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《拯救大兵瑞恩》看斯皮尔伯格怎样构建战争场景 – 译学馆
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《拯救大兵瑞恩》看斯皮尔伯格怎样构建战争场景

Saving Private Ryan: How Spielberg Constructs A Battle Scene

The Nerdwriter
The Nerdwriter
《拯救大兵瑞恩》的前28分钟
The first 28 minutes of Saving Private Ryan
是献给1944年6月6日在奥马哈沙滩
are devoted to the bloody allied envision of
血腥的联合入侵
Omaha Beach on June 6,1944.
这个场景被广泛地认为
The scene is widely regarded as
是电影史上最好的战争场景之一
one of the best battle scenes in film history
这多亏了斯蒂芬斯皮尔伯格
thanks to a brutal and unflinching recreation by
野蛮却勇往直前的再创造
Steven Spielberg.
通过在电影一开始就放入这种加时的场景
By placing this extended scene right at the start of the film,
可以清晰看出斯皮尔伯格的目标
it’s clear that Spielberg’s goal
就是在观众在毫无准备的情况下 立刻使之身临其境
was to drop the viewer right into the action without warning,
一种让观众极度紧张
a traumatic experience that
到电影结束的痛苦体会
leaves the viewer on edge for the rest of the movie.
斯皮尔伯格用这种方式来模拟
In this way, Spielberg mimics the exhaustion that
盟军战士不得不在整场战役中战斗
the allied soldiers had to fight through for
的那种精疲力竭
the entirety of their time at war.
但是为了营造这一场景
But to create and realize the scene,
斯皮尔伯格必须调解基本的矛盾冲突
Spielberg had to reconcile a fundamental contradiction.
在同一时间相继发生的事
The sequents had to be chaotic
是混乱的
and coherent
也是连贯的
at the same time. 
换句话说
In other words,
这场战争的重要印象应该是
the critical impression of the battle should be one
一种随机性
of randomness,
一种发生得迅速而又任意的暴力与死亡
of violence and death occurring so rapidly and indiscriminately
使大脑不知所措
that the mind is bewilder
也没有时间去考虑
and has no time to process.
但是这种随机性
But that randomness
需要通过某种架构
has to be communicated cinematically,
和一种能给人以某种
via some sort of structure,
混乱感觉的连贯性 用电影的方式
a coherence that somehow leaves you
来传达出来
with the feeling of chaos.
斯皮尔伯格 试图要做的是
What Spielberg is trying to do is filling
在我们关于这一段历史时刻
two different kinds of gaps
的知识方面填补两种不同的空缺
in our knowledge about this historical moment.
首先 他想在好莱坞电影对二战
First he wants to close the gap between
史诗性的描述 与亲身经历了二战的人
Hollywood’s heroic depiction of World War Ⅱ
深深的痛苦经历 这二者之间
and the vicious deeply harrowing experiences of those
缩小它们的距离
who were actually there. 
我的意思是 即使描述诺曼底登陆很震撼
I mean, even in strong depictions of the Normandy Landings
就像1962年的经典电影
like the great 1962 movie
《最长的一天》
The Longest Stay
整部电影都用三脚架来拍摄的
filmed entirely on tripods.
观众们觉得离真实的主观性
The viewer’s experience is still some distance
还是有一定距离
from the subjectivity of the moment.
在《拯救大兵瑞恩》中
In Saving Private Ryan, Spielberg
斯皮尔伯格想要尽可能地减少距离感
wants to shrink that distance as much as possible. 
斯皮尔伯格另外想要填补就是
The other gap Spielberg wants to close is the one between
我们对于这一事件所知道的
what we know about this event
和我们真实所见之间的空缺
and what we’ve actually seen of it.
在1994年6月6日 诺曼底登陆只有极少的
There is extremely little footage of the Normandy Invasion
视频资料 几乎没有
on June 6, 1944 and almost none
奥马哈海滩登录的镜头
from the Landing at Omaha Beach.
这里有很多原因
There are a lot of reasons for this.
很大比例的 为盟军拍摄
The significant percentage of the cameramen who
这场战争的摄影师
filmed the war for the allied powers,
被杀了
were killed.
其余的尽最大努力
The remaining did their best to avoid that same fate
通过发现他们能够远距离拍摄的覆盖地
by finding places of cover where they could film
来避免同样的时间再次发生
at a distance.
所以因为这个原因 你会看到好多
For this reason, you’ll get a lot of footage from
联合军抵达诺曼底之前 在船上的连续镜头
before the land they got Normandy on the boats which
斯皮尔伯格在拯救大兵瑞恩中再创造出的这一连续镜头
Spielberg recreates in Saving Private Ryan and a lot of footage
以及在战争结束后的大量镜头
after the battle was over. 
在嘈杂混乱中
During the chaos,
摄影师尽可能地
cameramen were doing their best to keep themselves
保护自己以及摄像机的安全
and their cameras out of danger. 
纪录片表明斯皮尔伯格
Documentary said Spielberg relied more on what shot
不依赖于诺曼底沙滩被伏击的镜头特别是
far from the Normandy Beaches, specifically
在塔拉瓦的海军陆战队
With The Marines at Tarawa,
被日本射击
which was shot in Japan and
以及圣彼得罗战役
The Battle For San Pietro
被著名电影制作人
which was made by the famous filmmaker
约翰休斯顿在意大利所拍摄
John Huston in Italy.
看了第二部电影 斯皮尔伯格被
Watching that second film, Spielberg was struck by
摄影师在炸弹爆破时
how cameramen always stayed low to the ground
总是在地面匍匐拍摄
and how the camera shook
以及镜头的震颤 深深震撼
when an explosion went off near by. 
正如pi
As critic Toby Hagef knows
斯皮尔伯格发现
Spielberg discovered that
如果他运用战地摄影师的风格
if he adopted the style of battlefield cameramen,
他会收获战争主观性的成功
he could have achieved more subjective experience of the war
他也是这么做的
and that’s exactly what he did.  
但是我认为连续镜头
But the footage that I think
对奥马哈海滩场景有重要作用
has the most impact on the Omaha Beach scene
的战争电影是1942年约翰佛瑞德的天才之作
is John Ford’s master for war film
中途岛战役
The Battle of Midway from 1942. 
在这部影片中 弗瑞德
In that film, Ford brilliantly
在摄像机给予的爆炸波效应或者来回推进镜头来
keeps in moments when blasts effect the camera gave
出色地把握住机会
or knock his handheld cameras back and forth.
这种创意的场景编辑
From this scene of creative editing,
你会获得战场上的视觉盛宴
you’ll get much more visual impression of the battle. 
所以对于拯救大兵瑞恩这一想法的本质
So the essence of the idea
就是这样的
for Saving Private Ryan is here
这种战地拍摄方法显而易见
and it’s obvious in the battlefield camera approach.
但是不太明显的是斯皮尔伯格
But what’s not so obvious is how Spielberg
运用这一本质并且注射了
takes this essence and injects it
类固醇
with steroids.
举个例子 斯皮尔伯格做的其中一件事是
For example, one of the things that Spielberg does
切换视角
that no actual war-time cameraman could do
没有战争摄像师可以做到的
is switch perspectives. 
奥马哈沙滩场景运用三个不同的视角:
The Omaha Beach scene functions from three different perspectives:
不可见的战地摄像师的优势
the vantage of the invisible battlefield cameramen,
汤姆汉克斯的优势
the vantage of Tom Hanks
以及德国士兵在悬崖上的优势
and the vantage of the German soldiers on the top of the cliffs.
斯皮尔伯格在这三种视角下来回变换
Spielberg alternates between these to give
在战场上超过360°的视角
a more 360-degree perspective on the battle
但是没有失去的即时性是
without losing any of the immediacy that is
他的最初的担忧
his primary concern.
甚至疯子也会一下意识到
Even crazier that actually took me a few watches to realize that
这里的拍摄
this shot right here
真正地意味着在汤姆汉克斯的脑袋里
is actually meant to be a moment
就像最紧张的第一人称
inside Tom Hanks’ head like
射击游戏
the most intense first-person shooter game ever.
一种埋伏基本上
This kind of thing couched almost hidden
在连续镜头中被隐藏起来
in the middle of the rest of the footage
使感情增长到
intensifies that feeling
极致
of being there to its most extreme.
或许这就是为什么
Maybe this is why
观看电影的
the sequence triggered actual PTSD
一些二战老兵
in a few World War Ⅱ veterans
会激起创伤后应激障碍
who watched the film. 
但是理解斯皮尔伯格
But the key to understanding how Spielberg
规整嘈杂混乱的联系的关键
squares chaos with coherence
是在一大堆信息中
is in the amount of information
他填满每一个镜头
that he crams into each shot. 
奥马哈沙滩场景可能看起来在所有电影中像
The Omaha Beach scene might seem like
最疯狂的 最快速的
the craziest, fastest and the most intense sequence
最紧张的顺序
in all film.
但是我数了一下中弹的情况
But I counted the shots.
在一个场景中
In a scene that lasts
持续了整整24分钟
exactly 24 minutes,
这里有整整
there are exactly
200个中弹场景
200 shots,
这就意味着每个中弹场景
which means that every shot averages
平均要7.2s
7.2 seconds.
我的意思是 对于一个像这种场景来说
I mean, that is an incredibly high average
真的是平均值特别高
for a scene like this.
我还没有意识到直到
And it didn’t seem like right to me until
我看完这一场景后
I actually went back and
在脑中回想
watched the scene with this in mind.
你被要求理解奥马哈沙滩场景
You’re asked to comprehend so much
所以斯皮尔伯格
in this Omaha Beach scene, so Spielberg
平息了你脑中的压力
eases the pressure on your brain
通过批评抨击
by panning, tilting
或者移动摄像机
or moving the camera
当其他人的镜头被切了
when others would just cut.
这种方法你不会费太多的脑子
This way you don’t have to waste too much mental energy
来适应你自己
on orienting yourself.
当场景来临
You can absorb the relevant information
你可以观察到相关信息
as it comes.
同时 斯皮尔伯格善于
And Spielberg is great at
给予你相关信息
feeding you relevant information.
当我朋友托尼在一次评论道:
As my friend Tony once remarked:
“这就是一个喜欢用动机
“This is a guy who loves to move the camera
来移动相机
with motivation.”
所以就像这个
So in a 12-second shot
一个12s的镜头里
like this one.
你得到一个广角镜头
You get a wide shot,
2个特写镜头
2 closeups,
3个插入镜头
3 inserts
以及一个中景
and a medium shot.
8段信息碎片
8 pieces of information.
这部电影的过渡也很棒
And the transitions here are really great too.
他喜欢从前一个场景中
He loves to start a long shot
带着动作
with the action
开始一个长镜头
from the previous moment.
这就是他把迷你晕映照串联在一起
This is how he strings together all these mini vignettes.
他给予它们全动量
He gives them full momentum that
来使观众在正轨上
keeps the viewer on track.
检查 吗啡
Inspected. Morphine.
当然这里有更多关于
Of course there are so much more to say about
场景 声音混响
the scene about the sound mixing
在镜头中 减饱和状态 在插入电影中
in the lenses in the desaturation in the film stuck
关于服装设计以及场景设计 还有很多要说的
about the custume design and the set design.
在之前都谈到了
That’s all been well covered before.
电影中使我印象很深的场景是
What inspires me about the scene
从头到尾
is how such a maelstrom of action
动作的混乱仍能保持
retains its focus
它的中心关注点
from end to end.
你不仅仅停留在混乱中
You can’t just stage some insanity
从不同角度来拍摄它们
film a bunch of it from different angles
同时也希望在编辑中找到一根主线
and hope to find a through line in the editing.
一个场景就像这样有影响的
A scene with an impact like this,
你可以一遍又一遍的回顾
something that you can revisit again and again
之后还会发现一些新的东西
and then find new things
带来电影集中感
takes real cinematic concentration.
换句话说
In other words,
任何人都能够控制混乱
anyone can capture chaos.
但是只有最好的人
But only the best
才能清晰地
can capture chaos
控制混乱
with clarity.
每周三Nerdwriter都会更新
There is a new Nerdwriter video every Wednesday.
所以你点击这里
So if you go right there
我放在这里的这个方格
to that box that I’ve set up
点击它
and click that,
你会订阅我并且获得全部视频
you’ll subscribe and get all the videos
这会促使我努力加油哦
and that is what helps me up the most.
真的是这个样子的
There really is.
说说别的事情
A couple of other things.
我现在正在回归 顺便说一下
I’m way to back here right now, by the way.
我仅仅想
I just want
thenerdwriter.net
thenerdwriter.net
我的网页
which is my website,
你可以在这里找到视频
you could find the videos there,
问我些问题
ask me questions and
经常在这里问问题哦
frequently asked questions there.
所以看看吧
So check that out.
同时 我也回归ins了
Also I’m back on Instagram.
我真不知道为什么
I don’t really know why.
@thenerdwriter
@thenerdwriter
关注我
Follow me there.
有很多很酷的东西
Some cool stuff. I’ll try not to
我会尽量不放一些垃圾图片
post garbage pictures.
然而 我可能会放些垃圾图片
I might post some pictures of garbage
不过仅仅是有艺术价值的图片
but only if it’s like artistic worthwhile.
总之
Anyway
下周三再见喽
I’ll see you guys next Wednesday.

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视频概述

看看斯皮尔伯格如何拍摄的拯救大兵瑞恩这一经典影片

听录译者

haleyht

翻译译者

vicky

审核员

瞌睡虫儿

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LFpki7v4xiI

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