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德国施旺:新天鹅堡

Schwangau, Germany: Neuschwanstein Castle

从慕尼黑,我们驾车一个小时深入到巴伐利亚的南部,一片古老的土地
From Munich, an hour’s drive takes us deep into southern Bavaria. It’s a timeless land
有修剪过的田地 多彩的建筑 恣意的奶牛 和特色的洋葱顶教堂
of manicured fields, painted buildings, content cows, and characteristic onion-domed churches.
这是人们在阿尔卑斯脚下享受美好生活的游乐场
This is a playground for people enjoying the good life at the foothills of the Alps.
这也是童话城堡的土地——最壮观的:
And it’s a land of fairy-tale castles — and the most spectacular: the castles of King
巴伐利亚的路德维希二世 也称“疯国王”路德维希 的城堡 他在这里的高天鹅堡中长大
Ludwig II of Bavaria, a.k.a. ‘Mad’ King Ludwig. He grew up here in the Hohenschwangau Castle.
路德维希然后建造了他梦想的城堡——新天鹅堡——步行15分钟路程开外
Ludwig then built his dream castle — Neuschwanstein — a 15-minute hike away.
城堡非常热门 他们只能由指定导游带领才能参观
The castles are hugely popular. And they’re tourable only by appointment with a guided tour.
售票处在谷底的报摊 为了避免排长队
Tickets are sold at the kiosk in the valley floor. To avoid long lines, arrive
早些到达或——最好——提前订票
early or — better yet — call in advance for a tour reservation.
高天鹅堡 路德维希的童年之家 看起来和1836年没有什么两样
Hohenschwangau Castle, Ludwig’s boyhood home, looks much like it did in 1836.
它是两个城堡中最有生活气息和历史味的 提供了一瞥路德维希生活的机会
It’s the more lived-in and historic of the two castles, giving a better glimpse at Ludwig’s life.
这是小路德维希的卧室
This is young King Ludwig’s bedroom.
这是它读书坐的椅子 宴厅由日耳曼史诗厚涂而成
And this was his reading chair. The banquet hall is slathered in epic German myths.
德国直到1871年才成为一个统一国家 像是为了支持其合法性
Germany became a single united country only in 1871. As if to bolster its legitimacy,
这个年轻的国家深究其黑暗的中世纪历史 这些英雄和传奇
this young nation dug deep into its murky, medieval past. These heroes and legends inspired
激励了年轻的路德维希国王建造其梦想的城堡 理查德·瓦格纳谱写了他充满浪漫色彩的
young King Ludwig to build his fanciful castles, Richard Wagner to compose his ultra-romantic
歌剧 德国坚信其国家深植于历史之中
operas, and Germans to believe their nation was deeply rooted in history.
政治上 年轻的路德维希国王的艰难现实是“统治”
Politically, the frustrating reality of young King Ludwig was to ‘rule’ either as a pawn
不仅是作为普鲁士的人质 也是奥地利的人质 ——德意志的两个主导国家
of Prussia or a pawn of Austria — the two dominant Germanic countries. Rather than deal
不是处理慕尼黑的政治 浪漫的路德维希逃离了这里 到了安宁而舒适的高天鹅堡
with the politics of Munich, romantic Ludwig escaped here, to the peace and comfort of
路德维希统治了巴伐利亚23年
Hohenschwangau. Ludwig ruled Bavaria for 23 years until his
直到他于1886年去世 他最好的朋友是浪漫派艺术家 ——像伟大的作曲家瓦格纳
death in 1886. His best friends were romantic artists — like the great composer Wagner,
是路德维希所敬仰的 新天鹅堡就在山上
whom Ludwig idolized. Neuschwanstein Castle is just up the hill.
想象路德维希国王儿时攀登这些山丘 想象这座超级童话的城堡
Imagine King Ludwig as a boy, climbing these hills, dreaming up this ultimate fairy-tale castle.
它很有中世纪的风范 但它和埃菲尔铁塔同龄
It looks medieval, but it’s only about as old as the Eiffel Tower.
建造于19世纪晚期 它是当时浪漫主义浪潮典范
Built in the late 1800s, it’s a textbook example of the Romantic style popular at the time.
城堡内部由晦暗中世纪主题装饰——勇敢的骑士
The castle’s interior is decorated with misty medieval themes — brave knights, fair
美丽的少女还有瓦格纳歌剧风的场景 路德维希给浪漫时代赋予了人格
maidens, and scenes from Wagnerian operas. Ludwig personified this Romantic age. Longing
渴望自然风光和早期的情感 他非因防御需要而将他的中世纪梦幻建造在山巅
for the natural beauty and emotion of an earlier time, he built his medieval fantasy on the
而是因为他喜欢这风景
hilltop not for defensive reasons, but because he liked the view.
路德维希国王打算在六位历史上成为圣人的国王的陪伴下
King Ludwig intended to sit on a gold-and-ivory throne in the company of six historic kings
坐在镶嵌象牙的黄金王座上 虔诚的路德维希痴迷于拜占庭
who were made saints. The religious Ludwig was fascinated by things Byzantine.
这间屋子基于一座拜占庭教堂的设计而建 而这一吨重的吊灯是
This room is based on the plan of a Byzantine church, and the one-ton chandelier is the shape of
拜占庭王冠的形状 在他迁进新天鹅堡中几个月后
a Byzantine crown. Just a few months after he moved into Neuschwanstein,
路德维希——已经在计划建造一座更加奢侈的城堡——
Ludwig — who was already planning to build an even more extravagant castle — was declared
被宣布精神上不适宜统治 两天后 他被发现死在一个湖中 人们依然在争论:
mentally unfit to rule. Two days later, he was found dead in a lake. People still debate:
这是谋杀还是自杀? 但没有人再抱怨他梦幻的城堡的奢侈花费了
Was it murder or suicide? But nobody complains any longer about the extravagant cost of his
事实上 在他六个星期期间的葬礼中 游客就已经付费
fanciful castles. In fact, within six weeks of his funeral, tourists were already paying
来参观了——他们现在依然前来
to visit them — and they’re still coming.

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QrJyeearNNk

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