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萨特的“看”理论

Sartre's theory of the Look

Hi all!
大家好!
Today, we’re talking about Sartre’s theory
今天我们来讲萨特的“看”理论
It comes up in an chapter of the same title in Being and Nothingness
它出现在《存在与虚无》的同名章节中
sometimes also translated as “the gaze”.
有时也被翻译为“凝视”
How do we know that there are other subjects in the world?
我们怎样知道世上有其他主体?
And how do we know ourselves as selves?
我们怎样知道自己是自己?
Sartre thinks that, in order to answer these two questions,
为了回答这两个问题 萨特认为
we need to think about the way that others structure our experiences
我们应该通过他所谓的“看”的场景
through the scene that he calls the look.
来思考别人怎样结构化地审视我们的经历
So imagine you’re in a park and you’re alone and you’re walking along.
假设你在公园里独自向前漫步
You’re seeing grass, you’re seeing benches, et cetera.
你看到了青草 看到了凳子等等
And then suddenly you see another person.
忽然你看到了另一个人
walking.
在散步
Now for Sartre, the other person is fundamentally different from
此刻对萨特来说 他人本质上
the other things that you have encountered so far in the park.
与你在公园里看到过的其他东西都不同
They’re different from the grass, the benches, the trees,
与青草 凳子和树木都不一样
because they appear to you as a center of their own experience.
他们作为自己体验的核心出现在你面前
Sartre says in seeing the other person,
萨特说 当我看到另一个人的那一刻
I feel the world stolen away from me.
我感觉世界被偷走了
It’s almost as if there is a sink hole of being.
存在几乎就像有一个无底洞似的
Because as much as I like to think of myself as the organizing center of the world,
因为就像我们喜欢作世界的运行核心一样
as it turns out, there’s somebody else who is the center of their own world,
事实上 别人也是自己世界的核心
and this, he thinks is a fundamentally threatening experience.
萨特认为这本质上是一种危险的体验
So our first encounters with others for start
所以对萨特来说 我们与他人第一次邂逅
are fundamentally the site of conflict.
本质上会引起矛盾
It’s not a warm, fuzzy feeling of being together.
聚在一起并没有产生温暖和友爱
He’s drawing this in large part from Hegel,
萨特很大程度上从黑格尔那里借鉴了
whose view of the master servant dialectic
黑格尔的主仆辩证法
you can hear in another video where I discuss it.
我在另一个视频中进行了讲解
Now, when I feel the world being stolen away from me
现在 通过感知到公园里的另一个主体
by sensing that there is another subject within it, across from the park,
我觉得世界被从我身边偷走了
I still, however can have a sense of my own transcendence.
但是我依然觉得自己有一种超验的感觉
I still feel like even if there’s another center of the universe,
我依然认为 即使宇宙中存在另一个中心
I am still the subject of my own.
我依然是自己的主体
Things change fundamentally when the other turns and looks at me.
当他者回头看我时 事情就完全不同了
Suddenly, I feel myself no longer as a subject, but as the object.
突然我感觉到自己不再是主体 而是客体
I am the object of their gaze.
我是别人凝视的客体
And my sense of self completely collapses in a moment.
我的自我感瞬间就完全崩溃了
This is the most important step of the look.
这是“看”的最重要一步
So temporarily, we might say that it’s the second step.
所以我们可能会暂时把它称作第二步
The first is looking at the other person.
第一步是看别人
The second is the other person looking at me,
第二步是他人看自己
but this second step temporally for Sartre
但是这第二步暂时对萨特来说
is ontologically the first step.
是本体论上的第一步
It’s really what he means essentially, by the look.
这正是他认为的“看”的本质含义所在
Here, my subjectivity vanishes because it’s in the face of another subject.
现在 我的主体性在另一个主体面前消失了
So in experiencing another person looking at me,
所以当感受到他人看我时
I apprehend them as a subject, but subjects look at objects.
我把他们看作主体 但是主体看着客体
Thus, I feel myself as an object.
因此 我觉得我自己就是一个客体
And this feeling of being an object, Sartre calls shame.
这种把自己当作客体的感受 被萨特称作羞耻
He says it can also be felt as pride,
他说这种感受也可以被感知为骄傲
but pride is a sort of secondary response to shame.
但是骄傲是对羞耻的次反应
Shame for him is simply the feeling of being an object.
对他来说 羞耻只是被当作客体的感受
Sartre says that the look doesn’t have to be a literal look of eyes on you.
萨特说这种“看”不必是字面上的用眼睛看
It can also be experienced through the appearance of a house on an, on a hill.
也可以通过山上一所房子的外观体会到
You see that somebody might be looking out the window at you, or the footfall.
你认为有人可能在窗后看你 或探听你的脚步声
He has a famous example of somebody looking through a key hole.
萨特有一个著名案例 某人通过钥匙孔窥视
And then hearing a person behind them step onto the landing.
然后听到背后有个人走上了平台
And they know through hearing that person’s step
他们通过听这个人的脚步声知道
that that person is looking at them,
这个人在看他们
looking through a keyhole and that throws them back onto them.
透过钥匙孔窥视 这让他们恢复了自我意识
You might also think about the experience of having a roommate.
你或许会想到和室友住在一起的经历
So if you have a roommate, even if they’re in the other room,
如果你有一位室友 即使他呆在另一个房间
you feel their presence, you can feel their eyes on you, right.
你能感受他们存在 觉得他们盯着你看 对吧
Especially if you’re making noise
尤其是你弄出噪音的时候
or just the simple fact of them being in the same space.
或者仅仅因为你们同处一个空间
And it’s even more true if you’re literally in the same room, right.
如果你们确实在一个房间 就更是如此了 对吧
Even if you’re not interacting, you feel their gaze on you.
即使你们没有交流 你也觉得他们在看你
Even if they’ve got headphones in and they’re watching TV or something,
即使他们带着耳机在看电视或别的什么
there’s always a sense that you are the object for someone else,
你总能感觉到你是别人的客体
or that you’re potentially the object for someone else.
或者你是别人的潜在客体
You might feel self-conscious right.
你或许感觉到局促不安 对吧
I think the sense of self-consciousness is more or less what Sartre has in mind
我觉得这种局促不安的感觉或多或少就是
when he talks about the feeling of shame of being the object for another.
萨特说到作为别人客体的羞耻感时想到的
And when I feel myself as an object,
当我把自己感知为客体时
I experienced my transcendence,my freedom as transcended.
我经历了自己的超越 超越后的自由
I no longer have that sense of
我不再能感觉到
possibility with respect to myself.
自己的可能性
I feel myself fixed.
我觉得自己被固定了
And what’s really the most threatening about this experience is that.
在这种体验中最可怕的是
I don’t have access to the way that the other sees me.
我无从知道别人怎么看我
So I feel myself to be an object,
所以我觉得我是个客体
but I actually can’t know myself to be an object.
但是事实上又无法知道自己是一个客体
I might try and imagine, oh, what does this person think of me?
我会尝试着去想 哦 这个人怎么想我呢?
How are they seeing me?
他们是怎么看我的?
But I will never have access to that.
但是我又永远无法知道答案
I will never be able to actually experience things from their subjectivity.
我将无法真正用他人主体性去体验事物
I’ll never be able to be in their shoes.
永远无法站在他们的角度考虑问题
They have an access to me that is unmediated and that I can never grasp.
他们可以毫无障碍地走近我 我却无从知晓
And according to Sartre, this inability to see myself as others see me
萨特认为 无法像别人看自己一样看自己
is one way of describing shame.
是表述羞耻的一种方式
Pride is the affirmation of myself as objects
骄傲就是承认自己是客体
and saying like, okay, well you see me as an object.
好像在说 好吧 既然你们把我当成客体
I’m going to affirm that. I am going to say, look at me!
我就认可这种说法 我就会说 看看我
What a great object I am!
我是一个多么了不起的客体!
But that ultimately boils down to shame for Sartre
但这最终可以被归纳为萨特所说的羞耻
because it originates in the sense of being an object.
因为其来源于被当作客体的感觉
It’s just a different manifestation.
只是另一种表现形式而已
So it might sound like the look is sort of a bad thing, right?
所以“看”貌似是一件坏事 对吧?
It makes us feel shame.
它让我们感到羞耻
It makes us feel ourselves as objects.
让我们感觉自己是客体
It has a fundamentally threatening character,
他本质上有危险的特质
but according to Sartre, that’s not the whole story.
但是在萨特看来 这并不是全部
In fact, for Sartre,
事实上 对萨特来说
the look, by giving us to ourselves as objects,
“看” 通过把我们变成我们自己的客体
not only gives us a sense that there are other subjects in the world,
不仅让我们意识到世界上有其他主体
but it actually gives us really crucial information about who we are.
而且关于我们是谁 它提供了很关键的信息
Because it shows us that a key aspect of our being
因为它表明了存在的一个关键当面
is to be an object for others.
就是成为他人的客体
This is what Sartre calls being for others.
这正是萨特所说的“对他存有”
He thinks there are three main ways that beings manifest in the world
萨特认为世上的存在主要表现为三种方式
through being- for- itself, being- in- itself, and being- for- others.
即“对己存有” “物自体”和“对他存有”
And being- for- others is inaugurated by the look.
“对他存有”通过“看”得以成立
Sartre concludes from this, that we can only ever experience ourselves
萨特从中得出结论 我们只能在某些时刻
as subjects or as objects at a given time.
感知到自己是主体或客体
And so we’re constantly oscillating between feeling ourselves as subjects
所以我们感觉到自己总是在
and feeling ourselves as objects.
主体或客体之间摇摆
Sartre thinks, for instance, that if we’re gazing into another person’s eyes,
例如 萨特认为 如果我们凝视别人的双眼
we are either seeing them as an object
我们或许把他们看作客体
or seeing their eyes.
或者只看见他们的眼睛
We’re looking at them, we’re beholding them,
我们观看他们 注视着他们
or we are feeling seen by them.
或觉得自己是被他们观看的客体
And we are experiencing their subjectivity in a way
我们用自己在接收端的方式
that we’re at the receiving end of it, rather than looking at them.
体验他们的主体性 而不是看他们
This is something that subsequent phenomenologists have taken issue with,
这正是接下来的现象主义者争论的观点
including Beauvoir and Merleau-Ponty.
包括波伏娃和梅洛•庞蒂
They disagree with Sartre that we can’t experience ourselves
他们与萨特的观点不一致
as both subjects and objects at the same time.
认为人们不能同时体验作为主体和客体
There’s also a whole story to give here
今天还有一套理论可以证明
about how Sartre’s concept of the look is fundamentally affective.
萨特的“看”理论本质上富于情感
It has to do with feeling.
它与感受相关
And so we don’t know ourselves as objects in a cognitive sense.
我们无法在认知层面知道自己是客体
Rather, we experience ourselves as objects in a felt sense.
相反 我们可以在感受层面体验自己是客体
And this is something I’ve actually written an article
关于这一点我曾写过一篇文章
about in Philosophy Today
发表在《今日哲学》上
if you’re inclined to pursue this a bit further.
如果你想很深入了解 请看这篇文章
For Sartre, the gaze of the other
对萨特来说 他者的凝视
involves the death of my possibilities.
包含着我的可能性的死亡
I no longer feel that I have this unlimited orientation to the world
我不再觉得自己对世界有无限信仰
that I’m able to transcend it,
误以为我能够超越它
but rather my possibilities feel as if they fall into probability.
但相反我的可能性感觉似乎变得更渺茫了
And this follows directly from his contention that when we experience the look
这直接来源于萨特的观点 即当我们经历“看”
we experience ourselves as reduced to a facticity.
我们会感受到自己被简化为客观事实
And this idea has actually been one of the key points of the look that
这一观点实际上正是“看”的重要论点之一
folks have used since
人们此后利用这些观点
in developing concepts around gender and race,
围绕性别和种族形成了一些概念
such as the male gaze or the white gaze.
例如男性凝视和白人凝视
Frantz Fanon, in chapter five of Black Skin, White Masks,
弗朗茨·法农在《黑皮肤 白面具》第五章
suggest that Sartre’s view of the look actually needs to be taken a step further
建议萨特关于“看”的观点需要更进一步
to account for what he calls the racial- epidermal schema,
来解释他所说的种族图式
or the ways that Black bodies in white space
或解释为什么黑人在白人空间里
are perceived as fundamentally, always already,
一直以来 从本质上被看作
the objects of the look, rather than the lookers.
被观察的客体 而不是观察者
He says that the Black man living in a white supremacist society
他说生活在白人优越社会中的黑人
is constantly thrust into this feeling of being an object to such a degree,
总是过于强烈地进入作为客体的感受中
that there may not even be an oscillation
以至于没有机会在
between the first and second moments of the look.
“看”的第一时刻和第二时刻之间摇摆
Thanks for watching.
多谢观看
If you’re interested in hearing more from me,
如果您想听更多我的课程
please check out my podcast
请查看我的播客Overthink
Overthink, which you can find in a link below.
您可以在下面找到链接

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视频概述

本视频主要讲了萨特存在主义思想中的凝视概念。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

YXG-d073d

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5r-qoABSF9E

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