ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

萨特谈自欺 – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

萨特谈自欺

SARTRE ON: Bad Faith

In being and nothingness written in 1943
法国存在主义哲学家让-保罗•萨特
the French existentialist philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre
在1943年写的《存在与虚无》
identified a problem which he believed plagued modern life.
发现了一个困扰现代生活的问题
Mauvaise Foi, literally “bad faith”
Mauvaise Foi 直译为“自我欺骗”
Bad faith occurs when we lie to ourselves
当我们为了减少短期痛苦而向自己说慌时
in order to spare ourselves short term pain,
自我欺骗就会出现
but thereby suffer from long term psychological impoverishment,
但我们也由此在心理上遭受长期折磨
We force ourselves to believe something
我们强迫自己去相信一些
which we’re not really convinced by, because it’s easier.
我们不怎么信的事情 因为这样更轻松
In particular, Sartre believe that what we constantly lie to ourselves about
特别是 萨特认为我们一直自我欺骗的理由是
is that we don’t have other options.
我们没有其他选择
We always do, but find it curiously more reassuring to say we don’t.
我们一直有得选 但奇怪的是说自己没得选更让我们安心
It lets us off the hook.
因为这样做可以让我们摆脱困境
Bad faith often happens around work.
自我欺骗常常出现在我们工作中
Sartre describes a waiter who tells himself he’s just a waiter.
萨特描写了一个认为自己只是个服务员的人
It’s his lot in life, his destiny.
这就是他的全部 他的命运
He tells himself that he had no choice,
他告诉自己 他没有选择
that he has to keep on at it because he needs the money.
为了钱 他必须坚持
But it’s not true, insists Sartre, we are all free.
然而情况并非如此 萨特坚信我们都是自由的
There are scary, almost sickening moments
人们的恐惧近乎到病态时
of what Sartre calls Negative Ecstasy,
被萨特称为消极的欣喜
which might come late at night, when we realize that we are
当夜深人静的时候 我们意识到
in fact far more free than we ever say we are.
我们可以比想象中的更自由些
That we could throw in the job, go and live in the woods, or reinvent ourselves.
我们可以抛下工作 隐居森林 或者让自己重新开始
It can be harrowing, because we have to acknowledge
这些会让我们很苦恼 因为我们不得不承认
that we may be wasting our lives
我们可能在浪费我们的生命
and that in the end this is our own fault,
而这归根结底是我们自己的错
however much at other times we are tempted to
虽然在其他时候 我们很容易怪罪于
blame circumstances or other people.
环境或其他人
But we then typically suppress this insight.
但我们通常会压抑自己这么想
The next day we force ourselves to believe in what we’re doing.
在第二天时 我们会强迫自己去相信我们正在做的
The price is that we close off the opportunities
而这样做的代价是我们错失了
for changing and improving our lives
改善我们生活的机会
We forget, Sartre Says, that ‘Being precedes essence’
我们忘记了萨特所说的 “存在先于本质”
That is, who we are can’t be pinned down to
也就是说我们是谁不是由
one particular job or relationship.
一份特定工作和人际关系所定义的
Our being is much bigger.
我们的存在是远远超过工作与人际关系的
It embraces in Sartre’s words “all the things we are
用萨特的话说 我们现在未能实现所有的事情
at present not, but could possibly become”.
但仍有达成的可能性
In bad faith we keep those possibilities out of our minds , we tell ourselves that
在自欺时 我们不让自己去想那些未来的可能性
the way we are at the moment is the only way we can be,
告诉自己 我们现在的状态就是我们唯一能做到的
so bad faith closes down on the options of freedom.
所以自我欺骗会让我们失去自由的选择
Sartre detected bad faith as a feature of many unhappy relationships.
萨特发现自我欺骗是不快乐人际关系的特征
He describes its origins in early dates
他把自欺的早期起源描述为
when a couple secretly realise that they are not at all compatible,
当一对夫妻私下里意识到他们之间不匹配时
but then force themselves to believe that they can be happy together.
他们会强迫自己去相信他们在一起是幸福的
In Sartre’s example, a woman wants to be loved for her mind
在萨特的例子中 女人希望对方爱她的心灵
and can’t bear to pay attention to her own dark suspicion
却禁不住自己内心的猜疑
that her partner is in fact more interested in her body.
她的伴侣只是对她的身体感兴趣
Meanwhile the man realises that the woman isn’t interested in him sexually,
与此同时 男人意识到女人对他没有性趣
but keeps telling himself that “really she must be”.
但又不停告诉自己 她不可能对自己没性趣
They both lie to themselves
他们都在自我欺骗
and that’s why they end up together and unhappy.
这就是他们为什么最终不开心地在一起
Bad faith will lead them to throw the blame on each other saying
自我欺骗让他们之间互相指责
it’s the other’s coldness or lack of sophistication that’s the problem,
正是对方的冷漠和不沟通 造成的问题
when really it’s their own doing.
而其实这是他们自己的问题
Sartre didn’t see bad faith as a surprising or unusual problem.
萨特不认为自欺行为是令人惊讶或者少见的问题
It’s a natural outcome of how our minds work.
它是我们思维工作的正常结果
He didn’t want us to feel bad.
萨特他并不想让我们感到糟糕
He just wanted to remind us to be as free as we really are.
他只是想提醒我们保持我们原本的自由

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

人们在什么样的情况下才会出现自我欺骗呢?自我欺骗真的会让我们感受到快乐吗?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Tanya

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xxrmOHJQRSs

相关推荐