嗨 我是托尼 这里是《帧影帧画》
Hi my name is Tony and this is Every Frame a Painting.
Today I’m going to talk about one of the greats of the last twenty years
the Japanese filmmaker Satoshi Kon.
Even if you don’t know his work
you have certainly seen some of his images.
He is an acknowledged influence on both Darren Aronofsky and Christopher Nolan
And he has a fan base that includes just about everyone who loves animation.
十年里 他制作了四部电影 一部电视剧
In one decade, he made four feature films and one TV series
all of them amazingly consistent, all of them about
how modern people cope with living multiple lives.
或私人或公众 或幕后或台前 或清醒或梦幻
Private, public. Offscreen, onscreen. Waking, dreaming.
If you’ve seen any of his work
you’ll recognize this blurring of reality and fantasy.
Today, I’m only going to focus on one thing: his excellent editing.
So as an editor, I’m always looking for new ways to cut
especially from outside the realm of live-action.
Kon was one of the most fascinating. His most noticeable habit
was matching scene transitions.
I’ve mentioned before that Edgar Wright does this for visual comedy
– 斯科特!- 怎么了?
– Scott! – What?
It’s part of a tradition that includes The Simpsons
and Buster Keaton.
Kon was different. His inspiration was the movie version of
Slaughterhouse-Five directed by George Roy Hill.
– I can always tell, you know, when you’ve been time-tripping
This is more of a sci-fi tradition that includes Philip K Dick
and Terry Gilliam
But even among peers, Kon pushed this idea pretty far.
Slaughterhouse-Five has basically three types of scene transitions:
a general match cut
an exact graphic match
and intercutting two different time periods, which mirror each other.
Kon did all of these things, but he would also
rewind the film, cross the line into a new scene,
zoom out from a TV, use black frames to jump cut,
use objects to wipe frame, and I don’t even know what to call this.
To give you an idea of how dense this gets,
the opening four minutes of Paprika
has five dream sequences and every single one is connected by a match cut.
Number six is not connected by a match cut,
but there is a graphic match within the scene.
Just for comparison, the opening fifteen minutes of Inception
has four interconnected dreams.
Number of match cuts 1
– What is the most resilient parasite?
Cuts like this aren’t uncommon, but they’re definitely not something
most filmmakers build a style out of.
Usually you see them as one-off effects.
Two of the most famous examples:
噢 还有这个 因为它很棒
Oh and this one because it’s amazing
Kon’s work was about the interaction between dreams, memories,
nightmares, movies, and life.
The matching images were how he linked the different worlds.
Sometimes he would stack transitions back to back,
so you just be getting used to one scene before you got thrown into the next.
All of this made him really surprising to watch.
You could blink and miss that you’re in a different scene.
He draws an image while keeping the next scene in mind.
That way, he can make every image connected.
to both the previous and subsequent scenes.
Even when he wasn’t dealing with dreams, Kon was an unusual editor.
He loved ellipses and would often just jump past part of the scene.
So you’d see a character look at a key.
You expect to see her take it in the shop, but that doesn’t happen.
剧情继续推进 然后 到了另一处场景：
The scene just moves on. Later on, in a different scene:
Or you’d see a man jumping out of a window and fade out.
We’d then cut to a scene we didn’t understand,
reveal that this is a dream,
back out, and then show the conclusion of the previous scene.
Even things like murder, he would do the build-up and cut away.
But he would show us the gory result.
I particularly love the way he handled character death.
在这里 老人去世时 屋外的风车也停了
Here, an old man dies and the windmills of his hut stop.
Then it turns out he’s alive, so they start up again.
When we finish the scene, the windmill shot doesn’t repeat,
but you’ll notice they aren’t moving, implying he is dead.
Kon also had a habit of starting scenes in close-up and you have to figure out
where you were as the scene went on.
Every once in a while, he’d use an establishing shot.
And then reveal that it was actually a point-of-view. So without you noticing,
he brought you into the character’s world.
He was constantly showing one image and then revealing that it wasn’t
what you thought it was.
Your experience of space and time became subjective.
He could also edit in ways that a lot of live-action filmmakers could not.
During an interview, Kon said that he didn’t want to direct live action
because his editing was actually too fast.
This shot of the bag is only 6 frames.
For a comparable moment in live-action,
That was 10 frames.
Or how about this insert of a note?
10 frames. But in live-action…
今敏觉得 作为动画原画师 他会在一个镜头里
Kon felt that as an animator, he could draw less information
in the shot, so your eye could read it faster.
You can actually see someone like Wes Anderson doing this in live-action
removing visual information so his inserts “read” faster.
It’s worth noting: you can actually cut much faster than this, but the images
pretty much become subliminal. Some of these shots are 1 frame.
None of this was for cheap effect.
今敏觉得 我们每个人对空间 时间 现实和虚幻的体验
Kon felt that we each experience space, time, reality and fantasy
at the same time as individuals and
also collectively as a society.
His style was an attempt to depict this in images and sound.
In the course of ten years, he pushed animation in ways
that aren’t really possible in live action.
Not just elastic images, but elastic editing
a unique way of moving from image to image, scene to scene.
And he was helped in this crusade by the studio Madhouse,
who did some of their finest work on his films.
If you want to see a perfect summation of his work, I present his final film:
a one-minute short about how we feel when we get up in the morning
This is Ohayou
Farewell, Satoshi Kon.
嗨 我是托尼 这里是《帧影帧画》