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如何拯救古老的软件 – 译学馆
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如何拯救古老的软件

Save our Software - Computerphile

我们拿到一个软件
What we got here is a piece of software
元素周期表视频的马丁·波利亚克弗在八十年代用过
that Martyn Poliakoff eh… periodic video’s commissioned back in the 80’s.
曾经有人 有学生用它测试过自己的化学知识
There were people there, there were students to test their chemistry knowledge.
假如你看过元素周期表视频
If you look on periodic videos,
也许存储空间快满了
Perhaps they were running out of storage space.
你会看到一个视频 马丁和我
You’ll see a video where Martyn and I
在BBC micro上运行这个软件
get this up from running on the BBC Micro.
还真的开始运行了
And actually started working.
运行过程很有趣 待会儿我们会把它
It was an interesting exercise and we’ll have it later
把这个软件从BBC Micro上装到
how we can actually get the software off the BBC Micro
更新的计算机 比如PC或者Mac上
onto somewhere to become rather modern computer, PC and Mac
甚至是苹果手机或其它装了模拟器的设备上
even on iphone or anything else which is got a wide sort of emulator.
在电脑上看图片
It’s relatively easy to look at images
看视频之类的是很简单的
and videos and those sorts of things,
但是程序就有点难了 对吧
but programs are harder, right?
大部分的图片 这可能不是个好主意
Most images perhaps… and this is perhaps not so a good idea.
我们都喜欢去压缩它们
em… we tend to compress.
压缩像素数 让图片少占空间
So we compress some size and take a less spaces.
所以就有了JPEG格式
So we got this one is jpeg.
我们都用这个格式 因为它很普遍
We can access it because it’s so ubiquitous.
就用这个格式了
We can just access it.
但是我用单反拍的是RAW格式
But, I shoot raw on my SLR.
想想看 我不太确定 22年后
Thinking about it, I am not so certain that 22 years down the line,
RAW格式也能那么容易使用
raw files would be that easy to access.
还好我用的是普通佳能数码单反相机拍摄
Now chances are I shoot with a pretty common Canon DSLR,
有可能还可以支持使用
so chances are yes, that will still be supported.
但这实际上启发了我
But it’s making me think about it actually.
我需不需要把它转换成更方便一点的格式呢
Should I go in convert that with something more convenient?
不管是像素 还是相机
So it’s counters and shooters in some respect
你还是会拍RAW格式的相片 这样存储精度更高
so you will shoot in raw to preserve much possible quality as you kept.
实际上 如果用压缩文件格式的话
And actually you might preserve the files
可以把文件保存的更久
for longer if you put them into a compress format
因为它们更常用
because they are more common.
没错 最好用流行的格式来储存它们
Exactly, yes, that’s quite best keeping them in vogue.
软件也一样
And it’s actually the same for a piece of software,
我们需要能够解码数据
so we need to be able to decode the data.
所以播放器都需要解码才能用
So to any media, we need to be out to decode it, and use it.
像一些 图片文件
Now for… something like eh… an image file
或者视频 这种最简单的
or a video, that’s about to straightforward.
写个软件就行
We could write one.
当你运行类似马丁的化学游戏软件时
When you get to something like Martin’s chemistry games,
我们可以运行磁盘上的数据
we can access the data on the disk.
我们能看出来这些是什么
We can start ro see what some of these are.
这个看起来像个BASIC程序
This looks like a basic program
我们来运载一下
and let’s load in that.
就是这些程序
So that’s… that’s what the program’s.
我们来看看其他的
And let’s have a look at some of the others.
这看起来就是周期表 钙 硒 钛
And this is obviously looks like periodic table calcium selenium titanium.
我觉得这些是猜空格里的元素
My suspect is the one you have to guess what was in there.
我们可以开始看一下这些是什么
We could start to see what’s going on here.
我们先把这个搞懂了 你就理解了
Let’s start to see this so you are gonna understand it.
如果压缩过 那么在运行之前 就需要知道是如何压缩的
So if you compressed it, you need to know how it’s compress before you can run it.
这是一个很好的论据 存数据的时候不要压缩
It’s a good argument that you should keep your data in an uncompress format.
当然 这样占的空间就多一点了
But then of course that takes a little bit of more space
虽然有足够的储存空间 但是它们也不是很便宜
and storage is plentiful but it’s not exactly cheap.
所以你还是想去压缩它
So you probably do want to compress it,
如果你要压缩格式 请用大众化的
but if you’re gonna do that, do it in a file for match that will be common.
把文本文件存为doc或者zip格式
Text files put them inside docs file
不要用那些奇奇怪怪的压缩格式
don’t use some weird and wonderful wacky compression format
它们只能帮你省1%的文件容量
that you found that will save you 1% extra on the file size.
10年后
Ten years down the line,
我们可能还有机会解压一个zip压缩包
chances are we will still be out of unzip and zip file.
你可能会用另一种奇怪的格式
Possibly another way of wacky format that you might be use.
对程序来说
When it comes to program zone,
用这样的系统不仅需要
the system like this is not really need to
拷贝数据和程序
copy the data and the program.
我们还要模拟整个系统
We also need to emulate the complete system
才能运行
that we’re gonna running on.
比方说 如果我想
So for example, if I just wanted to get
在我的Mac或PC上运行马丁的游戏
Martin’s games working on my Mac, on a PC.
我不仅需要从软盘上把数据拷贝出来
What I only do, I need to copy the data off this disk.
其实拷贝下来也是件挺逗的事
And that in itself is an interesting issue
因为BBC Micro上面有5.25英寸软驱
because I have a five and a quarter inch floppy drive in the BBC Micro
但Mac上没有
But I don’t have one in my Mac
这上面也没有USB接口
and I don’t have a USB.
只有远大于5.25英寸的软驱
farther than five a quarter inch floppy I owe for them.
专业点来说 根本不会生产这样的电脑
We has same say that there will probably never be one produced.
你有3.5英寸的软驱 带USB接口的电脑
You get three and a half inch floppy drives with the USB output
却没有5.25英寸软驱的
but not five and a quarter.
所以我们还要想个办法把数据提取出来
So we still need to find an interesting way getting the data off,
我们可以找个有5.25英寸软驱的电脑
Now we could find a PC with a five and a quarter inch floppy drive
那边有一台
what we got over there.
但是软驱坏了 真衰
The drive is in work fortunately.
然后我们还要写个程序
But we then need to write a software
来读取这种格式
to understand to this format.
我实际上做的是
What I actually did to do this
其实这台电脑有网络
is this machine is networked.
这是一个叫”econet”的网络系统
This is on earth a networking system called econet
Acon公司研发的
which is acon developed.
我们想把它传到Archimedes电脑上去
We just ain’t get it onto the archimedes,
它有一个3.5英寸软驱
and that’s got a three and a half inch floppy disk drive,
然后以电脑上的格式
which I can use a PC format
再拷到Mac上
to copy it over to the Mac.
过来看
So if we look here.
这个程序是我写的
I wrote this program.
它可以
What this actually does is
读取每个区
it reads each sector
逐行逐道地从软盘上读取数据
sector by sector, track by track, off the floppy disk.
获取数据后 编辑成一个文件
We get that, and we just writing out to a file
一个区一个区分好
one sector after another,
然后把它存在网络上
and we store it on the network.
最后我们就能把文件
Until eventually we got a copy of the file
拷贝到Archimedes电脑里了
sitting on the archimedes.
这个是 Cam.img 和Camt.img
In this case, it’s called Cam dot image in Camt dot image.
然后我用软盘把它们
I then copy them via floppy disk
拷贝到我的Mac上 用这边这个软驱
onto my Mac, using the floppy drive over here.
然后 可以用BBC模拟器
And then, I can use a BBC emulator
能同时运行多少个模拟器?
How many emulators can be run at the same time?
呃 相当多
Um… quite a lot.
其实 我有一台电脑现在正同时运行
In fact I have a machine running
BBC模拟器 Mac+模拟器
a BBC emulator and a Mac+ emulator
Anti4还有Omega模拟器
Anti4 and an Omega emulator at the moment.
所以你能在一个标准机上运行很多个
So you can run quite a lot on a standard machine.
那么多速度可能会慢下来
Then that would soon gonna get full speed,
但是你可以把…现代计算机可以很好的运行这些模拟器
but you can get things eh… one machine can emulate these things pretty well.
这是BBC Micro的一个叫B-band的开源模拟
That taken an open source emulate for the BBC Micro called B-band.
不是我写的 我把它黑到Mac系统里去
I didn’t write it, I just hacked into it mostly on my Mac.
如果我们现在运行这个模拟器 就可以启动了
I’ll say, if we start the emulator and we can boot it.
这样一看
And we should say,
就是一模一样的软件了
exactly the same software,
可以用现在的电脑运行了
running on the modern computer.
但是 我们必须连着
But again we’re having to take it
整个模拟器一起才能用
and emulate the whole machine to it.
一种我们的软件
So one be our kind software.
我们可能会发布那种
We probably want to release our kind that something
也可以运行这种软件的东西
that can run the software as well.
其实 一个模拟器就足够了
In this case, an emulator will be sufficient.
这个模拟器也可以写代码
And you can write this emulator in anything.
甚至可以在BBC Micro模拟器上写JAVA代码
There’s even a java script for BBC Micro emulator
也就是说我们可以把这个
which means that we can put this
挂载到网页上 然后就可以运行了
in a webpage and then you will be able to run it off that.
空格键 按下空格键
Break key and then I will go break.
-哇-然后它就启动了
-Wow!-And it starts up.
-好刺激-那个声音
-That’s really exciting.-That sound.
那时候的计算机很烂的
Computer was a lot more visceral in those days
它们会发出噪音 你还可以听它们在运行
They make noises and they sort of you heard them going
这个屏幕有一点偏
So it’s not quite centered on the screen.

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译制信息
视频概述

5.25寸软驱,早不复存在。但是软盘程序很有意思,如何才能让三十多年前程序复活

听录译者

One静茹

翻译译者

刘倩Rachel

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vskNak4TeRs

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