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浪漫主义概述

Romanticism - Overview - Goodbye-Art Academy

对于初入艺术世界的人来说
For those of you who are new to the world of art.
“浪漫主义”这个词可能会让你想到可爱的丘比特
The word “Romanticism” may conjure up visions of an adorable Cupid
穿梭云间 摆好弓箭
cruising the clouds poised with his bow and arrow,
准备使两个人坠入爱河
ready to make two people fall in love.
虽然这个画面确实很浪漫
However, this image while certainly romantic
但它却和浪漫主义时期 和艺术没有任何关系
has nothing to do with the Romanticismperiod and art.
所以浪漫主义其实不是我们之前所想的那样
So we already know what Romanticism is not.
那什么是浪漫主义呢?
But what is Romanticism then?
如果说有一件事是艺术史学家都认同的
If there’s one thing that art historians can agree on,
那就是事实上浪漫主义是无法定义的
it’s that Romanticism is virtually impossible to define.
然而 这并不会阻止我们
However, that need not prevent us from understanding
理解浪漫主义时期都涵盖了什么
what this period encompassed
以及它如何改变了艺术的发展
and how it changed the course of art.
其实浪漫主义和爱 和浪漫没有太多关系
Well, Romanticism doesn’t have much to do with love or romance.
而是和热情息息相关
It is all about passion.
浪漫主义者们通过艺术来向人们
Romanticists express their passions, their strong beliefs
表达他们的热情 强烈的信念和内心感受
and their feelings to an audience through their art.
这种强烈的情感表达
This intense personal expression
可以用于任何主题
could adapt itself to any theme.
事实上
In fact,
浪漫主义并不仅限于可视的艺术
Romanticism was not limited to the visual arts,
同样也影响了音乐和文学
but influenced the music and literature as well.
贝多芬的《第五交响曲》被看作是浪漫主义音乐的开山之作
Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony is believed to have sparked off a period of Romanticism in music.
《悲惨世界》《巴黎圣母院》和《弗兰肯斯坦》
Three well-known romantic novels include Les Miserables,
是三部众所周知的浪漫主义小说
the Hunchback of Notre Dame and Frankenstein.
这些小说很美 但更悲伤
Well these novels are more gloomy than they are beautiful.
他们是虚构的 却饱含热情
They are mythical and passionate,
而且正如浪漫主义画作一般他们能唤起读者心中的激情
and like romantic paintings evoke passion in their audience.
这就是浪漫主义的核心——
This is the core of Romanticism-
艺术与心灵如影随形
art with the hearts.
也就是说艺术家们表达的是内心最深处的信念
Meaning artists express their deepest beliefs.
德拉克罗瓦的《诱拐丽贝卡》
One example of a passion evoking romantic painting
是能唤起人们内心激情的代表画作之一
is Delacroix’s Abduction of Rebecca.
这幅画描绘了沃尔特·司各特爵士的小说《艾凡赫》的一个场景
This painting depicts a scene from Sir Walter Scott’s novel Ivanhoe.
在整个绘画生涯中 德拉克罗瓦
Delacroix used scenes from Sir Walter Scott’s novels
都把沃尔特·司各特爵士的小说场景当作灵感来源
as inspiration for paintings throughout his career.
沃尔特·司各特爵士的小说中
The medieval settings, revolutionary themes
既有中世纪的时代背景 革命主题
and introspective melancholy characters
又有内省而忧郁的人物
found in Sir Walter Scott’s novel,
它们为德拉克罗瓦提供了丰富的灵感
provided a rich source of inspiration for delacroix
与他的视觉艺术作品表达了同样的主题
who addressed the same themes in his visual art.
在取材于小说《艾凡赫》的画作《诱拐丽贝卡》中
In Abduction of Rebecca based on the novel Ivanhoe,
德拉克罗瓦融入了当时深刻严肃的戏剧
the artist encapsulates the intense drama of the moment.
用强烈的现实主义手法
depicting the shocking turmoil of the events
表现了小说中事件引发的震惊四野的动乱
described in the novel in a very realistic manner.
与之形成强烈反差的是丽贝卡甜美的表情
In stunning contrast is Rebecca’s sweet expression
这陡然间巧妙地强化了画中追求和平的主题
which somehow only adds to the sheer momentum of the peace.
浪漫主义时期艺术作品之所以具有戏剧性
The dramatic nature of our works belonging to the Romanticism era,
是因为刚刚经历了革命时代
can be explained by the fact that this period followed the age of revolution
当时全世界的君主制都被立宪制代替
when monarchies across the world were replaced with constitutions,
以保障人民主权
securing the people’s rule.
浪漫主义是在1776年美国独立战争
Romanticism was born in the wake of the American Revolution in 1776,
和1789年法国大革命后诞生的
and the French Revolution in 1789.
1800到1860年间
Between 1800 and 1860,
是浪漫主义的巅峰时期
Romanticism was at its peak.
政治 经济和社会动乱成为常态
Political, economic and social upheaval was the norm,
这些主旋律也延伸到了艺术世界
and these themes carried over into the world of arts.
当时的表现风格和手法
The existing styles and methods of expression
都发生了巨大的变化
would come to be changed dramatically.
一股革命的能量点燃了浪漫主义
The revolutionary energy that fueled Romanticism
这是浪漫艺术家们以用表现力极强的手法
was one important reason these artists believed
表达自我为信念的一个重要原因
in expressing themselves with great intensity.
除了强调个人热情
In addition to emphasizing the passion of the individual,
浪漫主义艺术同时也将大自然看作一种狂暴 所向披靡的力量
romantic art also depicted nature as a fierce and all-powerful force.
这个时代诞生的画作有一个共同的主题——大自然毁灭一切的力量
The destructive power of nature was a common theme in paintings created during this era.
有一位著名的浪漫主义画家叫籍里柯
One of the best-known romantic artists Gericault
他的一幅著名画作《梅杜莎之筏》
based his famous work the Raft of Medusa
便是以一艘在塞内加尔海岸旁沉毁的巡洋舰为原型的
on a French frigate that was wrecked off Senegal’s coast.
这幅画的灵感来自于一个悲伤的故事
The painting was inspired by the harrowing tale
由两个海难幸存者讲述
shared by two of the shipwreck survivors.
籍里柯运用这个充满磨难和绝望的故事
Gericault used this tale of suffering and lost hope
表达了人类对命运无能为力时的痛苦
to express the anguish of humankind abandoned to fate.
油画描绘了两个了无生机 瘦弱的身躯
The canvas depicts pallid emaciated bodies,
和筏中几个剩余的幸存者躺在一起
juxtaposed with a few remaining survivors on the raft
汹涌的海浪猛烈地拍打着他们的身体
that is left battered by the turbulent sea.
希望的丧失
The feeling of hopelessness,
暴虐的大海对他们片刻不停的攻击带来的绝望
the despair of the men facing the raging oceans relentless onslaught
全都在这幅杰出的画作上表现得淋漓尽致
is only too evident for all who look upon this brilliant work.
有趣的是 这是籍里柯的第一幅著作
Interestingly, this was Gericault’s first major work.
他选择悲剧作为画作的中心主题
And that he chose tragedy as its central theme speaks volumes
表达了强烈情感对浪漫主义艺术家的重要性
about the importance of intense emotions to the romantic artist.
戈雅 另一位在这段时期留下了属于自己印迹的著名画家
Goya, another well-known artist who left his mark during this period
以其一对双生油画闻名:
is also known for his famous twin panels:
《裸体的玛哈》和《着衣的玛哈》
the Nude Maja and the Clothed Maja.
《裸体的玛哈》是一幅具有革命意义的画作因为其中裸女的目光丝毫不闪躲
The Nude Maja was revolutionary in the direct gaze of the nude woman it depicted.
在这之前的裸体画中
Previous nude paintings featured modest women
女子都很谦卑 避免将目光看向画师
who averted their gaze from the viewer.
然而裸体的玛哈却毫不羞怯
The Nude Maja, however, was unabashed.
戈雅在18世纪90年代后期转向了更为阴暗的主题
Goya switched to darker themes during the late 1790s,
就是在这时 他的一组由十一幅画组成的
which is when his fantasy and invention series,
富含幻想和创新的系列画作 诞生了
a set of eleven pictures, came to be.
他的《疯人院》暗示了当时的社会漠化
His Yard with Lunatics hints at social alienation.
这可能反映了当时他内心
Perhaps an indication of his inner fear as a result of
对自己正在经受的心理和生理疾病的害怕
the mental and physical illness he was recovering from at that point.
就在浪漫主义时代全面到来之后
It was well into the Romanticism era that
戈雅的版画《战争的灾难》面世了
Goya’s Disaster of War prints came to be.
评论家们把这看作是艺术家们
Critics described these as the artists protest against the atrocities
对半岛战争五月二日暴动中所犯暴行的控诉
perpetrated during the Dos de Mayo Rebellion in the Peninsular War.
这些版画将戈雅对暴乱的激愤表现得淋漓尽致
Goya’s outrage at what was happening is only too evident through these prints.
要真正理解浪漫主义
To truly understand Romanticism,
必须要明白 艺术家们希望通过这些作品
it is important to understand that these artists hope to share
将他们一些最深层次的情感表达出来
some of their deepest emotions through these works.
无论这种情感是出于精神实质
Whether the emotion was of a spiritual nature
还是出于肉体满足
or dealt with physical gratification.
无论主题是有形还是无形
Whether the subject was tangible or intangible,
艺术家们的目的都是赞颂它
the objective of the artist was to glorify it to
让它高于生命 超自然
make it larger than life, supernatural,
这样它就能得到他们认为应有的关注
so that it would get the attention he believed it deserved.
尽管英国和德国
Although Great Britain and Germany
被看作是浪漫主义艺术的中心
are believed to be the strongholds of romantic arts,
但实际上浪漫主义让想象力超越了现实的边界
this era left its mark on artists and art critics all over the world
对全世界的艺术家和艺术评论家都产生了影响
by elevating imagination far above realism.
以上内容是为了展示艺术除了表现力之外 还具有剖析力
These are to show that art could be interpretive and not just representative.
浪漫主义时代让艺术家们的
The era of Romanticism open artists’ minds
主题 技巧和风格不再局限于传统
to themes, techniques and styles that were less conventional,
并走向了高度个性化的手法
and encouraged a highly personal approach.
再见艺术学院

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视频概述

浪漫主义是艺术的一个重要部分

听录译者

半碗凉茶

翻译译者

Philovist

审核员

T

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=agK-qvtb6Mc

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