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「安全和遗憾——恐怖主义与群众监督」这就是朝阳人民群众的作用

Safe and Sorry – Terrorism & Mass Surveillance

恐怖主义非常可怕 特别是当它在家附近发生
Terrorism is very scary, especially when it happens close to home
而不是发生在遥远的地方
and not in some faraway place.
没有人喜欢恐惧感 我们都希望远离恐惧
Nobody likes to be afraid, and we were eager to make the fear go away.
所以我们需要更安全
So we demanded more security.
在过去十年间 这变得越来越正常
In the last decade, it’s become increasingly normal
因为公民自由被侵蚀 政府暗中监视公民们
for civil liberties to be eroded and for government agencies to spy on citizens,
收集存储他们的个人信息
to collect and store their personal information.
无视公民是否是左翼右翼政权的狂热者
Regardless of whether you’re a fan of right- or left-wing policies,
这影响了我们每一个人
this affects every one of us.
所以我们必须看一看数据 并诚实的问问我们自己
So we have to take a look at the data and ask ourselves honestly,
“这些真的使我们更加安全吗?”
“Has all of this actually made us safer?”
在9.11事件发生之后 政府得出结论
In the aftermath of 9/11, the US government concluded
法律没有跟上科技的步伐
that the law had not kept pace with technology.
由此诞生了“恐怖分子监视计划”
It created the Terrorist Surveillance Program
最初就能拦截与al-Qaeda的通信
initially to intercept communications linked to al-Qaeda.
政府确信如果计划在9.11之前便存在
Officials were confident that if the program had been in place before 9/11,
劫持犯就能被阻止
the hijackers could have been stopped.
但不久 新的权力也被联合证明有罪
But soon the new powers were also used to prove guilt by association.
联邦调查局作用移民记录去确认
The FBI used immigration records to identify
在美国的阿拉伯和穆斯林的外国人
Arab and Muslim foreign nationals in the US.
以此为依据 8000个外籍人员被要求登记
On this basis, 80,000 individuals were required to register,
另外的8000个被FBI审讯室传唤
another 8,000 were called in for FBI interviews,
超过5000人被防范性拘留所关押
and more that 5,000 locked up in preventive detention.
而被传唤的人中却无一人被发现是恐怖分子
Not one terrorist was found in what’s been called
这导致了民族最有力的一次游行示威
the most aggressive national campaign of ethnic profiling
自第二次世界大战后
since World War II.
这是多么普遍 因为政府机构
How commonplace it’s since become for government agencies
收集储存公民资料数据
to collect and store the personal data of citizens
2013年斯诺登文件的泄露充分证明了这一点
was made plain by the leak of the Snowden documents in 2013.
这显示了国家安全局如何索取信息
They showed how the NSA can demand information
对于像微软或谷歌这样的公司用户
about users from firms like Microsoft or Google
此外 他们每日收集公民的互联网交互数据
in addition to their daily collection of data from civilian internet traffic
如电子邮件内容和联系人列表
such as email content and contact lists.
所以 与其关注罪犯
So, instead of focusing on criminals,
各国政府更加关注每个人
governments are increasingly turning their attention to everyone.
但是与其在干草堆里找针
But if you are looking for a needle in a haystack,
在草堆中增加更多的干草不会更容易找到针
adding more hay to the stack isn’t going to make it any easier to find the needle.
相反 每一次国家安全局宣布的最新成功抓捕
On the contrary, every recent success announced by the NSA
都来自经典的目标监视
has come from classic target surveillance.
尽管有很高的希望 国家安全局的监视程序
Despite high hopes, the NSA surveillance program
没能阻止任何重大的恐怖袭击
has not stopped any major terror attack.
例如 一个波士顿马拉松式的轰炸机已经是联邦调查局的目标
For instance, one of the Boston Marathon bombers was already a target of the FBI.
所以我们需要的不是更多的随机数据
So what we need is not even more random data,
而是用更好的方式去理解和运用我们所拥有的数据
but better ways to understand and use the information we have.
间谍机构也极力削弱加密
Spy agenices are also pushing to cripple encryption.
在2016年初 联邦调查局要求苹果公司制作一个后门程序
In early 2016, the FBI asked Apple to produce a backdoor program
使恐怖分子iPhone不能加密
to disable the encryption of a terrorist’s iPhone.
苹果公开拒绝 不仅是因为这个工具可以永久性地用于
Apple publicly declined, not only because this tool could be used to permanently
侵犯全球范围内的守法公民的隐私
weaken the privacy of law-abiding citizens worldwide,
而且害怕为政府打开阀门
but fearing to open the floodgates for governments requesting access
让政府有权访问数十亿人运用的高科技信息
to a technology used by billions of people,
安全专家和密码学家都为此感到恐惧
a fear shared by security experts and cryptographers.
几个星期后 联邦调查局透露 他们已经侵入了自己的电话
A few weeks later, the FBI revealed that they had hacked the phone themselves,
基本上承认了对于幕后的需求他们向公民撒了谎
basically admitting that they lied to the public about the need for a backdoor,
在隐私安全研讨会中
which questions how trustworthy spy agencies are
质疑了间谍机构的可信度
in the debate about privacy and security,
特别是考虑到国家安全局的可信度 比如说 他们已经有能力
especially considering that the NSA, for example, already has the capability
打开你的手机麦克风或激活你的笔记本电脑摄像头
to turn on your iPhone microphone or activate your laptop camera
在你完全不知情的情况下
without you noticing.
考虑到这会引发很多争论
Concerns about this are often met with the argument,
“白天不做亏心事 夜里不怕鬼敲门”
“If you have nothing to hide, you have nothing to fear.”
但这种推测只能引发反对的争议
But this reasoning only creates a climate of oppression.
想要保护你某些生活隐私
Wanting to keep certain parts of your life private
并不意味着你做错了什么
doesn’t mean you’re doing anything wrong.
现在 我们生活在一个民主国家
Right now, we live in a democracy.
但是设想下坏人可能会用我们所有人的数据干坏事
But imagine the damage the wrong person could do with all our data
我们的设备如此轻易的被访问
and such easy access to our devices.
反恐怖主义法律允许当局进行调查和惩罚
Anti-terrorism laws allow the authorities to investigate and punish
非恐怖主义相关犯罪更具侵略性
non-terrorism-related crimes more aggressively.
如果你给强制执法有效工具 他们会使用它们
If you give law enforcement powerful tools, they will use them.
这就是为什么民主监管如此重要的原因:
That’s why democratic oversight is so important:
即使这些工具和法律今日并没有对你使用
even if those tools and laws aren’t used against you today,
它们也可能在未来会被用到
they might be tomorrow.
比如 继2015年11月的巴黎攻击之后
For example, following the November 2015 Paris attacks,
法国扩大了现行反恐法的范围
France expanded its already extensive anti-terrorism laws
通过赋予强制执法更大的权力去进行房屋突袭搜捕
by giving law enforcement greater powers to conduct house raids
和安置被捕人员
and place people under house arrest.
在接下来的几周里 有证据表明这些权力被用于
Within weeks, evidence emerged that these powers were being used
不正当目的 如镇压气候变化抗议
for unintended purposes, such as quashing climate change protests.
西班牙 匈牙利和波兰的政府
The governments of Spain, Hungary, and Poland
在论集会和演讲自由中介绍了更多的限制性法律
have introduced more restrictive laws on the freedom of assembly and speech.
在土耳其 言论自由和新闻自由
Freedom of expression and the press in Turkey
在过去几年中被严重削弱
has been seriously undermined in the last few years,
人们因批评指责政府而被判入狱
with people sentenced to prison for criticizing the government.
这没有有效地帮我们打击恐怖主义
None of this is effectively helping us fight terrorism.
这一切背后的动机可能是好的 甚至是崇高的
The motivation behind this might be good, even noble,
但如果让我们选出来的政府限制我们的个人自由
but if we let our elected governments limit our personal freedom,
恐怖分子无疑赢了
the terrorists are winning.
更糟糕的是 如果我们不小心
What’s worse, if we’re not careful,
我们可能会慢慢地进入被监视状态
we might slowly move towards a surveillance state.
数据清晰地表明:权力的侵蚀 大肆地监视
The data is pretty clear: the erosion of rights, along with mass surveillance,
到目前为止并没有取得显著成效
hasn’t led to significant successes so far,
反而改变了我们社会的本质
but it has changed the nature of our society.
恐怖主义是一个复杂问题……
Terrorism is a complicated problem…
……不是简单方法能解决的
…without simple solutions.
无任何安全装置能阻止几个恐怖分子
No security apparatus can prevent a few guys
在他们的地下室建造炸弹
from building a bomb in their basement.
我们应该牢记比例原则
We should keep the principle of proportionality in mind.
创建主密钥 入侵数百万的手机
Creating master keys to enter millions of phones
和寻找单个房子是不同的
is not the same as searching a single house.
在大多数国家 法律已经允许了大范围的行动
In most countries, the law already permits a wide range of actions,
包括目标监控
including targeted surveillance.
为充分利用现有的这一潜力
To take full advantage of this existing potential,
我们需要更好的国际合作
we need better international cooperation
和更高效的安全和外交政策
and more effective security and foreign policies,
更好地应用我们目前的法律 而不是用新的和更严格
better application of our present laws instead of new and stricter ones
限制公民自由的法律
that undermine our freedom.
让我们不会出于恐惧 破坏我们引以为傲的东西:
Let us not, out of fear, destroy what we are most proud of:
民主 基本权利和自由权
democracy and our fundamental rights and liberties.
这段视频由您支持的“Patreon.com”
This video was made possible by your support on Patreon.com
和欧洲自由平台“http://www.liberties.eu”提供
and the European Liberties Platform, <http://www.liberties.eu>.
由“Amara.org”社区上传字幕
Subtitles by the Amara.org community

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