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这是科学验证的最佳学习方式 – 译学馆
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这是科学验证的最佳学习方式

Scientifically Proven Best Ways to Study

For those of us
对于像我们这样的
who are trying to figure out the most effective way to study,
在学校里苦苦思索最有效的学习方法的人来说
science is here on hand to help.
科学指导会派上用场
While it has been traditionally thought
尽管我们中的很多人
by many of us over the years that long hours
许多年来都习惯地认为
in front of the computer or in the library,
在重要考试之前我们需要
before an important exam, are required to
长时间坐在电脑前或泡在图书馆
maximize study time, this is actually not the case.
使学习时间最大化 事实上并非如此
So forget about long nights,
所以忘了漫漫长夜吧
with eyelids drooping over pages and pages of text, scientific
科学研究清晰的表明
research has expressed quite clearly that that isn ’t
一直学习到你的眼皮耷拉到纸张或书页上
the way to study smart.
并不是聪明有效的学习方法
And it turns out smart studying is a lot more fun
事实证明聪明有效的学习
than we might have thought.
比我们想象的更有趣
So just what cool techniques work
那么什么样的方式
best to maximize those precious days before the big exam?
能使重要考试前非常珍贵的几天时间最有效呢
That ’ s what we ’ ll find out,
这就是我们要探寻的东西
in this episode of The Infographics Show, Scientifically Proven
在The Infographics Show中的一段科学的证明了
Best Ways to Study.
最好的学习方法
First of all, an unlikely helper is exercise.
首先 出乎意料的帮手 锻炼
Blood chemistry has been proven to change the way the brain works,
血液循环已经被证明能够改变大脑运行的方式
as the brain, the
对于大脑
happy recipient of vital nutrients through exercise,
能够快乐地接受运动所带来的重要的营养
repays the favor by increasing brain
并通过提高大脑的兴奋度作为回报
performance in the shape of a better and longer attention span,
并表现出更好更持久的注意力
smoother information processing, and more fluid problem solving skills.
更顺畅的信息加工 和更流畅的解决问题技巧
How does this work?
那么它是怎样工作的呢?
Well, exercise releases an important blend of mood altering hormones
运动释放重要的情绪催化激素分泌混合物
including dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine.
包括多巴胺 血清素和降肾上腺素
This neural cocktail greatly enhances brain performance required
这种神经的鸡尾酒很大程度上
for study and information retention,
增强了学习和记忆保留所需要的大脑表现力
so in between study sessions,
因此在学习的间隙时间
we should seriously consider hitting the gym,
我们应该考虑去健身房健健身
swimming some laps, kicking a ball around,
游游泳 踢踢球
or even dancing a few steps
甚至跳跳舞
Because any kind of exercise greatly improves brain power.
因为任何形式的锻炼都能很大程度上增强大脑活力
These exercise sessions also help to break up the study sessions,
这种锻炼也是学习之余的休息
which is crucial toavoiding cramming,
很有助于避免填鸭式学习
a scientifically disproven method.
这种被科学否定的学习方式
The problem with cramming is
填鸭式学习的不足之处就在于
that overloaded information does not have a chance
过多的信息不能变成
to enter the long term memory.
长久记忆
Short-term memory is the free crazy space
短时记忆在你的大脑中
within your brain – information rattles around inside there
创造一种自由混乱的空间 信息在四处乱跑
but what we need to do is turn that information into knowledge.
但我们需要做的是把这些信息转化成知识
And that doesn’t happen by cramming.
填鸭式学习做不到这些
The transformation from short term information into long term knowledge
短时信息转化成长久记忆的过程
occurs through repeated exposure to that information,
依赖于重复曝光 复述
retelling of that information, and reflection of that information.
回忆这些信息
So if you learn about a topic, put down the book,
所以当你学到了一个课题后 放下书本
and then hit the gym and reflect up on it,
去健身房思考理解刚刚学的东西
or talk to somebody else who has knowledge on the subject,
或者和懂这个课题的人交谈
and then you are far more likely to retain
那样之后你就很可能保留了
that short term information and turn it into long term knowledge.
短期记忆并把它们转化成了长久的知识
You must also vary your study program.
你必须改变你的学习计划
Smart study isn ’ t about just reading the material
聪明的学习方式不是
over and over and over again, ad nauseam.
一遍一遍的读书 读的令人作呕
Although this may seem like the easiest way,
尽管那是最容易想到的方法
it is totally counterproductive. A 2010 study
但那完全只会适得其反
from Washington University compared the effectiveness of repeated testing
2010年的一个来自华盛顿大学对比了
over repeated studying and found that
反复测试和反复学习的效率
testing is far more effective than simply rereading.
发现反复做测验的效率比简单的重读高的多
So in between short exercise and study sessions,
所以在锻炼与学习的空隙
why not test yourself now and again?
为什么不时不时地做个测验呢
Or better still find a study partner
或者更好的办法是找到一个
who is tackling the same subject and test one another,
学习同样课题的伙伴然后互相测验
compare your results, talk about them,
对比测验结果 互相讨论
and continue your study program, in between exercising.
然后保持学习计划 配合着锻炼
There is no reason you should study completely alone,
你没有理由只是独自学习
and without adequate testing, you will
而且如果没有足够的测验的话
fail to see where the real information gaps are.
你会发现不了自己的知识缺口
Finally, get as much sleep as you can,
最后一条 尽可能的多睡觉
because sleep is crucial to brain development.
因为睡眠对于大脑的发展非常重要
When awake for the first few hours in the day,
一天中刚醒来的最初几个小时中
our alpha brain waves are most active,
我们的阿尔法脑电波是最活跃的
which is the brain state most suited to the acquisition
这是最适合获取信息和知识
of information and knowledge.
的大脑状态
A good study program should not only include exercise,
一个好的学习计划不应该只是包括了锻炼
short intense study sessions, and social learning,
短时高速的学习 和在社交中学习
it should also include a good night ’ s sleep
还应该包括一晚高质量的睡眠
and perhaps, if your day allows it,
如果时间允许的话
a cheeky power nap in the afternoon.
有效的午睡也应加进去
A nap in the day time will give you two bursts
午睡可以在一天的学习中
of alpha brain waves for one day ’ s study.
给你带来第二次的阿尔法脑电波活跃状态
And the benefit of sleep doesn’t end there.
而且睡觉的好处不止于此
When you acquire information,
当你获取信息时
brain cells grow new connections that reach out and connect
脑细胞会长出连结并与其他脑细胞连接起来
with one another. Sleep helps these cells grow and connect,
睡眠有助于这些细胞生长和连接
so if we think of our brain as a tree, sleep
所以如果我们把大脑想成一颗树
is like the miracle grow, and while we sleep,
那么睡觉时这棵树就会迅速的生长
all the tiny branches will grow and flourish. Conversely,
而且所有的小树枝都会生长茂盛 反之
all night study sessions do not work,
通宵学习做不到这些
as our ability to process information is hindered by our restlessness,
反而我们处理信息的能力会被熬夜带来的不安所牵制
and the information overload is simply overbearing.
到时候过多要处理的信息会轻易的将我们击垮
Scientific research has shown that
科学研究表明
it can take up to 4 days for our brains to return
我们的大脑需要四天时间
back to normal after we’ve been awake for an entire night.
才能从受整晚不睡影响的状态恢复正常
We should take breaks every hour and not work straight through.
我们应该每个小时都要休息一下 不能一直工作
Study for an hour, do some exercise,
学一个小时 运动一下
speak to a study friend, and return to the source material.
和学习伙伴说说话 然后再回到学习中
While some experts might argue,
有些专家可能会说
researchers at Stanford School of Medicine agree that
斯坦福大学医学院的研究指出
playing certain types of music
播放某种类型的音乐比如古典音乐
such as classical may help students engage in the source material.
可能会帮助学生阅读学习资料
While some of us prefer complete silence,
而其他人喜欢完全安静的环境
an uplifting piece of non-distracting music (without lyrics)
一段振奋人心并且不使人分心的音乐(无歌词)
may improve mood and increase the chances of information retention.
可能会起到改善情绪的作用并且增加信息保留的几率
In active learning studies,
在有效学习的研究中
some scholars have suggested that dopamine is the brain ’ s
一些学者表明多巴胺是大脑的保存键
save button, so some light, uplifting music,
所以一些舒缓 振奋的音乐
a favorite warm drink, and a box of cookies
一杯钟爱的热饮 或者一盒饼干
could also help us retain knowledge, as the brain,
都能帮我们记住知识
while in its reward mode, is more receptive
因为在大脑处于回报机制时
to whatever stimuli is present, including that study material.
大脑对包括学习资料在内的任何刺激都会更容易接受
Also science has shown us that,
科学还向我们表明
as ridiculous as it may seem, striking a power pose
尽管看起来荒谬 不过在进入考场之前
before entering the exam room may be to our benefit.
摆出有力量的姿势也许会有帮助
So think Superman or Wonder Woman – put your hands
所以想像一下超人或者神奇女侠
on your hips, move your legs apart,
然后双手叉腰 双腿叉开
chest expanded, deep breath, and say something awe-inspiring.
挺起胸膛 深呼吸 然后说出一些激动人心的话
You may want to do this in private,
你可能只想在隐私的场所做这些
like in the bathroom before a test, but this is completely
比如考试之前在洗手间做 那完全听从
your own choice. Although you may feel stupid,
你自己的选择 尽管你可能会觉得很蠢
and will probably look a bit odd, this posturing will reduce
而且会看起来有点奇怪 不过摆姿势
the stress hormone cortisol and increase testosterone,
确实可以减轻紧张并且增加睾酮分泌
making you scientifically stronger and better
使你生理上更强大
prepared for that test.So remember take breaks,
更好地应对测试 所以记住要休息
sleep, exercise,talk about your material with study pals,
睡觉 运动 与学习伙伴交流学习内容
strike a pose,and you ’ ll be as good as ready
摆姿势 然后你就做好了考试的准备
for that test. Are there other tried and true methods that
还有其他我们没有提到的方法吗?
we failed to mention? Let us know in the comments!
在评论中告诉我们吧!
Also, be sure to check out our other video
还有 一定要关注我们的其他视频
called Private Schools vs Public Schools. Thanks for watching,
名字叫Private Schools vs Public Schools. 感谢您的观看
and as always, don ’ t forget to like,
而且一如既往地 别忘了点赞
share, and subscribe. See you next time!
分享和订阅 下期再见!

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