ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

科学的说服力 – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

科学的说服力

Science Of Persuasion

研究者们研究影响人们答应他人请求
Researchers have been studying the factors that influence us to say yes
的因素已有60余年
to the request of others for over 60 years.
毫无疑问 我们怎么被说服是有科学依据的
And there can be no doubt that there’s a science to how we are persuaded.
很多科学都令人惊讶
And a lot of the science is surprising.
当在做决定时
When making a decision
为了指导自己的思考
it’d be nice to think that people consider all the available information
人们会考虑所有的有效信息
in order to guide their thinking.
但现实却大不相同
But the reality is very often different.
在日益超负荷的生活里
In the increasingly overloaded lives we lead, more than ever
我们更需要捷径或经验准则来指导我们的决定
we need shortcuts or rules of thumb to guide our decision-making.
我自己的研究仅发现了其中六种捷径
My own research has identified just six of these shortcuts.
因为共性指导着人类的行为
As universals that guide human behavior,
他们是:
they are:
互惠
Reciprocity,
不足
Scarcity,
权威
Authority,
一致
Consistency,
爱好
Liking,
和共识
and Consensus.
理解这些捷径 并合乎伦理地应用
Understanding these shortcuts and employing them in an ethical manner,
可以显著提高人们对你要求肯定回答的机会
can significantly increase the chances that someone will be persuaded by your request.
让我们一个一个地来看看吧
Let’s take a closer look at each in turn.
第一个影响原则是互惠
So the first universal principle of influence is Reciprocity.
简单来说 人们有义务把他们从别人那里接受到的行为
Simply put, people are obliged to give back to others the form of behavior,
礼物或服务反馈回去
gift, or service that they have received first.
如果有个朋友邀请你去参加派对
If a friend invites you to their party,
你有义务邀请他们参加未来你举办的派对
there’s an obligation for you to invite them to a future party you are hosting.
如果同事帮了你的忙 那你就欠他一次人情
If a colleague does you a favor then you owe that colleague a favor.
在社会责任的背景下
And in the context of a social obligation
人们更倾向于对他们所欠的人说“好”
people are more likely to say yes to those that they owe.
最能证明互惠原则的示例之一就是
One of the best demonstrations of the principle of reciprocation
来自于在餐馆所做一系列研究
comes from a series of studies conducted in restaurants.
上一次你去的餐馆
So the last time you visit a restaurant,
服务员很有可能会给过你一次优惠
there’s a good chance that the waiter or waitress will have given you a gift.
大概是他们给你的账单的时候
Probably about the same time that they bring your bill.
一杯白酒 或许一块幸运饼干 又或许一片薄荷糖
A liqueur perhaps or a fortune cookie or perhaps a simple mint.
那么问题来了
So here’s the question.
给一片薄荷糖会影响你留多少小费给他们吗?
Does the giving of a mint have any influence over how much tip you’re going to leave them?
大多数人会说不会
Most people will say no.
但一片小薄荷糖确实会产生一个大惊喜
But that mint can make a surprising difference.
研究称 在用餐之后给食客一片薄荷糖
In the study, giving diners a single mint at the end of their meal,
会使小费提高3%
typically increased tips by around 3%.
有趣的是 如果优惠加倍 给两片薄荷糖 小费并不会加倍
Interestingly if the gift is doubled and two mints are provided, tips don’t double.
而是会翻四倍 增加14%
They quadruple, a 14% increase in tips.
但最有趣的是 如果服务员给一片薄荷糖
But perhaps most interestingly of all, is the fact that if the waiter provides one mint,
准备离开时停了下来 回头看
starts to walk away from the table, but pauses, turns back
然后说:“你们人真好 这儿还有一颗给你们”小费飞涨
and says, “For you nice people, here’s an extra mint,” tips go through the roof.
23%的增长不是因为给了什么 而是怎么给的
A 23% increase influenced not by what was given, but how it was given.
运用互惠原则的关键是第一个付出
So the key to using the principle of reciprocation is to be the first to give
确保给出的东西是人性化的 是所料未及的
and to ensure that what you give is personalized and unexpected.
第二个原则是不足
The second universal principle of persuasion is Scarcity.
简单来说 人们对自己不足的会想要的更多
Simply put, people want more of those things they can have less of.
2013年 当英国航空公司宣布
When British Airways announced in 2003
他们将不再飞伦敦至纽约的每日两次的航班了
that they would no longer be operating the twice daily London-New York Concorde flight
因为运营起来费钱 第二天销售额就飞涨
because it had become uneconomical to run, sales the very next day took off.
飞机本身并没有什么改变
Notice that nothing had changed about the Concorde itself.
没有飞得更快 服务也没有突然变好 票价也没降
It certainly didn’t fly any faster, the service didn’t suddenly get better, and the airfare didn’t drop.
它突然变得稀缺
It had simply become a scarce resource.
因此 人们想要的更多
And as a result, people wanted it more.
当要说服他人时 记得用不足原则 科学已经说的很清楚了
So when it comes to effectively persuading others using the scarcity principle, the science is clear.
如果他们选择了你的产品和服务
It’s not enough simply to tell people about the benefits they’ll gain
要告诉他们的不止是他们得到了什么好处
if they choose your products and services.
也需要指出你提议的不同之处
You’ll also need to point out what is unique about your proposition
和如果他们不想考虑你的提议
and what they stand to lose
他们会失去什么
if they fail to consider your proposal.
第三个原则是权威
Our third principle of influence is the principle of authority.
人们愿意追随可靠的 知识渊博专家的想法
The idea that people follow the lead of credible knowledgeable experts.
例如 如果物理治疗师在咨询室的墙上 挂上他们的医学文凭
Physiotherapists for example are able to persuade more of their patients
患者会更愿意按照治疗师的要求
to comply with recommended exercise programs
进行锻炼
if they display their medical diplomas on the walls of their consulting rooms.
如果一个陌生收费者穿着正装而不是便服
People are more likely to give change for a parking meter to a complete stranger
人们更愿意把停车费交给他
if that requester wears a uniform rather than casual clothes.
科学告诉我们 在你展示自我影响之前
What the science is telling us is that it is important to signal to others
向别人表明你是一个可靠的知识权威很有必要
what makes you a credible knowledgeable authority before you make your influence attempt.
当然也会产生问题
Of course this can present problems.
你不可能到处跟你的潜在顾客说你有多出色
You can hardly go around telling potential customers how brilliant you are.
但你可以让别人帮你宣传
But you can certainly arrange for someone to do it for you.
令人惊讶的是 科学告诉我们 如果介绍你的人
And surprisingly the science tells us that it doesn’t seem to matter if the person who introduces you
不仅和你有联系 而且还从介绍中获利这对你来说似乎并不重要
is not only connected to you but also likely to prosper from the introduction themselves.
一组真正的房地产经纪人不仅能使房产增值
One group of real estate agents were able to increase both the number of property appraisals
还能增加后来顾客的数量
and the number of subsequent contracts that they wrote
通过安排接待工作人员回答客户的询问
by arranging for reception staff who answered customer enquiries
首先问的就是他们同事的文凭和专业知识
to first mention their colleagues’ credentials and expertise.
因此 让顾客对租房感兴趣的窍门是告诉他们“已售”
So, customers interested in letting a property were told “Lettings?
让我向你们介绍一下桑德拉 她有着在出租房产方面超过15年的经验
Let me connect you with Sandra who has over 15 years’ experience letting properties in this area.”
想要了解更多信息的顾客会被告知
Customers who wanted more information about selling properties were told
“和我们的销售负责人皮特谈谈 他在售房方面有着超20年的经验”
“Speak to Peter, our head of sales. He has over 20 years’ experience selling properties.
我现在就给你接通”
I’ll put you through now.”
这个专家的介绍会使预定机会增加20%
The impact of this expert introduction led to a 20% rise in the number of appointments
使合同签订机会增加15%
and a 15% increase in the number of signed contracts.
从说服科学来讲是个不坏的改变
Not bad for a small change in form from persuasion science
因为它既符合伦理 又不花钱
that was both ethical and costless to implement.
下一个原则是一致
The next principle is Consistency.
人们喜欢与他们之前说过或做过的事情保持一致
People like to be consistent with the things they have previously said or done.
一致性是通过寻找和请求可以做出的 小的初始承诺来激活的
Consistency is activated by looking for and asking for small initial commitments that can be made.
在一组著名的研究中 研究者毫不惊奇地发现
In one famous set of studies researchers found rather unsurprisingly,
很少有人愿意在草坪上竖立一块难看的木板
that very few people would be willing to erect an unsightly wooden board
来支持社区的安全行驶活动
on their front lawn to support a Drive Safely campaign in their neighborhood.
然而在旁边一个相似的社区
However in a similar neighborhood close by,
有四倍的房主表示他们愿意竖起这个难看的布告牌
four times as many homeowners indicated that they would be willing to erect this unsightly billboard.
为什么?
Why?
因为十天前他们已经同意在自家窗台上
Because ten days previously, they had agreed to place a small postcard
放上一张小明信片来表示自己对安全行驶活动的支持
in the front window of their home that signaled their support for a Drive Safely campaign.
这张小卡片就是最初的承诺 导致了400%的大增长
That small card was the initial commitment that led to a 400% increase
但仍是一致的改变
in a much bigger but still consistent change.
当寻求一致原则的影响力时
So when seeking to influence using the consistency principle,
就要去寻求自愿 主动和公开的承诺
the detective of influence looks for voluntary, active and public commitments
在理想情况下 以书面形式得到这些承诺
and ideally gets those commitments in writing.
例如 最近的一项研究使医院的预约率降低了18%
For example, one recent study reduced missed appointments at health centers by 18%
仅仅是通过直接询问患者 而不是
simply by asking the patients, rather than the staff
让员工在预约卡上写下预约信息
to write down appointment details on the future appointment card.
第五个原则是爱好
The fifth principle is the principle of Liking.
人们更愿意对自己喜欢的人说好
People prefer to say yes to those that they like.
但是什么使人们喜欢别人呢?
But what causes one person to like another?
说服科学告诉我们有三个重要的因素
Persuasion science tells us that there are three important factors.
我们喜欢跟我们相似的人
We like people who are similar to us,
喜欢恭维我们的人
we like people who pay us compliments
喜欢有共同目标的人
and we like people who cooperate with us towards mutual goals.
随着越来越多的网络互动出现
As more and more of the interactions that we are having take place online
有必要思考一下这些因素在网络谈判中
it might be worth asking whether these factors can be employed effectively
是否有效
in let’s say online negotiations.
在两所知名商学院的MBA学生进行的一系列谈判中
In a series of negotiation studies carried out between MBA students at two well-known business schools,
一些小组被告知:“时间就是金钱 直接谈判”
some groups were told, “Time is money. Get straight down to business.”
在这个小组里 55%的人同意了这样的话
In this group around 55% were able to come to an agreement.
然而 第二组的却被告知
A second group however, were told,
“在谈判之前 跟每个成员交换自己的个人信息”
“Before you begin negotiating, exchange some personal information with each other.
确定你们有共有的相似之处
Identify a similarity you share in common
然后再谈判
then begin negotiating.”
在这组里 90%的人能成功并有个好成绩
In this group 90% of them were able to come to successful and agreeable outcomes
而这些结果通常对双方来说都要高出18%
that were typically worth 18% more to both parties.
所以为了驾驭这个强大的原则-爱好
So to harness this powerful principle of liking,
一定要去寻找可以与你分享相似爱好的人
be sure to look for areas of similarity that you share with others
在开始工作前 多多真诚地赞美对方
and genuine compliments you can give before you get down to business.
最后一个原则是共识
The final principle is Consensus.
特别是当人们感到不确定时
Especially when they are uncertain,
常常会以他人的行为举止来决定
people will look to the actions and behaviors of others to determine their own.
你可能注意到了酒店常会在浴室放一张小卡片
You may have noticed that hotels often place a small card in bathrooms
目的是为了说服客人再次使用酒店的毛巾
that attempt to persuade guests to reuse their towels and linen.
大多数是通过吸引客人的注意来
Most do this by drawing a guest’s attention
让他们明白重复使用在环境保护方面的好处
to the benefits that reuse can have on environmental protection.
事实证明 这策略非常有效的 大约35%人会遵循
It turns out that this is a pretty effective strategy leading to around 35% compliance.
但还有更有效的方法吗?
But could there be an even more effective way?
事实是75%的人在住进酒店里的四个晚上或者更长的时间里
Well ,it turns out that about 75% of people who check into a hotel for four nights or longer
会在某个时间重复使用他们的毛巾
will reuse their towels at some point during their stay.
那么如果我们从共识原则中吸取经验
So what would happen if we took a lesson from the principle of consensus
并简单地将信息写在在卡片上会发生什么呢
and simply included that information on the cards
据说75%的客人会在他们住宿期间重复使用他们的毛巾
and said that 75% of our guests reuse their towels at some time during their stay.
所以请大家也这么做
So please do so as well.
结果是当我们这么做时 毛巾重复使用率会增加26%
It turns out that when we do this, towel reuse rises by 26%.
现在想象一下你下一次住酒店时 看见这其中一些标语
Now imagine the next time you stay in a hotel you saw one of these signs.
你拿起来 读了读下面这些信息
You picked it up and you read the following message:
住过这个房间75%的客人
Seventy-five percent of people who have stayed in this room
曾重复使用他们的毛巾
have reused their towel.
你会怎么想呢?
What would you think?
你可能会这么想吧
Well here’s what you might think.
“我希望它们不是同一条毛巾”
“I hope they’re not the same towels.”
像大多数人一样 你可能会想
And like most people you’d probably think that
不管这标语怎么说 我都无所谓
this sign will have no influence on your behavior whatsoever.
但是 只要在标语上改几个字
But it turns out that changing just a few words on a sign
诚实的指出以前客人所做的事
to honestly point out what comparable previous guests have done
是最有效的办法 会使重复使用率增加33%
was the single most effective message leading to a 33% increase in reuse.
因此 科学告诉我们 与其依靠我们自己的能力去说服他人
So the science is telling us that rather than relying on our own ability to persuade others
不如指出许多其他人已经在做的事情 尤其是许多类似的人
we can point to what many others are already doing especially many similar others.
就是这样了
So there we have it.
六个经过科学验证的说服原则 这些原则为小实践提供了帮助
Six scientifically validated principles of persuasion that provide for small practical,
通常 成本的变化会导致你以完全道德的方式去
often costless changes that can lead to big differences in your ability
影响和说服他人的能力有很大的不同
to influence and persuade others in an entirely ethical way.
它们就是说服科学的秘密
They are the secrets from the science of persuasion.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

从科学的角度来说明,说服也有小技巧。大家一起学习吧!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Sallyzhe

审核员

Y

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cFdCzN7RYbw

相关推荐