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剪辑时空的动画大师-今敏

Satoshi Kon - Editing Space & Time

嗨 我是托尼 这里是《帧影帧画》
Hi my name is Tony and this is Every Frame a Painting.
今天 我想谈谈二十年来最优秀的导演之一
Today I’m going to talk about one of the greats of the last twenty years
日本电影制作人今敏
the Japanese filmmaker Satoshi Kon.
即便不了解他的作品
Even if you don’t know his work
你也一定看过他作品中的一些场景
you have certainly seen some of his images.
他被认为影响了达伦•阿罗诺夫斯基和克里斯托弗•诺兰
He is an acknowledged influence on both Darren Aronofsky and Christopher Nolan
并拥有庞大的粉丝群 几乎每个人都热爱动画
And he has a fan base that includes just about everyone who loves animation.
十年里 他制作了四部电影 一部电视剧
In one decade, he made four feature films and one TV series
它们都惊人的一致
all of them amazingly consistent, all of them about
以现代人如何应对多样的生活为题材
how modern people cope with living multiple lives.
或私人或公众 或幕后或台前 或清醒或梦幻
Private, public. Offscreen, onscreen. Waking, dreaming.
如果你看过他的作品
If you’ve seen any of his work
就会发现 现实和幻境难以区分
you’ll recognize this blurring of reality and fantasy.
今天我只聊一件事 他卓越的剪辑
Today, I’m only going to focus on one thing: his excellent editing.
作为剪辑师 我一直在寻找新的剪辑方式
So as an editor, I’m always looking for new ways to cut
特别是从实景范围之外寻找
especially from outside the realm of live-action.
今敏则是最吸引我的人之一他最值得注意的习惯
Kon was one of the most fascinating. His most noticeable habit
就是使画面转场匹配
was matching scene transitions.
我曾提到 埃德加•怀特为视觉喜剧用过这一点
I’ve mentioned before that Edgar Wright does this for visual comedy
– 斯科特!- 怎么了?
– Scott! – What?
这是《辛普森一家》
It’s part of a tradition that includes The Simpsons
和巴斯特•基顿的惯用手法
and Buster Keaton.
今敏不同 他的灵感来自
Kon was different. His inspiration was the movie version of
乔治罗伊希尔导演的《五号屠杀场》电影版
Slaughterhouse-Five directed by George Roy Hill.
你知道吗 我总是知道你什么时候在走神
– I can always tell, you know, when you’ve been time-tripping
这不单是菲利普•迪克和特里•吉利姆
This is more of a sci-fi tradition that includes Philip K Dick
的科幻电影惯用手法
and Terry Gilliam
即便在同类作品中今敏也把这个灵感运用的更好
But even among peers, Kon pushed this idea pretty far.
《五号屠杀场》有三种主要的转场的方式
Slaughterhouse-Five has basically three types of scene transitions:
普通匹配剪辑
a general match cut
精准图像匹配
an exact graphic match
还有 两个不同时间但互相关联的镜头交切
and intercutting two different time periods, which mirror each other.
这些今敏都有使用 他也会回放影像
Kon did all of these things, but he would also
交叉时间线进入新的场景
rewind the film, cross the line into a new scene,
远拉镜头 用黑框进行跳切
zoom out from a TV, use black frames to jump cut,
使用物体清除画面我甚至都不知道这种手法叫什么
use objects to wipe frame, and I don’t even know what to call this.
为了让你们体会一下这些手法使用的频繁程度
To give you an idea of how dense this gets,
看看《红辣椒》的前四分钟
the opening four minutes of Paprika
有五个梦境序列 每一个都由匹配剪辑相连
has five dream sequences and every single one is connected by a match cut.
而第六个梦境却没有被剪辑
Number six is not connected by a match cut,
但有一个图像和场景匹配
but there is a graphic match within the scene.
做个对照 《盗梦空间》开场十五分钟
Just for comparison, the opening fifteen minutes of Inception
有四场相连的梦境
has four interconnected dreams.
匹配剪辑 第一场
Number of match cuts 1
– 最具可塑性的寄生虫是什么?
– What is the most resilient parasite?
这样的剪辑并不少见 但也肯定不是
Cuts like this aren’t uncommon, but they’re definitely not something
大多制片人体现的风格
most filmmakers build a style out of.
通常 你见的都是五毛特效
Usually you see them as one-off effects.
两个最有名的例子:
Two of the most famous examples:
噢 还有这个 因为它很棒
Oh and this one because it’s amazing
今敏的作品都是关于梦境 记忆
Kon’s work was about the interaction between dreams, memories,
噩梦 电影和生活之间相互作用的
nightmares, movies, and life.
这些匹配的场景就是他将不同的世界相连的方法
The matching images were how he linked the different worlds.
有时 他会连续的叠化转场
Sometimes he would stack transitions back to back,
所以当你刚熟悉一个场景就紧接着被扔进了下一个
so you just be getting used to one scene before you got thrown into the next.
这些使得他有非常惊喜的观看效果
All of this made him really surprising to watch.
可能一眨眼功夫 场景就不同了
You could blink and miss that you’re in a different scene.
他画一个画面时会想着下一个
He draws an image while keeping the next scene in mind.
这样他就能使
That way, he can make every image connected.
前面和后面的画面连贯起来
to both the previous and subsequent scenes.
即使没对梦做处理 今敏也是个不一般的剪辑师
Even when he wasn’t dealing with dreams, Kon was an unusual editor.
他喜欢省略手法 常直接跳到之前的场景
He loved ellipses and would often just jump past part of the scene.
所以 你瞧见角色看到一把钥匙
So you’d see a character look at a key.
你希望她把钥匙带去商店 但她没有
You expect to see her take it in the shop, but that doesn’t happen.
剧情继续推进 然后 到了另一处场景:
The scene just moves on. Later on, in a different scene:
或是 你会看见一个人跳出窗外并淡出
Or you’d see a man jumping out of a window and fade out.
然后切入一个我们不理解的场景
We’d then cut to a scene we didn’t understand,
揭露出这是个梦
reveal that this is a dream,
然后退出 并揭晓先前场景的答案
back out, and then show the conclusion of the previous scene.
甚至杀人这种事儿 他也会先作铺垫然后切出
Even things like murder, he would do the build-up and cut away.
最终给我们一个血腥的结局
But he would show us the gory result.
我特别喜欢他处理角色死亡的方式
I particularly love the way he handled character death.
在这里 老人去世时 屋外的风车也停了
Here, an old man dies and the windmills of his hut stop.
结果他还活着 它们又转动起来
Then it turns out he’s alive, so they start up again.
场景结束时 风车的镜头不再
When we finish the scene, the windmill shot doesn’t repeat,
但你会注意到 风车停止意味着老人死了
but you’ll notice they aren’t moving, implying he is dead.
今敏也有特写的习惯 所以当镜头推进时
Kon also had a habit of starting scenes in close-up and you have to figure out
你得弄清楚 自己在哪儿
where you were as the scene went on.
偶尔 他会用远景
Every once in a while, he’d use an establishing shot.
然后揭露出那只是一种视角
And then reveal that it was actually a point-of-view. So without you noticing,
在不知不觉间 把你带入角色的世界
he brought you into the character’s world.
他不断放映同一影像 然后又揭示出
He was constantly showing one image and then revealing that it wasn’t
事实并非你想的那样
what you thought it was.
你的空间感和时间感变得很主观
Your experience of space and time became subjective.
他的剪辑方式是很多实景导演都难企及的
He could also edit in ways that a lot of live-action filmmakers could not.
一次采访中 今敏说他不想拍实景
During an interview, Kon said that he didn’t want to direct live action
因为他的剪辑太快
because his editing was actually too fast.
例如:
For example:
这个包的镜头仅占6帧
This shot of the bag is only 6 frames.
但比较起来 在实景中
For a comparable moment in live-action,
有10帧
That was 10 frames.
那么插入笔记本动作的帧数呢
Or how about this insert of a note?
10帧 但在实景中……
10 frames. But in live-action…
49帧
49 frames.
今敏觉得 作为动画原画师 他会在一个镜头里
Kon felt that as an animator, he could draw less information
画尽量少的东西 这样你的眼睛就能尽快获取画面
in the shot, so your eye could read it faster.
实际上 你可以看到韦斯•安德森等在实景中
You can actually see someone like Wes Anderson doing this in live-action
也会像这样清除视觉信息 所以他的插镜更快
removing visual information so his inserts “read” faster.
这毫无价值 切入越快
It’s worth noting: you can actually cut much faster than this, but the images
影像就越难看清 这些镜头有的只有一帧
pretty much become subliminal. Some of these shots are 1 frame.
但这些并非五毛特效
None of this was for cheap effect.
今敏觉得 我们每个人对空间 时间 现实和虚幻的体验
Kon felt that we each experience space, time, reality and fantasy
既像统一的个体
at the same time as individuals and
又像完整地社会
also collectively as a society.
其风格就是 尝试在图像和声音中描述这点
His style was an attempt to depict this in images and sound.
十年制作进程 他用实景拍摄不能做到的方法
In the course of ten years, he pushed animation in ways
推动了动画发展
that aren’t really possible in live action.
他的作品不仅影像灵活 而且转场灵活
Not just elastic images, but elastic editing
采用影像到影像 场景到场景的独特的方式
a unique way of moving from image to image, scene to scene.
今敏在Madhouse工作室的变革中也得到了帮助
And he was helped in this crusade by the studio Madhouse,
他们给今敏的电影做了收尾工作
who did some of their finest work on his films.
若你想欣赏他最完美的作品 我推荐其最后一部
If you want to see a perfect summation of his work, I present his final film:
一个一分钟短篇 关于我们早上起床的感受
a one-minute short about how we feel when we get up in the morning
它叫“早上好”
This is Ohayou
– 欧哈呦(早上好)
– Ohayou
永别了 今敏
Farewell, Satoshi Kon.

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译制信息
视频概述

介绍了动画制作大师今敏在影片制作中独特的风格,展现电影的镜头转换的一些风格,这里有更详细的了解电影细节,那么到底是怎样的呢,一起来看吧

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

妖魔

审核员

审核团V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oz49vQwSoTE

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