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宇宙解密 S1 • E3 科学,宗教与大爆炸 – 译学馆
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宇宙解密 S1 • E3 科学,宗教与大爆炸

Science, Religion, and the Big Bang

物理学家们曾认为宇宙是亘古不变的
Physicists used to think that the universe had existed forever, unchangingly,
这是他们观察夜空得出的结论
because that’s what their observations of the night sky suggested. Needless to say,
不用说 这种观点与各大宗教的起源或创世故事相悖
this view clashed with the origin or creation stories of most major religions
而后者认为宇宙有一个开端
which hold that the universe had a beginning.
因此毫无疑问的 一个叫乔治·勒梅特的天主教神父
So it’s not surprising that it was a Catholic priest, Georges Lemaître, who was one of
是名天主教神父也就不足为奇了
the first major proponents of a new scientific viewpoint – that the universe did have a beginning.
勒梅特也是一位杰出的数学家和科学家
Lemaître, of course, was also an excellent mathematician and scientist and based this
基于他的宗教信仰
conviction not (just) on his religious beliefs but upon new experimental evidence from Edwin
以及爱德温•哈勃的“宇宙在膨胀”的最新实验证据
Hubble that showed the universe was expanding. This evidence, combined with the mathematics
这一结论 结合广义相对论的数学模型 使勒梅特得以追溯宇宙过往
of general relativity allowed Lemaître to “rewind” cosmic history and calculate that
并计算得出 时间越久远 宇宙就越小
the farther back in time you go, the smaller the universe had to be. The natural conclusion
自然而然 我们得出结论 当前可见宇宙的一切
is that everything we can currently see in the universe was at one point in time more
在某一时间点时 约等于空间中的一点
or less at one point in space. Lemaître called this idea the “primeval atom”, but of course
勒梅特称其为“原始原子”
也就是今天我们熟知的“大爆炸理论”
today we know it as “the big bang theory”.
不过“大爆炸”是个糟糕的名字 称其为“无限延展”可能会更为精确
Except “big bang” is a horrible name – it would be much more accurate to call it “the
因为关于“大爆炸理论”人们最常见的一个误解就是
everywhere stretch”. Because one of the most common misconceptions about the big bang is
它暗示着全宇宙曾被压缩为一点
that it implies that the entire universe was compressed into a single point from which
之后不知为何 忽然向周围“虚空”扩张
it then somehow expanded into the surrounding… nothingness? It is true that the observable
确实 可见宇宙——即地球上能观察到的宇宙
universe, that is, the part of the whole universe we can see from earth, was indeed shrunk down
曾收缩至非常非常小的一个空间内 但这个空间并非是一点
to a very very small bit of space, but that bit of space was not a single point, nor was
而不可见宇宙也并不在这一空间内
the rest of the Universe also in that same bit of space.
这要用到“无穷”的神奇力量来解释 整个宇宙确实很大
The explanation for this is the magical power of infinity. The whole universe is really big
最新数据显示它至少是可见宇宙的20倍
current data show it’s at least 20 times bigger than the observable universe,
但这只是个下限——也可能宇宙无穷大 而当你有着无限的空间时
but that’s just a lower bound – it might be infinite. And if you have an infinite amount of space,
你可以将其缩小 一切都缩到微观尺寸 而空间仍是无限的
you can scale space down, shrink everything to minuscule proportions, and still have an
有点类似无论如何缩小数轴
infinite amount of space. Kind of like how you can zoom out as much as you want from
数轴仍是无限的一样
a number line, but it’ll still be an infinite number line.
本质上 空间不需要伸展至“何处” 它可以在自身内膨胀
Essentially, space doesn’t need anywhere to expand “into” because it can expand into itself
并且不消耗空间 事实上 即使空间并非无穷大
and still have plenty of room. In fact, this is possible even if space turns out not to
这一原理也同样适用 其中原因很复杂
be infinite in size, though the reasons are complicated and have to do with the infinite
涉及时空度量的无限可微性……
differentiability of the metric of spacetime…
总之 被不幸命名为“大爆炸”的事件 指的是很久前的一个时间点
But anyway, the event unfortunately known as the big bang was basically a time, long ago,
那时空间结合更紧密 而可见宇宙
when space was much more squeezed together, and the observable universe, that is,
——地球上可观察到的宇宙 被挤在一个极小的空间内
everything that we see from earth, was crammed into a very very small piece of space.Because the
由于整个早期宇宙稠密而炙热 导致时空曲率非常高
entire early universe was dense and hot everywhere, spacetime was curved everywhere and this curvature
这种扭曲就表现为宇宙空间的迅速膨胀
manifested itself as a rapid expansion of space throughout the universe. And although
虽然人们称之为“大爆炸” 但它不止是“大” 而且无处不在
people call this “the big bang”, it wasn’t just big, it was everywhere. And it wasn’t
“爆炸”也不是真正的爆炸 而是空间的延展
really an explosion – it was space stretching out. It’s really quite unfortunate that “the
不幸的是 “无限延展”并不像“大爆炸”那样吸引人
Everywhere Stretch” isn’t nearly as catchy as “the Big Bang”.
而这就引出了“大爆炸奇点”——一个更糟糕的名字
Which brings us to the “big bang singularity”, which is an even horribler name because every
它的每一个字都是误导 我是说 “奇点”似乎暗示是在某一点发生的事情
single word is misleading. I mean, “singularity” seems to imply something that happened at
这与它的原义南辕北辙 正确称呼应是
a single point. Which isn’t at all what it’s referring to – it SHOULD be called “the part
“无限延展中的我们也无法理解的一部分”
of the Everywhere Stretch where we don’t know what we’re talking about.” Basically, our
目前的物理宇宙模型基本无法对极早期微缩的宇宙
current physical models for the universe are unable to properly explain and predict what
做出合理的解释和预测
was happening at the very very beginning when the universe was super super scaled down.
但与其称之为“我们也不知道发生了什么事的时间点”
But rather than call it the “time when we don’t have a clue what was happening, anywhere”,
出于某种考虑 我们叫它“奇点”
for some reason we call it a “singularity”.
然而 这个无知的名字的确很好的地回答了问题“大爆炸之前发生了什么?”
This ignorance, however, does conveniently answer the question What happened before the
因为它告诉我们这个问题定义不明确:
big bang? Because it tells us the question isn’t well defined – back when space was so
当宇宙被压缩到难以置信的地步 物质超乎想象地炙热稠密时
incredibly compressed and everything was ridiculously hot and dense, our mathematical models of
我们的数学模型崩塌了 以至于时间也失去了意义
the universe break down so much that “time” doesn’t even make sense. It’s kind of like
这就类似 在北极点时 “北”的概念失去了意义
how at the north pole, the concept of “north” breaks down – I mean, what’s north of the
我是说 北极点的北部是什么?你唯一能说的就是“地球上任意地点都在北极点南部”
north pole? The only thing you can say is that everywhere on earth is south of the north
同样 宇宙中任意时刻 也是在“开端”之后
pole, or similarly everywhen in the universe is after… the beginning.
但无论时间是什么 一旦它开始后 宇宙中的空间就以难以想象的速度膨胀一段时间
But once time began, whenever that was, space expanded incredibly quickly all throughout
接着膨胀速度放缓 宇宙冷却 物质形成
the universe – for a little while. Then expansion slowed, the universe cooled, stuff happened,
然后历经几十亿年 就有了现在的我们
and after a few billion years, here we are.
仍困惑着我们的一件事是 宇宙为何会开始“无限延展”
One thing we still don’t know is why this Everywhere Stretching happened – that is,
或者说 宇宙为什么会以可笑的压缩状态作为开端
why did the universe start off in such a funny, compressed state, and why did it follow the
为什么之后又遵循着看似随意的物理定律
seemingly arbitrary laws of physics that have
限制自身的膨胀和发展?
governed its expansion and development ever since?
对乔治•勒梅特来说 这就是上帝介入 来解释科学力所不能及的事的时候了
For Georges Lemaître, this might be where God finally comes into the picture to explain
不过 实验证据并没有排除这样一种可能性:
the things science can’t. Except that experimental evidence doesn’t actually rule out the possibility
开端“之前”确实还存在着时间
that there may indeed be a time “before” the beginning, a previous age of the universe
这段时间里 宇宙的前身自我坍缩 变得相当炙热稠密
that ended when space collapsed in on itself, getting quite compressed and dense and hot,
但还不足以消解时间的意义 随后宇宙重新膨胀
but not enough to mangle up our ideas of what time is. It would have then bounced back out,
以“大爆炸”的方式无限延展
stretching in a fashion similar to what we call the big bang, but without the “we don’t
但略过了“我们也不知道我们在说什么”的奇点部分
know what we’re talking about” singularity part. So, physics may actually be nudging
所以 物理学可能又将我们推回了“宇宙亘古不变 开端并不存在”的观点
us back to the view that the Universe is eternal and didn’t begin after all. In which case
这样一来 勒梅特教授也许又得重新思考他对“开端”一词的解读了
Professor Lemaître might have to rethink his interpretation of the words “in the beginning.”

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视频来源

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