到
We only really know about it from specimens
在这之前 我们见到的只是
that have washed ashore or even caught in nets until now.
被水冲上岸或者被网捉住的标本
For the second time ever, and for the first time in US waters,
历史上第二次 也是在美国水域中的第一次
Researchers have captured the giant squid on camera.
研究人员捕捉到了巨型乌贼的影像
So, how do they do it and what does this mean
那么他们是怎么做到的
for our understanding of this mysterious creature?
这对于研究这个神秘的生物意味着什么呢
To find out, we’re speaking to
我们找到了探险队的一个指挥者
one of the expedition’s leaders, Dr. Edith Witter.
伊迪丝•威特来告诉我们答案
She’s also the one responsible for
她同时也是负责
developing the technology that made this all possible.
开发实现这项技术的人
So, this is obviously a very elusive creature,
很显然这是一个令人厌恶的生物
I wonder if you could walk us through
我想知道你是否还有兴趣
what exactly science does know so far about this animal
看看对于这个很难在深海环境中找到的
that has been very difficult to actually spot in the wild.
巨型动物我们都了解些什么
So, for the longest time, what we knew about giant squid was
很长时间以来我们对于巨型乌贼的认知
based on the dead specimens that floated to the surface.
都停留在漂浮到海面上的死亡标本
But seeing one in its natural habitat
所以拍到在原始栖息地的巨型乌贼
became what was called the holly grail of natural history cinematography.
可以说是自然史摄影上的一座里程碑
And I have been saying for some time that I think
我曾经说过几次我们应该
we need to try exploring the deep ocean in a different way.
以另外一种方法来开发深海世界
The primary way we know about life in the ocean
我们了解海洋生物的重要手段是
is we drag nets behind ships.
去开船拉网捕捉它们
And I defy you to name any other branch of science
我敢说其他任意一门科学
that still depends on hundreds years old technology.
也依旧是按照几百年前的技术
It’s an axiom among marine scientists that
海洋科学家们之间有一个共识
nets only capture the slow, the stupid and the greedy.
渔网捕捉到的是那些行动缓慢的 迟钝的和贪食的动物
And so, how much are we missing?
所以有多少动物是我们无法捕捉到的
And if we go down with submersibles and remote operated vehicles
当我们通过潜水器或远程控制手段下潜
that have really bright lights and sometimes very noisy thrusters,
机器发出的光或者发动机的噪音
and any sensible animal’s gonna get out of the way.
会导致敏感的动物立马逃离
And so, I wanted a different way to explore
所以我想要以一种不同的方式去研究
and started trying to develop a camera system
开始开发一种成像系统
that could see without being seen.
可以看到动物们却不被它们发现
And so, I developed this optical lure
然后我们开发出了这款光学诱饵
that we call it electronic jellyfish or e-jelly.
命名为电子水母
The imitates certain bioluminescent displays
它可以模仿发出特定的生物学冷光
that I thought might be attractive to large predators.
我想冷光可以吸引大型食肉动物
And sure enough, it was.
事实证明它可以的
Can you tell us more about the e-jelly?
关于电子水母您可以再介绍一些吗
What kind of organism, is it mimicking and how is it doing so?
它是模仿哪种生物还有它是怎么模仿的
It’s a bunch of blue LEDs that are embedded in epoxy.
我们在环氧树脂中嵌入一串蓝色LED灯
And they’re imitating the display of a jellyfish
这是模仿水母被捕食者爪子抓住后
that when it is caught in the clutches of a predator,
发出的蓝色冷光
it produces this pinwheel of light
它发出这种齿轮状的光
that is meant as a scream for help.
意为大声呼救
And it’s called a bioluminescent burglar alarm.
叫做生物发光防盗报警器
Because it functions very much like the burglar alarm on your car.
因为它的功能很像车上的防盗铃
The blaring horn and flashing lights are meant to attract attention,
响亮的号角和闪光目的是吸引注意力
hopely of the police, and cause the burglar to run away,
希望引来救援或者吓跑捕食者
because it doesn’t want to get caught.
因为它不想被抓住
Well, the same thing is true for a lot of animals
海洋中有很多生物
in the ocean that can make light.
可以发出类似的光
If they’re caught in the clutches of a predator,
一旦他们被捕食者的爪子抓住
they may use every light organ they’ve got
他们会使用每一个发光器官
in the flashiest way possible pounding tended
来发光警示
to attract the attention of a larger predator.
希望引来更大的捕食者
How do we now understand the creature better than we used to?
现在我们对这种生物的认知有什么进步吗
It’s very clear that this is an active, visual predator.
很清楚我们看到一个活的有视力的捕食者
You see, this giant squid,
你看这个巨型乌贼
surfing along beside the camera and the electronic jellyfish,
在这个摄像机和电子水母旁边游动
it’s tracking exactly what the camera is doing.
它精准的追踪电子水母的踪迹
So, it’s… you know, it’s clearly a visual predator.
所以很明显这个捕食者是有视觉的
It watches it for a while and then comes in for the attack.
它观察了一会然后发起了攻击
Obviously, this would be an exciting discovery, somewhat memorable.
这是一个令人难忘的兴奋的发现
What was it like out there on the high seas?
那么在海上区域有什么情况吗
It was actually probably the most unusual day at sea I’ve ever had.
那天可能是我在海上经历的最不寻常的一天
I was… doing this project in collaboration with Nathan Robinson.
当时我正在做和内森•罗宾逊的合作项目
The video is collected over a 24-to-30-hour period by the camera system.
视频录像正处于24到30小时那个阶段
And we don’t know what we’ve got
拿到摄像机视频后
until we collect the camera and download it.
我们才知道发生了什么
It takes many hours to download the data,
我们用了很多个小时来下载数据
and then many more hours to go through it.
又用了好几个小时过了一遍
And Nate was going through it in the lab.
当时内森在研究室里看录像
He came in and he didn’t even say anything,
他进来了他甚至什么都没说
his eyes were just about popping out of his head.
他惊讶的眼睛都要瞪出来了
I knew it was something important.
我知道肯定是什么重要的事情
And I came running into the lab,
我跑向研究室
and there it was, this giant squid,
然后看到了那只巨型乌贼
coming out of the bloom, attacking the e-jelly.
从光晕中窜出来进攻这个电子水母
And, it was… you know, it was incredible.
你知道吗当时太难以置信了
And then others from around,
其他人都围了过来
the ship came running around to see it.
船继续追上去看
And we wanted to confirm before we shared it with the world
在向大众公布前我们想确定一下
that it really was a giant squid.
它确实是一只巨型乌贼
And so, we wanted to connect with the Smithsonian,
我们想和史密森尼学会取得联系
but the internet was down, because we were in the middle of the squall.
但是由于我们在狂风中网络已经断开
And as we were still all around the computer
在我们还在电脑周围
watching this loop over and over agian,
一遍一遍看这个循环的时候
the ship got hit by lightning,
船被闪电击中
which’s never happenned to me in all my years of going on the sea.
这在我多年行船历史上从没发生过
Ran out under the fantail and there was just
艉突下面冒出
plume of yellow and brown smoke,
黄棕色的烟
and bits of antenna on the deck, it got to hit the antenna on the ship.
甲板上的部分天线开始撞击船上的天线
We all thought, at the moment… at the same moment,
在那个瞬间我们想
“Oh my god! What about the computer?”
我的天啊电脑怎么办
Because we hadn’t backed up the video yet, we’ve just gotten it.
因为我们还没有备份刚得到的那个视频
And what a disaster that would have been?
这将是多大的一个灾难啊
But we ran in and our laptop that this was on was okay.
当我们跑进去 那个笔记本电脑没问题
Some of the other computers actually did get zapped.
其他的一些电脑已经被毁了
And then even as we were still kind of
我们在经历这样的事情
processing all of this, still didn’t have internet,
网络也是断开状态
the captain comes down and tells us
船长下来告诉我们
that there was a waterspout, forming off of our port bow.
我们船的左艏方向形成了龙卷风
And so, it really felt like Poseidon was trying to protect his secrets.
就感觉好像是波赛顿试图隐藏他的秘密一样
But eventually, we did get the internet back up,
但是最终我们恢复了网络
that we were able to send the video to Mike Vecchio at the Smithsonian.
我们终于可以把视频发送给史密森尼学会迈克•维乔
And he was able to confirm that yes in all likelihood,
他可以在所有的可能性中确认
as much as he was willing to put his reputation on the line,
在某种程度上他愿意赌上自己的名誉
it was a giant squid.
确认那是一只巨型乌贼
It was probably a juvenile with the mantle on the arms,
它的触腕上有绒毛所以很可能是幼年期的
it was probably about 12 feet long,
它大概有12尺长
if the tentacles were fully extended, it would be even longer than that.
如果触手完全伸开的话可能还会更长
With a full adult, as far as we know
据我们所知成年后
they can get as tall as a four-story building.
他们可以长到4层楼那么高
It sounds like a scene out of 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea,
这个场景好像在海底两万里见过
got a giant cephalopod and angry seas all coming together and some high drama.
巨大的乌贼 愤怒的海洋戏剧性的凑在一起
Yeah, I think Jules Verne would have approved.
我认为儒勒•凡尔纳应该同意
So, up until this point, why has it been that we haven’t really seen
所以在这之前为什么我们没有见过
much of these giant squid, especially alive, out in the wild?
这么多巨型乌贼尤其是活的野生乌贼
We’ve actually explored very little
其实对于地球上最大的栖息地——海洋
of what is the largest habitat on planet, the open ocean.
我们开发的很少
Mostly we know about what lives there by dragging nets.
我们对于海洋中的生物的了解主要依靠网捕捉
But visits with submersibles and remote operated vehicles
使用潜水器或者远程控制手段的探索
are few and far between.
可谓少之又少
And when you think in terms of the volume that we’re talking about,
当你从我们谈论的体积方面来看
this is an enormous bolum, more than 99.9% of the biosphere,
它体积巨大 超过生物圈其他99.9%的生物
the living space on the planet, is in the water.
它在这个星球的栖息地是在水中
And we’ve just barely barely glimpsed the life down there.
我们只是略微瞥见了一点点的海下生物
And maybe a creature like the giant squid, this science fiction creature,
有可能有一个类似于巨型乌贼的科幻生物
which is just a head with arms and tentacles whipping out of it,
头下面触手和触腕到处挥舞
and a beak that can rip flesh, and eyes, the size of a dinner plate,
嘴可以撕肉 眼睛像餐盘一样大
and three hearts that can pump blue blood.
还有三个心脏泵着蓝色的血
I mean, it doesn’t get any better than that.
我说没有比这更好的了
And if that would excite the public’s interest,
如果这可以提起公众的兴趣就太好了
which is seemed to have done, then that’s awesome.
现在看来确实公众兴趣很大
Thank you for chatting with us today, we appreciate it.
谢谢您今天跟我们分享 我们很感激
I was glad to do it.
我很高兴这么做

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视频概述

巨型乌贼生活在深海,科学家们开发了一个电子水母的摄像系统深入深海区域,为我们拍下珍贵的视频。让我们一起来看一下他们是如何做到的吧。

听录译者

教瑜伽的Diana

翻译译者

YXG-小坤坤

审核员

审核员JO

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LllrSxwhpEc

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