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关于精神分裂症的新发现 – 译学馆
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关于精神分裂症的新发现

Schizophrenia Is a Mystery, But This Discovery Might Change Things

精神分裂症是严重的精神疾病
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder
几个世纪以来吸引着科学家们为此研究
that has been fascinating scientists for hundreds
因为我们不了解这种疾病
of years because we just don’t understandit.
但是现在我们可能终于
But now we may have finally
发现了这种毁灭性疾病的根源
found the root of this devastating disorder… it starts
它从大脑在子宫里发育时就已经开始了
when the brain is forming in the womb.
精神分裂症患者会出现幻觉
Schizophrenia causes people to hallucinate,
对现实产生曲解
have a distorted view of reality, and experience
会产生极端的疯狂想法
extremely disordered thinking.
大脑功能被严重影响 造成大脑残疾
Brain function can be so badly affected thatit’s disabling.
患者的症状通常会在
Symptoms usually appear
青春期或成年早期出现
in adolescence or young adulthood and while some research has
一些研究人员就已经找出了精神分裂症 药物使用
suggested a link between schizophrenia, drug usage,
和创伤之间的联系但人们从没有进行
and trauma it ’ s has never been well
深入了解过
understood.
由于症状一般出现在生命后期的缘故
Because the symptoms appear later in life,
研究人员长时间认为
researchers have long assumed the root cause
根本原因就是遗传因素
is a mix of genetics,
大脑化学物质和环境因素的混合结果
brain chemistry and environmental factors — environmental being
生长环境塑造了你而并不是呼吸的空气
your upbringing not the air you breathe.
过去很长一段时间患者被错误判定和错误治疗
In the past patients have long been misdiagnosed and mistreated,
有时甚至被监禁了起来
sometimes even being jailed.
但新科学帮助我们更好地理解这种疾病
But new technology has helped us understandwhat’s really going on.
医学成像显示
Medical imaging has shown that a patient
精神分裂症患者的大脑和中枢神经系统
with schizophrenia has a brain and Central Nervous
和其他病人的看起来不同
System that look different than an unaffectedpatient’s.
数百条基因突变可能造成了精神分裂
There are hundreds of genetic mutations that might cause schizophrenia,
但是扫描图显示
but scans all show
患者的大脑都有一样的缺陷性基因通路
affected brains share the same”faulty genomicpathway.”
越来越多的证据表明精神分裂症是一种大脑疾病
It’s clear from mounting evidence that schizophreniais a brain disease.
在这新信息的支持下
Armed with this new information,
研究人员开始考虑
researchers turned to consider how that one pathway can
这条通路不断给众多病人的大脑造成缺陷的原因
be consistently faulty among so many patients.
然后他们使用了疯狂科学探测技术他们在实验室里制造出迷你大脑结构
And they used a little mad-science-soundingtechnique: they grew mini-brain structures
更准确的说
in a lab. Specifically,
他们使用了测试对象的皮肤细胞
they grew cerebral organoids,
重建了人类大脑发育的第一阶段
recreating the first phases of human brain development,
造出了大脑类器官
using skin cells from test subjects.
四位测试对象有精神分裂症其他三位没有
Four of these subjects had schizophrenia andthree did not.
这些细胞在怀孕第12周
The cells grew into tiny organs that mimicked brains
发育成模仿大脑的小器官
in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy.
分裂症患者的迷你大脑的皮质
And the mini-brains grown from schizophrenicpatients showed critical malformations in
发生了临床畸变
the cortex, the part of the brain
大脑皮质有控制作用控制记忆 注意力和感知
that controls things like memory, attention, and cognition.
这些变成神经元的细胞并没有正常分布
The cells that become neurons weren’t distributednormally.
迷你大脑显示
The mini-brains showed there would be
大脑皮质里成熟的神经细胞过少
too few mature neurons in the cortex for normal
影响婴儿发育成人后正常的大脑功能
functionality when the fetus became a fullgrown adult.
这项结果显示分裂症可能在怀孕前三个月就已经开始
This results suggest that schizophrenia likelystarts in the FIRST TRIMESTER.
在分裂症患者的大脑皮质里
The cells that develop
这些发育成神经元的细胞没有用正常人大脑用到的方式
into neurons don ’ t connect the same way in a schizophrenic cortex
进行连接
as they do in an unaffected one.
假设你的大脑是一台电脑分裂症患者的大脑就像是“还在搜索中”
If your brain was a computer, a brain withschizophrenia would be [to quote a source]
“连接不良”
“improperly wired.”
你唯一可以在外部做的事
There would be only so much you could do
就是修理好它
from the outside to fix it.
这就是为什么精神分裂症如此难以治疗
Which is why schizophrenia is so hard to treat, and,
而且似乎也无法预防
it seems, impossible to prevent.
但是知识就是力量
But knowledge is power and researchers
研究人员已经开始寻找精神分裂症治疗方法
are now starting to look at schizophrenia treatment
通过产前护理 药物治疗
with prenatal care, drugs,
和营养补充来保证大脑有更好的机会形成
and supplements so brains have a better chance of forming
正确的神经通路
with the right neural pathways.
谢谢观看如果你想学习更多的科学知识请订阅我们的频道
Thanks for watching and if you want more science in your day please subscribe.
我们将继续学习我们的大脑如何工作
We ’ re still learning about how our own brain works,
如果你感兴趣 查找Trace频道
check out Trace ’ s video about the
观看“巨大的神经元”这一集解释了意识的来源
giant neurons that could explain where consciousnesscomes from
还有一个有趣的真相第一起被记录的神经精神分裂者病例
Fun fact: The first recorded case of schizophrenia was
出现在公元前1550年的古埃及医籍
in 1550 BC in one of the oldest Egyptian
《埃伯斯伯比书》里
medical texts, the Ebers Papyrus.

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视频概述

精神分裂症作为精神疾病 发病根源和症状介绍,治疗方法还在研究。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

苏家Dier

审核员

审核员HL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o4jiVV8Un-A

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