未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

伟大艺术赏析系列:达利的《记忆的永恒》

Salvador Dali's "The Persistence of Memory: Great Art Explained

由Masterworks投资公司赞助
Good evening. Tonight we go after the story of an extraordinary personality.
晚上好 今晚我们将讲述一位非凡人物的故事
He is Salvador Dali the great surrealist painter,
他就是萨尔瓦多•达利 伟大的超现实主义画家
who sees the world through surrealist eyes.
他用超现实的眼光看待世界
If you’re curious to hear Salvador Dali talk about decadence, death and immortality,
如果你乐于聆听萨尔瓦多•达利谈论 颓废 死亡与永生
about his surrealist art, his politics and his existence before he was born,
谈论他的超现实艺术 政治主张和他出生前的存在
we’ll go after those stories in just a moment.
那么请继续收看 咱们稍后讲述
[Music]
[音乐]
伟大作品赏析
1. 梦中起源
What’s the point of this picture? Is there any point?
这幅画想表达什么?意义何在?
This is very important because I work constantly from the moment I fall asleep.
它的意义重大 因为我通常从入睡那一刻起开始工作
Every of my best ideas coming through my dreams.
我的最佳灵感 都来自于我的梦
Salvador Dali was obsessed with Sigmund Freud,
萨尔瓦多•达利痴迷西格蒙德·弗洛伊德的理论
and you could say his beginnings were more than a little “Freudian”.
甚至可以说 他起初完全是个支持弗洛伊德学派的人
Dali’s mother gave birth to her first son in 1901,
1901年 达利的母亲生下了她的第一个儿子
a child that she named Salvador.
取名为萨尔瓦多
Who died at 22 months old
但孩子没到两岁就去世了
Just nine months later the Salvador we know was born,
就在九个月后 我们所知的这位萨尔瓦多出生了
and was given his dead brother’s name.
他继承了死去哥哥的名字
Dali was told by his parents that he was the literal reincarnation of his dead brother,
他的父母告诉他 他是死去哥哥的真身转世
a belief he carried into his adult life.
直至成年 他都对此深信不疑
Sigmund Freud published “Interpretation of Dreams” in 1899,
1899年 弗洛伊德出版《梦的解析》
in which he put forward the theory
在书中他提出了一条理论
that dreams are the key to unlocking the secrets of the unconscious mind.
梦境是解开潜意识秘密的钥匙
To access his subconscious, Dali would make himself hallusinate.
为了探究潜意识 达利不惜置身幻觉
not with drugs but rather by using what he called
但并非通过药品 而是通过他口中的
Paranoiac-Critical Method
偏执狂临界法
He would take micro naps during the day.
白天他会让自己进行短小睡眠
He would lie in a chair holding a heavy key in his right hand,
躺在椅子上 右手握一大串钥匙
underneath which he placed an upside down plate on the floor.
椅子下的地板上 放置一个倒扣着的盘子
When he fell into a deep sleep he dropped the key, and the clang woke him up.
当他进入沉睡时 钥匙落在盘子上 碰撞声将他惊醒
[Clang]
[碰撞声]
In that nanosecond he would enter a state scientist call” hypnagogia”,
就在那一毫微秒之间 他会进入学界称之为“临界睡眠”的状态
an in-between state where you are just beginning to dream but are still conscious.
即处于一种即将进入梦境却依旧清醒的临界状态
He would use this method with “The Persistence of Memory”,
他画《永恒的记忆》时 运用了这一方法
a painting that although stylistically rooted in realism transcends the world of reason.
这幅画的风格虽源于现实主义 但却超越了理性世界
The strange, confusing and often disturbing world we visit in our dreams,
这个怪异 混乱 时常令人不安的梦中世界
would make Dali a household name,
却让达利的名字家喻户晓
and he would remain so for more than half a century,
在半个多世纪里 他一直声名显赫
one of the best known and most bitterly contested figures in the international art world.
是国际艺术界最富盛名且极具争议人物之一
In 1938, after years of trying,
1938年 在多年的努力后
Dali would finally meet Freud which he likened to “meeting God”.
达利终于见到了弗洛伊德 这次会面被他称为“朝圣”
Freud was 81, Dali, 34.
弗洛伊德81岁 达利34岁
By all accounts they were totally bewildered by each other,
据说 他们为彼此着迷
and Dali would later disavow Freud.
然而达利后来却否定了弗洛伊德
2. 超现实主义
Great art comes from conflict
伟大的艺术源于冲突
and Dadaism and Surrealism were two art movements that
达达主义和超现实主义这两个流派
developed as a direct result of the horrors of the first world war.
就是一战所造成恐惧带来的直接后果
A war so brutal and incomprehensible,
一战过于残忍 令人费解
that artists looked for unconventional ways to make sense of the world.
使得艺术家们寻求非传统的手段来理解这个世界
And their rage drove their artistic creativity.
愤怒激发了他们的艺术创造力
Dadaism which preceded Surrealism, was more of an anti-art movement.
达达主义早于超现实主义 更具有反传统艺术色彩
Surrealism was about finding a bridge between the subconscious and reality.
而超现实主义则关于寻找潜意识与现实之间的桥梁
The founder of the Surrealist art movement Andre Breton,
超现实艺术主义运动的发起者安德烈·布勒东
worked at a military hospital in Paris,
在巴黎一家军事医院工作
and had been an eyewitness to the horrors of the war.
他亲眼见证了战争的恐怖
He saw first-hand how mental trauma patients rejected the rational world,
他亲眼目睹遭受精神创伤的病人拒绝回到现实世界
and inspired by Sigmund Freud, he would seek to liberate the subconscious through art.
在弗洛伊德的启发下 他想通过艺术来解放人的潜意识
There is no dominant painting style in Surrealism,
超现实主义并没有什么主流画风
but the public face of it, would become Salvador Dali.
但在公众来看 达利就代表超现实主义
The mustachioed self-promoter was instantly recognizable,
正如他所画的有着融化钟表的风景
as were his landscapes of melting watches.
这个留着八字胡的自我宣传者识别度很高
As a painter, Dali had experimented
作为一个画家 达利尝试了
with lots of styles,
多种风格
amongst others: Fauvism,
其中包括野兽派
Naturalism and Cubism.
自然主义和立体主义
Then in 1926 for the first time he visited Paris,
1926年 达利第一次访问
which was the cultural centre of the world,
那时的世界艺术中心巴黎
and began interacting with artists
并开始与艺术家们进行交流
such as Picasso, Magritte and Miró
比如毕加索 玛格丽特和米罗
which led to Dali’s first surrealistic work
这让他创作出第一幅超现实主义画作
However, this recently discovered work was produced while he was still a teenager
然而 这件最近才发现的作品是在他青少年时期创作的
showing us not only that he was an early Surrealist, but that
这表明他不仅是一位早期超现实主义者
he was also already referring to himself in the third person.
而且早已把自己置于第三视角了
Today the art world is unshockable
当今艺术世界波澜不惊
but Dali’s uncensored imagination,
尽管打着潜意识的幌子
his imagies of sex, blood and excrement even under the guise of subconscious
但达利关于性 血腥以及排泄物的的原生态想象力
was subversive and scandalous.
还是极具颠覆性且令人震惊的
Dali would be expelled from the surrealist group in 1934
达利于1934年被逐出超现实主义者之列
For amounst other things, he’s fascination with Hitler
原因之一是他痴迷于希特勒
who he once said turned him on
达利曾经说希特勒令自己兴奋
But by this time he was already a well-known painter
但此时 达利已是一位著名画家
and on his way to becoming a “celebrity”
而且正通往“明星”之路
3. 记忆的永恒
The first thing to note is that despite its huge cultural impact
首先要指出的是 虽然这副画文化影响巨大
it is quite small
但尺寸非常小
about the size of a sheet of paper
大约一般纸张大小
Dali plays with a perception of scale
达利操控了人的比例感知
and presents a huge desert landscape with vast depths of field,
画中使用大景深呈现了一片广袤无垠的沙漠景色
reduced to a shrunken world,
这个缩小了的世界
as if we are looking down the wrong end of a telescope.
似是我们通过望远镜错误的那端看到的景象
In the same way Dali uses scale to subvert our ideas of reality,
达利还同样通过比例手法颠覆了我们对于现实的认知
he does so with extreme photo-realism.
他通过极致的照片写实主义实现了这一点
He painted the unreal world with such realism,
画笔下的虚幻世界有着浓厚的现实主义色彩
that no matter how irrational the vision, it is still believable.
以致于哪怕视觉上再荒谬 但仍然可信
This is what makes him unique,
这就是达利的独特之处
I am against any kind of message.
我反对任何形式的寓意
In 1931, Dali was 27, broke
1931年 27岁的达利破产了
and living in a recently purchased fishing cottage
他和自己未来的妻子Gala住在
in the town of Port Lligat with his future wife, Gala.
刚买下的一间位于利加特港镇的钓鱼小屋里
Gala would be a divisive figure for the Surrealists,
Gala让这位超现实主义者的人生有了起色
and as Dali’s fame and fortune grew, she would be constantly at his side.
随着达利的名气和财产渐增 她一直伴其左右
Their life a never-ending round of carefully choreographed appearances.
他们的生活就像一场永无止境 精心设计的亮相表演
While the rocky landscape in the background may look like an ambiguous dreamscape,
尽管背景中的岩石景观看上去像是模糊不清的幻象
it is actually inspired by the surroundings at Port Lligat,
但实际上 灵感是来自利加特港的周边环境
specifically the coastal cliffs of Cap de Creus,
特别是离这位艺术家的住所很近的
a peninsula close to the artist’s home.
叫作克雷乌斯角的半岛海岸的悬崖
The triangular shadow that appears to crawl across the canvas,
似乎延绵穿过画布的三角形阴影
is believed to be cast by Mount Paní, a mountain near the artist’s home.
被认为是帕尼山的投影 它坐落于画家住所附近
This early painting in the “Impressionistic” style is the view from that mountain summit.
这幅有着“印象主义”风格的早期作品 就来自于那座山顶上看到的景色
To me, it’s almost certain that his use of space
我几乎能确定 他对于空间的运用
was inspired by the earlier images of Giorgio de Chirico,
受到了乔治·德·契里柯早期画作的启发
who was like Dali, a follower of Freud.
和达利一样 他也是弗洛伊德的追随者
From the landscape itself, only a few features emerge.
从景观本身来看 只有一些特征有所体现
One is a dead Olive tree growing out of a large square platform.
一是一棵从很大的方形平台上长出的死去的橄榄树
The olive tree, a symbol of peace, is dead.
橄榄树是和平的象征 但已死去
This reflects the uneasy political climate at the time,
这反映了第一次世界大战之后
between the First World War
导致西班牙内战迫在眉睫的动乱之前
and the unrest leading to the impending Spanish Civil War.
令人焦躁的政治氛围
Francisco Goya is considered by many scholars, to be the basis for modern art.
弗朗西斯科·戈雅被很多学者认为是现代艺术的基石
Bridging Classicism and Romanticism.
是古典主义和浪漫主义的桥梁
He deeply influenced Salvador Dali in his early years
他对于青年时期的达利产生了很深的影响
We can compare the dead olive tree here
我们可以把这里死去的橄榄树
to Goya’s use of the same metaphor in his “Disaster of War” series,
与戈雅的《战争灾难》系列中相同的隐喻使用相比较
about an earlier brutal conflict.
该系列是关于一场更早时期的残酷冲突
The limp corpses on Goya’s tree are mirrored in Dali’s watches.
戈雅画中树上悬挂的扭曲尸体 就像达利画中的表
Dali would reference this image again
达利在一张他声称预言了西班牙内战的画作中
in a painting he claimed predicted the Spanish Civil War
再次引用了这个意象
which also references this Goya image.
这幅画也引用了戈雅的这个意象
And now a short word about our sponsor.
现在为我们的赞助商插播一小段广告
Masterworks is the first and only platform that
Masterworks是第一个也是唯一一个
allows investors like you and I
可以让像你我这样的投资者
to own part of a multi-million dollar painting by artists like Dali.
部分拥有像达利一样的艺术家创作的 一幅价值好几百万的画作的平台
Contemporary art is a market with great investment features.
当代艺术是一个极具投资价值的市场
Art has outpaced the S&P 500 by 174 per cent from 1995 to 2020,
艺术品在1995年到2020年间的市场表现 超越标普500指数的174%
and has seen almost triple the appreciation of real estate and gold during this time.
并且几乎是这段时间房地产和黄金价格增长的三倍
Masterworks experienced team of analysts, use data to identify artists
Masterworks的资深分析师团队 通过用户数据去辨别
whose works have the best risk adjusted returns.
哪些艺术家的作品拥有最高的风险调整收益
Then acquires artwork ranging from 1million to 30 million and securitizes them,
然后收购价值区间在100万到3000万的艺术品 并将其证券化
allowing investors to buy shares in the artwork.
以使投资者可以购买这些艺术品的股份
Setting up with Masterworks only takes a few clicks
只需点击几下即可在Masterworks网站上进行设置
Visit their website, Create an account,
访问网站 建立账户
Browse their artwork, and invest in any of their current offerings.
浏览艺术品 投资他们目前发行的任一股票
Wait for it to be sold OR sell the shares through the secondary market.
等待艺术品被售出 或者直接在二级市场抛售股票
Masterworks has a wait list
Masterworks有一个等待列表
but you can skip that by clicking on the link in the description below,
但您可以通过单击下面的超链接标签跳过该列表
and begin investing in one of the most stable assets around.
然后开始投资 这可是最稳定的资产之一
Dali’s technique of transforming objects
达利将物品进行转化的技巧
exemplifies the Surrealist belief
是超现实主义信仰的例证
that mundane things presented in unexpected ways,
以意料之外的方式呈现世俗之物
have the power to challenge reason.
具有挑战理性的力量
Metamorphosis is a key concept in the surrealist movement,
形变是超现实主义运动中的核心理念
examplified by the paradox of Dali’s rendering
例如 达利对矛盾的应用
of the hardest and most mechanical of objects, watches, into a soft flaccid form.
他把最坚硬最机械的物品表 以柔软松弛的形式展现出来
Dali’s best work exploits the ambiguity of our perceptual process
达利最好的作品是通过扭曲人体 空间 物质和形式
and plays with our own fears, by distorting the human body, space, matter and form.
利用我们感知过程的模糊性 来操控我们自身的恐惧
The body incapacitated,
身体丧失了行动能力
the object made worthless.
物品变得一文不值
The painting was done at a time the revolutionary ideas of Einstein and Freud were changing the way
这幅作品完成于爱因斯坦和弗洛伊德提出革命性思想的时期
we thought about time and the subconscious.
他们改变了我们对时间和潜意识的认识
One idea ties the painting to Einstein’s “Theory of Relativity”
有些人把这幅画和爱因斯坦的“相对论”联系在一起
in which the scientist references “Time Dilation” with time not being absolute but relative.
这位科学家所提及“时间膨胀”中的时间不是绝对的 而是相对的
Watches are usually a concrete symbol of space and time.
表通常作为时间和空间的有形表征
Their “deterioration” in the painting,
他们在画中的“恶化形变”
reflects the collapse of human notions of a fixed universal order.
映射了人类固有宇宙秩序概念的崩塌
When asked, Dali said his true inspiration for the watches,
当被问及这一点时 达利说他关于表的灵感
was a wheel of Camembert cheese he had seen melting in the sun.
其实来源于看到一块卡蒙贝尔奶酪在阳光下融化
Yet in this interview he contradicts this,
然而在这次采访中 他反驳了这一点
and in fact had a lifelong obsession with science.
事实上 他一生都痴迷于科学
The latest development of nuclear physics
核物理方面的最新发现
proved that the new conception of space/time
证明了时空的新概念
is completely flexible.
是极其灵活的
He later gave another meaning – that the watches symbolise “impotence”
之后 他又赋予了另一种含义:表是“性无能”的象征
and the hands on the watches are the medical-scientific sign for “Male”,
而表上的手则是医学上的“男性”标志
所有伟大的人
只要能取得令人震惊的成就
就一定性无能 拿破仑 所有人都这样
We never know with Dali
我们永远不能了解达利
but if we take the dream interpretation
但如果我们用梦来解释
then the watches which all show different times,
那么 显示各不相同时间的表
reflect ideas about the passage of time
反映了时间的流逝
and the relation between actual time and remembered time.
以及实际的时间和记忆中的时间的关系
One thing is clear: Time, like the watches, is fluid.
有一件事情是明确的 时间 就像这些表 是流动的
He had already portrayed a melting clock, in this earlier painting,
他在早期作品中 就已经画过一个正在融化的钟
and it would become his signature motif
而这成为了他标志性的主题
Dali, who knew the importance of “branding”,
达利非常了解“品牌化”的重要性
would use the melting clocks for his entire career.
于是在他的整个事业生涯中都使用了融化中的钟表
Perhaps the most confusing element of the scene
可能在这幅作品中最难理解的元素
is the face-like figure, said to be a self-portrait of the artist.
就是这个像脸一样的人物 被认为是画家的自画像
A somewhat similar self-portrait appears in an earlier Dali work.
曾经有一个类似的自画像出现在达利的早期作品中
In “The Persistence of Memory”, the figure appears to be either dead or sleeping –
在作品《记忆的永恒》中 这个人物看上去像是死了或睡着了
or more obviously, dreaming.
或者更明显像是在做梦
Dali studied Hieronymus Bosch, an artist often called “The First Surrealist”,
达利研究了被称为“超现实主义者第一人”的画家耶罗尼米斯·博斯
and was heavily influenced by his painting and technique
且深受其作品和画技的影响
It is rarely, if ever, pointed out
也许有极少数人会指出
that Dali’s portrait is a direct appropriation of Bosch,
达利的肖像画直接盗用了博斯的东西
something I discuss in my video on Hieronymus Bosch.
而我在关于耶罗尼米斯·博斯的视频中讨论过这点
The positioning of the face could well have been influenced
脸的形状也可能是受到
by a rock formation near his home in port Lligat.
达利居所附近利加特港的一岩石的影响
The swarming ants and insects in Dali’s pictures,
达利画作中成群的蚂蚁和昆虫
are clear references to Death and Decay.
非常明显 是在映射死亡与腐朽
A reminder of human mortality and impermanence.
提醒人类生将必死 生命短暂
Insects not only cause death, but they do of course eat the dead.
昆虫不仅会导致死亡 而且当然也吞噬死尸
A year before he made this painting,
在完成这幅画作的前一年
Dali made “Un Chien Andalou” with Louis Buñuel,
达利和路易斯·布努埃尔同创作了影片《一条叫安达鲁的狗》
which featured his dreams about parasitic ants.
对他梦见的寄生蚂蚁做了特写
In his autobiography, Dali wrote about his childhood experience of being terrified seeing
在他的自传中 达利写到他童年时
ants eating the decomposing remains of a bat.
曾被蚂蚁吞噬一具腐烂蝙蝠尸体的景象吓坏了
And when he met Gala
而当达利遇到Gala时
he fantasised about her body covered in ants.
曾幻想过她身上爬满了蚂蚁
The ants are crawling over the only intact pocket watch
蚂蚁正在爬过唯一一块完好无损的怀表
as if it were a piece of rotting fruit, rather than a metallic object.
就好像这块表是一块腐烂的水果 而不是一个金属物体
We are being asked to question the substance of the watch, and therefore time.
我们被要求质疑表的实质 因此还有时间的实质
The fly on the clock face is a clear symbolic reference to art history.
钟表面上的苍蝇毫无疑问是艺术史的象征
In some historic portraits the presence of a fly,
在一些历史的人物肖像中 苍蝇的出现
symbolises the transience of human life.
象征着人生的短暂
Dali, who’s life started with the death of his brother,
达利的生命缘起于他哥哥的死亡
had a preoccupation with his own death.
他对于自己的死亡有一种执念
Because Death is all the time very close watch(ing) me
因为死神总是在近距离的观察我
and Death like(s) to catch me
死神想要抓住我
His family was plagued by loss,
他的家庭深受丧失亲人之痛
and when he was 16,
当达利16岁时
Dali’s mother, an early supporter of his talents, died.
他母亲 达利才华最早的支持者 去世了
“The Persistence of Memory” is about the fluidity of memory, dreams and time,
《记忆的永恒》是关于记忆 梦境和时间的流动性
but the melting watches,the dead tree and the parasitic insects,
但是融化的表 死去的树和寄生昆虫
all point to Dali’s obsession with death and decay.
都指向达利对死亡和腐朽的痴迷
– What? You fear death? – Yes.
– 什么?你害怕死亡? – 是的
– The death is beautiful, but you fear death. – Exactly.
– 死亡是美丽的 但是你害怕死亡 – 没错
Dali and Gala spent the 3 years of the Spanish Civil War in exile in Paris
达利和Gala在西班牙内战期间 在巴黎流亡了三年
but when the Germans invaded Paris they went straight to New York.
但是当德国入侵巴黎时 他们直接去了纽约
He turned up on Broadway and in stores on Fifth Avenue.
达利出现在百老汇和第五大街的商店里
He painted portraits of wealthy socialites,
他给富有的社会名流画肖像画
he designed for opera and dance and did magazine illustration.
他给歌剧和舞蹈做设计 也做杂志插图
《麦考尔氏》(女性时尚)杂志插图 1959年
Hollywood came calling, and he worked first for Alfred Hitchcock and then Walt Disney.
好莱坞前来召唤 于是达利先后为希区柯克和迪士尼工作
He appeared in lucrative adverts,
他出现在利润丰厚的广告中
and was a chatshow and game show regular.
是聊天节目和游戏节目的常客
Dali love(s) confusion.
我喜欢混乱
[Laughter]
[笑声]
Dali reached the height of his fame in America,
达利在美国达到了他名声的巅峰
but his critical reception during these years cooled.
但这些年来评论界的好评却冷却了
He was increasingly viewed as a “commercial artist”,
达利被越来越视为“商业艺术家”
and his work was greeted with tepid enthusiasm,
他作品获得的反馈不温不火
and often outright suspicion.
而且时常遭受公然质疑
Other artists were famous – Picasso was VERY famous,
当时还有其他著名艺术家 毕加索就非常之著名
but the work came first, celebrity second.
但是作品是第一位的 名声在其后
Dali the artist had become a prisoner of Dali the celebrity.
而达利的艺术作品却被他的声名所困
[Incomprehensible Utterances]
[无法理解的话语]
Watch yourself! [Laugh]
当心呀![笑声]
Gala died in 1982 and Dali himself died in 1989,
1982年Gala去世 而达利本人于1989年
while listening to his favorite record “Tristan and Isolde”.
听着他最喜欢的唱片《特里斯坦与伊索尔德》 离世
To the day he died he was -as he would have wished it to be-
正如他所希望的那样 直到他去世的那天
a subject of controversy.
他一直是一个有争议的人物
But his endless self-promotion grew irritating
但是他没完没了的自我宣传越来越惹人嫌
and his work suffered.
而他的作品也受到了影响
He would later upset many people over his friendship with the dictator General Franco.
后来 因与独裁者弗朗哥将军的友谊 他惹怒不少人
But his exploration of the depths of the subconscious mind in his powerful images,
但是达利在其极具震撼力的图象中对于潜意识深处的探索
tapped into the fantasies, dreams, fears and hallucinations of entire generations.
启发了整整几代人的热情 梦想 恐惧和幻想
And he should be remembered as a consummate draftsman –
达利作为一位技艺高超的画师
and as a pioneer of Surrealism.
超现实主义的先锋 应该被人们铭记
An artist who made modern art popular and accessible.
这位艺术家使现代艺术得以流行并且易于理解
“The Persistence of Memory”, is for good reason,
《记忆的永恒》是有史以来
the most celebrated surrealist canvas ever painted.
最著名的超现实主义油画
It really is the work of a crazy genius.
这确实是一位疯狂天才的作品
The only difference between crazy people and Dali
疯子和达利唯一的区别
is (that) Dali is not crazy.
就是达利并不是疯子

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

达利作为超现实主义的先锋人创作了《时间的永恒》。 融化的表、死亡的树、怪异的人脸、扭曲的时间和空间,这些最为我们熟知的形象传达了什么意义呢?让我们来揭秘达利和他作品以及他的生平故事。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Ada

审核员

审核员PAN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JuuHpgrBwFE

相关推荐