未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

坦然接受 “差一点的成功”

Sarah Lewis: Embrace the near win

我很幸运,我的第一份工作
I feel so fortunate that my first job
是在现代艺术博物馆里,
was working at the Museum of Modern Art
给画家伊丽莎白·默里办一个回顾展。
on a retrospective of painter Elizabeth Murray.
我从她那里学到很多。
I learned so much from her.
在馆长罗伯特·斯托
After the curator Robert Storr
从她一生的作品中
selected all the paintings
选取了画作之后,
from her lifetime body of work,
我爱上了欣赏这些 20 世纪 70 年代的画作。
I loved looking at the paintings from the 1970s.
在她生命的后期,
There were some motifs and elements
一些主题和元素得到重现。
that would come up again later in her life.
我记得自己问她,
I remember asking her
她对那些早期作品的想法是什么。
what she thought of those early works.
如果人们起先不知道,
If you didn’t know they were hers,
也许就猜不到这些是她的作品了。
you might not have been able to guess.
她告诉我,一些作品并没有
She told me that a few didn’t quite meet
达到她所希望的水准。
her own mark for what she wanted them to be.
其中一幅,事实上,
One of the works, in fact,
远没有满足她的要求,
so didn’t meet her mark,
她把它扔进了公寓的垃圾箱里,
she had set it out in the trash in her studio,
之后被她的邻居拿走了,
and her neighbor had taken it
因为她看到了其中的价值。
because she saw its value.
在那一刻,我对成功和创新的
In that moment, my view of success
想法改变了。
and creativity changed.
我意识到成功是一个瞬间,
I realized that success is a moment,
然而我们总是在庆祝
but what we’re always celebrating
创新和卓越。
is creativity and mastery.
问题来了:我们如何将一次成功
But this is the thing: What gets us to convert success
转化为卓越的成就呢?
into mastery?
这个问题我已经问了自己很久。
This is a question I’ve long asked myself.
我想这个转换在于我们开始
I think it comes when we start to value
重视每一次 “差一点的成功”。
the gift of a near win.
我是这样开始理解这一点的:
I started to understand this when I went
那是一个寒冷的五月天,
on one cold May day
我在曼哈顿的北角,
to watch a set of varsity archers,
哥伦比亚大学的贝克田径综合楼里,
all women as fate would have it,
观看校队弓箭手比赛,
at the northern tip of Manhattan
碰巧的是选手全是女性。
at Columbia’s Baker Athletics Complex.
我很想看看所谓的 “弓箭手悖论”,
I wanted to see what’s called archer’s paradox,
就是说,为了击中目标,
the idea that in order to actually hit your target,
你必须在瞄准时稍微偏离目标。
you have to aim at something slightly skew from it.
我站在那里,看到教练
I stood and watched as the coach
把那些女生用灰色的卡车送过去,
drove up these women in this gray van,
然后她们离开,神情自若,
and they exited with this kind of relaxed focus.
有个人的右手还拿着一个 吃了一半的甜筒冰淇淋,
One held a half-eaten ice cream cone in one hand
左手拿着黄色箭羽的箭。
and arrows in the left with yellow fletching.
她们笑着从我身边走过,
And they passed me and smiled,
不过她们走向场地的时候
but they sized me up as they
打量了我一下,
made their way to the turf,
她们不出声地彼此交流,
and spoke to each other not with words
我猜是用数字、角度之类
but with numbers, degrees, I thought,
来谈论她们可能计划好的
positions for how they might plan
射击位置。
to hit their target.
我当时站在一个弓箭手后面,
I stood behind one archer as her coach
她的教练站在我们中间,
stood in between us to maybe assess
可能是看看谁需要支撑,还有照看她,
who might need support, and watched her,
我甚至不知道怎么样
and I didn’t understand how even one
才能击中十环。
was going to hit the ten ring.
十环在 75 码之外,
The ten ring from the standard 75-yard distance,
看上去和一臂以外的火柴头
it looks as small as a matchstick tip
一般大小,
held out at arm’s length.
而且每次发射都要发力 50 磅。
And this is while holding 50 pounds of draw weight
而且每次发射都要发力 50 磅。
on each shot.
那个弓箭手第一次射中了 7 环, 我记得接下来是个 9 环,
She first hit a seven, I remember, and then a nine,
然后是 2 个十环,
and then two tens,
接下来的那支箭
and then the next arrow
甚至没有射到靶上。
didn’t even hit the target.
我看出这些使她更有韧性了,
And I saw that gave her more tenacity,
她一次又一次地射箭。
and she went after it again and again.
三小时就这样过去了。
For three hours this went on.
在练习的最后,其中一个弓箭手
At the end of the practice, one of the archers
精疲力竭地躺在地上,
was so taxed that she lied out on the ground
像只海星,
just star-fished,
她仰头望天,
her head looking up at the sky,
试图寻找艾略特所说的 (T.S.Eliot:诗人,1948 年诺贝尔文学奖得主)
trying to find what T.S. Eliot might call
转动不息的世界里的静止点。
that still point of the turning world.
在美国文化里,这种现象很少见。
It’s so rare in American culture,
已经很少有如此专业的事情,
there’s so little that’s vocational about it anymore,
看上去这么傻,
to look at what doggedness looks like
还要如此精确。
with this level of exactitude,
这意味着你要摆好姿势,
what it means to align your body posture
坚持 3 个小时去射击一个目标,
for three hours in order to hit a target,
在一片模糊中追寻卓越。
pursuing a kind of excellence in obscurity.
我留下来,是因为自己亲眼目睹了
But I stayed because I realized I was witnessing
这难得的瞬间:
what’s so rare to glimpse,
成功和卓越的区别。
that difference between success and mastery.
所以说,成功是打中十环,
So success is hitting that ten ring,
然而卓越是你懂得:
but mastery is knowing that it means nothing
如果不去一次次地尝试,就会一无所得。
if you can’t do it again and again.
但是,卓越和优异不尽相同,
Mastery is not just the same as excellence, though.
也和成功不一样,
It’s not the same as success,
成功在我看来是一次事件,
which I see as an event,
一个时刻,
a moment in time,
一个世界赋予你的标签。
and a label that the world confers upon you.
卓越不是对某个目标的承诺,
Mastery is not a commitment to a goal
而是一个持续的追求。
but to a constant pursuit.
而让我们不断追求,
What gets us to do this,
能把我们推得更远的方法,
what get us to forward thrust more
就是重视 “差一点的胜利”
is to value the near win.
有多少次我们将一些作品
How many times have we designated something
定义为经典之作,甚至是大师级作品,
a classic, a masterpiece even,
即使作者认为它根本无望完成,
while its creator considers it hopelessly unfinished,
充满了困难和瑕疵,
riddled with difficulties and flaws,
换言之,是一个 “差一点的成功” ?
in other words, a near win?
伊丽莎白·默里让我感到惊讶,
Elizabeth Murray surprised me
她接受了自己早期的画作。
with her admission about her earlier paintings.
画家保罗·塞尚经常认为 他的作品不够完善,
Painter Paul Cézanne so often thought his works were incomplete
他会故意把它们丢在一边,
that he would deliberately leave them aside
心里想着一会再捡回来。
with the intention of picking them back up again,
然而到了他生命的终点,
but at the end of his life,
结果就是他只在 10% 的
the result was that he had only signed
画作上签了名。
10 percent of his paintings.
塞尚最喜欢的小说 是巴尔扎克的《不为人知的杰作》,
His favorite novel was “The [Unknown] Masterpiece” by Honoré de Balzac,
他觉得自己就是那个画家主角。
and he felt the protagonist was the painter himself.
弗兰兹·卡夫卡能看到缺点,
Franz Kafka saw incompletion
而其他人只找到赞美的作品,
when others would find only works to praise,
以至于他想把他所有的日记、
so much so that he wanted all of his diaries,
手稿、信件和草稿,
manuscripts, letters and even sketches
死后全部焚烧。
burned upon his death.
他的朋友拒绝这样做,
His friend refused to honor the request,
正因如此,我们现在还有这些
and because of that, we now have all the works
卡夫卡的作品:
we now do by Kafka:
《亚美利加》、《审判》、《城堡》,
“America,” “The Trial” and “The Castle,”
这个作品不完整到有破句。
a work so incomplete it even stops mid-sentence.
对卓越的追求,换句话说,
The pursuit of mastery, in other words,
几乎是要不断向前的。
is an ever-onward almost.
“神啊,您赐给我的欲望
“Lord, grant that I desire
超过了我的能力。“
more than I can accomplish,”
米开朗基罗这样祷告,
Michelangelo implored,
对着西斯廷教堂穹顶上的旧约之神,
as if to that Old Testament God on the Sistine Chapel,
他自己变成了亚当,
and he himself was that Adam
向前伸出手指
with his finger outstretched
却无法碰触到神的手。
and not quite touching that God’s hand.
卓越是追求的过程,而不是结果。
Mastery is in the reaching, not the arriving.
它要持续不断地缩小
It’s in constantly wanting to close that gap
现实的自己和理想的自己 之间的差距。
between where you are and where you want to be.
卓越是为自己的才华而做出牺牲,
Mastery is about sacrificing for your craft
而不是为了开发自己的事业。
and not for the sake of crafting your career.
有多少发明家和无名的企业家们
How many inventors and untold entrepreneurs
在现实中印证了这一现象?
live out this phenomenon?
我们甚至能看到
We see it even in the life
不屈不挠的北极探险家本·桑德斯,
of the indomitable Arctic explorer Ben Saunders,
他跟我说起自己的辉煌
who tells me that his triumphs
不仅仅是一次
are not merely the result
伟大成功的结果。
of a grand achievement,
而是由一系列 “差一点的成功” 推动的。
but of the propulsion of a lineage of near wins.
当我们处于领先优势时, 我们就能成长。
We thrive when we stay at our own leading edge.
艾灵顿公爵领悟了这一智慧, (Duke Ellington(1899–1974年),
美国著名作曲家、钢琴家、乐队队长。)
It’s a wisdom understood by Duke Ellington,
他说在自己的作品中,最喜欢的
who said that his favorite song out of his repertoire
永远是下一首。
was always the next one,
永远是他还没有写好的那首。
always the one he had yet to compose.
差一点的胜利是卓越的内涵,
Part of the reason that the near win
一部分是因为
is inbuilt to mastery
我们做事越熟练,就越清楚地知道:
is because the greater our proficiency,
我们并不完全了解
the more clearly we might see
那些我们自认为了解的事物。
that we don’t know all that we thought we did.
这被称为 “达克效应”。 (Dunning–Kruger effect)
It’s called the Dunning–Kruger effect.
《巴黎评论》采访詹姆斯·鲍德温时, ( James Baldwin:美国当代著名小说家、
散文家、戏剧家和社会评论家)
The Paris Review got it out of James Baldwin
他的回应正是如此。他被问道:
when they asked him,
“您认为是什么增加了知识?”
“What do you think increases with knowledge?”
他回答说:“知道的越少,学到的越多。”
and he said, “You learn how little you know.”
成功激励我们,然而 “差一点儿成功”
Success motivates us, but a near win
能推动我们不断追寻。
can propel us in an ongoing quest.
最生动的例子之一,就是
One of the most vivid examples of this comes
当奥运比赛结束时,
when we look at the difference
我们观察银牌获得者
between Olympic silver medalists
和铜牌获得者之间的差距。
and bronze medalists after a competition.
托马斯·季洛维奇和他在康奈尔大学的团队
Thomas Gilovich and his team from Cornell
研究了银牌和铜牌获得者的情绪差别。
studied this difference and found
他们发现银牌获得者相对沮丧,
that the frustration silver medalists feel
而铜牌获得者通常更开心一点,
compared to bronze, who are typically a bit
因为他们没有拿到第四名,
more happy to have just not received fourth place
总比没有奖牌的强。
and not medaled at all,
在后续的比赛中
gives silver medalists a focus
集中关注银牌获得者。
on follow-up competition.
我们发现甚至在博彩界,
We see it even in the gambling industry
那里从前就深谙 “差点就成功”
that once picked up on this phenomenon
这一现象。
of the near win
“刮刮乐”类型的彩票被创造出来,
and created these scratch-off tickets
这些彩票可能的中奖率超过平均数,
that had a higher than average rate of near wins
这样会促使人们去买更多的彩票,
and so compelled people to buy more tickets
这些人被称作 “心脏骤停者” ,
that they were called heart-stoppers,
这些博彩界的滥用手法发生在
and were set on a gambling industry set of abuses
1970 年代的英国。
in Britain in the 1970s.
差一点的成功之所以有推动力,
The reason the near win has a propulsion
是因为它改变了我们观察的角度,
is because it changes our view of the landscape
同时,把我们的目标
and puts our goals, which we tend to put
从我们认为的那个距离
at a distance, into more proximate vicinity
拉近到我们所在的地方。
to where we stand.
如果我请你想象 下周一个美好的日子,
If I ask you to envision what a great day looks like next week,
你可能会更笼统地描述。
you might describe it in more general terms.
然而,如果我请你描述一下 明天在 TED ,美好的一天是什么样的,
But if I ask you to describe a great day at TED tomorrow,
你也许会说得很清晰又真实。
you might describe it with granular, practical clarity.
这就是 “差一点的成功” 做到的。
And this is what a near win does.
它能让我们集中注意力在当下的计划,
It gets us to focus on what, right now,
去处理我们目之所及的那座大山。
we plan to do to address that mountain in our sights.
杰西·乔伊娜-柯西 (Joyner-Kersee) 在1984 年
It’s Jackie Joyner-Kersee, who in 1984
以三分之一秒的差距
missed taking the gold in the heptathlon
和七项全能金牌失之交臂,
by one third of a second,
她的丈夫预测说,这个经历会带给她
and her husband predicted that would give her
在后续比赛中所需要的韧性。
the tenacity she needed in follow-up competition.
1988 年,她获得了七项全能金牌,
In 1988, she won the gold in the heptathlon
并刷新了 7291 分的记录,
and set a record of 7,291 points,
之前从未有运动员能接近这个分数。
a score that no athlete has come very close to since.
我们不是在一切完工之后再突破,
We thrive not when we’ve done it all,
而是当我们还有更多作为的时候。
but when we still have more to do.
我站在这里思索和想象
I stand here thinking and wondering
每一种方法,让我们有可能
about all the different ways
在这个房间里完成哪怕一项
that we might even manufacture a near win
差一点的成功。
in this room,
你的生命可能如何去实现这一切,
how your lives might play this out,
因为我想,潜意识里我们确实知道。
because I think on some gut level we do know this.
我们知道当我们处于领先地位时,
We know that we thrive when we stay
我们就能迅速成长,
at our own leading edge,
这就是为什么在创新的神话里
and it’s why the deliberate incomplete
蕴含了有意识的未完成。
is inbuilt into creation myths.
在纳瓦霍文明中,一些男女工匠
In Navajo culture, some craftsmen and women
会故意在纺织品和陶瓷上
would deliberately put an imperfection
留下一点缺陷。
in textiles and ceramics.
这被称为 “精神之线” ,
It’s what’s called a spirit line,
在花样上有意留下缺陷,
a deliberate flaw in the pattern
不去太苛求纺织工和制陶工人,
to give the weaver or maker a way out,
同时也是为了 让制作过程得以继续下去。
but also a reason to continue making work.
大师之所以是专家,并不是因为
Masters are not experts because they take
他们完结了某个学科的概念。
a subject to its conceptual end.
而是因为他们意识到
They’re masters because they realize
终点并不存在。
that there isn’t one.
如今当我想到这些,我明白了
Now it occurred to me, as I thought about this,
为什么在那场练习的最后,
why the archery coach
在队员听不见的地方,
told me at the end of that practice,
射箭队教练告诉我,
out of earshot of his archers,
他和他的同事们总是觉得
that he and his colleagues never feel
为队伍做的还是不够。
they can do enough for their team,
总觉得还有更多的视觉技巧、
never feel there are enough visualization techniques
姿势训练可以帮助她们去克服
and posture drills to help them overcome
那些连续的 “差一点的成功” 。
those constant near wins.
这听上去真不像什么抱怨,
It didn’t sound like a complaint, exactly,
而是为了让我明白,
but just a way to let me know,
一种软性的承认,
a kind of tender admission,
提示我,他知道自己全身心地投入了
to remind me that he knew he was giving himself over
这条没有止境的征程,
to a voracious, unfinished path
这条路还在不停地延伸。
that always required more.
我们挖掘未完成的想法,
We build out of the unfinished idea,
即使它们就是过去的自己。
even if that idea is our former self.
这就是卓越的动态优化。
This is the dynamic of mastery.
不断接近你心中想要的东西,
Coming close to what you thought you wanted
可以帮助你获得比你一度梦想的
can help you attain more than you ever dreamed
还要多的东西。
you could.
当我看到有一天,伊丽莎白·默里
It’s what I have to imagine Elizabeth Murray
对着画廊里她的早期画作
was thinking when I saw her smiling
微笑的时候,
at those early paintings one day
我想她一定也是这么想的。
in the galleries.
虽然我们创作出了乌托邦,
Even if we created utopias, I believe
我相信我仍旧有未完成的追求。
we would still have the incomplete.
完满是一种目标,
Completion is a goal,
但我们希望它永无止境。
but we hope it is never the end.
谢谢大家。
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述
听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

收集自网络

审核员

自动通过审核

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IS_upr6ayqw

相关推荐