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共情是怎样改变世界的 – 译学馆
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共情是怎样改变世界的

Roman Krznaric: How Empathy Can Change the World

换位思考能力
The ability to put yourself on in someone else’s place
至晚在十八世纪就已经成为推动社会和政治变革的首要能力
has been at the forefront of social and political change at least since the 18th century.
它是社会和政治变革故事的一个组成部分
It’s an ingredient in the stories of social and political change
却常被我们遗忘
that we’re often forgetting
也被历史教科书排除在外
that’s being left out of the history textbooks.
我们可以回顾一下近三四百年来的人类历史
I think you can look back through the last three or four hundred years of human history
至少可以看到有许多共情之花绚烂绽放的瞬间 而这改变了政治格局
at least,can see moments of mass empathic flowering which have shifted the political landscape.
比如第二次世界大战时期英国的撤离活动
Take for example, evacuation in the Second World War in Britain.
有一百万名来自城市的孩子
1 million children were sent from the cities
被送到农村和省级的家庭 去和他们的寄养家庭生活在一起
to mostly rural and provincial homes, to live with foster families,
而相对富裕的农村人突然意识到
relatively well-off rural people suddenly had
他们家门口出现了城市贫困的事实
the reality of urban poverty on their doorsteps,
和看到这些来自伦敦 利物浦及其他城市的各街区的可怜的孩子
poor kids from the streets of London and Liverpool and other cities,
他们发现 这些孩子没有合适的衣服和鞋子
they saw them that they didn’t have proper clothes or shoes
他们长了虱子 患上佝偻病
they had lice, they had rickets
发生了什么?民众发动了大规模的政治变革
and what happened? There was mass political change,
在议会上提出很多问题
there were questions raised in Parliament
希望能够为孩子们谋求福利
for child welfare policies as a result of this
结果就是 政府几乎每次都是在当由于战争造成资源极其匮乏的时候
and the government extraordinarily acted almost immediately at a time
开展特别行动
when there was huge resource scarcity due to the war,
给孩子们提供更多的食物和药品供给
they expanded food and medical provision for children
所有这些措施都在福利国家得到了巩固
and all of this got solidified in the welfare state.
但在那些地方真正发生的是
But what really happened there was empathy
共情大规模地出现并改变着社会
occurring on a mass scale and changing society.
共情是想象的能力
Empathy is the imaginative capacity
就是把你自己放在其他人的位置上
to put yourself in the shoes of another person
通过其他人的眼睛去看世界
and look at the world through their eyes
人类的共情能力在大约两三岁时都会得到发展
all human beings develop this by the age of about 2 or 3
然后他们形成了两种不同的共情类型
and they develop two different types of empathy.
第一种是叫做情感共情
The first kind is what’s called affective empathy
映射或者分享其他人的反应
where you mirror or share somebody else’s response,
所以当你在一个孩子的脸上看到痛苦
so if you see anguish on a child’s face
而你也感到痛苦 这就是情感共情
and you too feel anguish, that’s affective empathy
另一种叫认知共情 或者叫观点采择
And the other kind of empathy is called cognitive empathy or perspective-taking empathy,
就是在你真正设身处地
that’s about where you’re really trying to imagine
去想象成为另一个人是怎么样的
what is it like to be another person
比如想象成为一个流浪汉
to be a homeless guy sleeping out rough
在寒冷的冬夜里露宿街头
on a cold winter’s night for example,
所以我认为在情感共鸣这个问题上
So I think there’s this problem with
过多关注情感共鸣 那种情绪化的共鸣
too much focus on affective empathy, that emotional empathy,
是因为你看到一张孩子受苦的照片
because yes you see a photograph of a child suffering
这张照片是你从报纸或者电视上了解到的
you know in the newspaper or on TV
并且不论通过情感共鸣或内疚或同情
and whether it’s through affective empathy or guilt or sympathy
所有类别的情感都让我们对这个个体做出了许多回应
all sorts of emotions make us respond a lot to the individual
当然如果我们想要创造一个更具道德的世界
and of course if we want to create a more moral world
我们需要实现道德关注的普遍化
we need to universalize our moral concern.
这就是认知共情所要做的
that’s what the cognitive empathy does
因为它允许我们去 迈出更大的一步
because it allows us to make that larger step
来避免变得如此冲动地参与到
away from just being so emotionally
个人所要做的一些略显冷漠的事
involved in one individual to do something a little bit cooler
并且它牵扯到这两者之间的状态转变
and it’s about moving between the two of these
使得我们可以非常简单地从个体向集体转变
and we can move from the individual to the collective quite easily
如果你思考一些事 像是电影《辛德勒名单》
and if you think of something like the film Schindler’s List,
纳粹支持者奥斯卡辛德勒 和一个犹太会计师做朋友
Oscar Schindler a Nazi sympathizer made friends with a Jewish accountant,
但是那一种关系和认知跳跃
but that one relationship and cognitive leap
允许他开始思考
allowed him to start thinking about well, what’s it like
对工厂的工人来说 生活是什么样的
and life like for all the workers in my factory?
所以共情的根本是关于做一个想象力的跳跃
So empathy is ultimately about making an imaginative leap,
并且如果你回想及理解亚当•斯密的道德感情理论
and if you go back and read Adam Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiments,
对于它是什么 亚当•斯密说得很好
he says well what is it
他认为 人类拥有道德基础
that human beings possess that is the basis for morality –
就是我们的能力 我们的想象能力
it’s our capacity, our imaginative capacity for the changing
能够让我们在多变的环境里体会不幸者
places in fancy with the sufferer’
我认为它是书中一个精彩的语句
as he put it which i think is a wonderful phrase.
实际上你需要去感同身受
You actually need to feel connected to
另一个人或者另一群人
another person or group of people
并且能够了解他们的观点
and to be able to see their perspective
那么你会意识到他们某些地方和你相似
so that you realize that they are something like you
但是这也会受到我们想象能力的限制
But of course there are limits to our imagitive capacities.
我可以想象到成为洛克菲勒的女继承人
Can I imagine what it’s like to be a Rockefeller heiress
或者成为厄瓜多尔雨林的僧人是什么样的吗?
or to be a shaman in the jungles of Ecuador?
不会 这的确很难 但是我可以尝试
No, it’s pretty difficult, but I can try.
我可以努力
I could make an effort,
这是一种能力或努力的意愿
and it’s that ability or that desire to make an effort
能够去取得真正有影响力的成就
which can really make a difference
我想如果你没有
I think if you don’t
把共情带入政治中 你会获得什么呢
bring empathy into politics, what do you get?
你会得到纳粹大屠杀
You get the Holocaust,
会得到像纽伦堡法的东西
you get things like the Nuremberg Laws
让你不管是犹太人或罗马人 人性都会走向泯灭
where you dehumanize people whether it’s Jews or Roma.
你会得到像在欧洲正渐渐崛起的右翼民粹主义
You get things like right-wing populism rising in Europe today
去对抗移民和难民
against immigrants and refugees
作为人类 在那里你看不到其他人
where you fail to see the other person as a human being
共情吸引着个人
Empathy appeals to the individual
因为它能够看到他人的观点
because being able to see someone else’s perspective
让我们运用在人际关系中
allows us to function in our relationships
和你的孩子或伙伴友好相处
to get on with your kids or to get on your partner
但是当你可以将共情上升到集体水平
but when you can ramp empathy up to the collective level
这时你就可以开始改变政策
that’s when you can start shifting politics
而缺少共情作为其核心内容
and you don’t get concern about human rights and social justice and so on
你就不会忧虑人权和社会正义等等
without empathy being at the heart of it.
历史的教训就是
The lesson of history is that
共情打开了我们道德关切的大门
empathy has opened the door of our moral concern
然后权利以及法律随着道德关切而出现并实现普遍化
and then rights and laws have come along and universalized that moral concern
他们所带来的道德关怀将更加永久
they’ve opened that door more permanently

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视频概述

共情不仅可以改变个体更可以改变世界

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翻译译者

Jakki

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JLHZ5BuCzJw

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