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请问我可以租用你的车吗? – 译学馆
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请问我可以租用你的车吗?

Robin Chase: Excuse me, may I rent your car?

翻译人员: Menglin Wang 校对人员: Bi Chen
Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast
十二年前,我创建了Zipcar公司。
Twelve years ago, I founded Zipcar.
Zipcar 购买汽车, 同时把它们投放到
Zipcar buys cars and parks them
人口稠密的市区,
throughout dense metropolitan areas
供人们使用,顾客们可以按小时或按天付费的方式使用我们的车,
for people to use, by the hour and by the day,
从而人们就可以不用拥有自己的汽车也有车用。
instead of owning their own cars.
我们每投入一辆Zipcar,就可以代替15 辆私人汽车,
Each Zipcar replaces 15 personal cars,
同时每个使用Zipcar汽车的人,其用车时间减少了大约80%,
and each driver drives about 80 percent less
因为他们现在要支付全部的有关费用,
because they’re now paying the full cost,
而且是立即支付!
all at once, in real time.
但 Zipcar 的真正的意义是使资源共享成为了一种模式
But what Zipcar really did was make sharing the norm.
现在,十年后,这种模式需要作一点改进。
Now, a decade later, it’s really time to push the envelope a little bit,
所以几年前, 我搬到了巴黎,
and so a couple years ago I moved to Paris
我丈夫和最小的小孩也随我来了,
with my husband and youngest child,
一年前,,我们创办了Buzzcar公司。
and we launched Buzzcar a year ago.
Buzzcar 的运作方式是让人们把闲置的车辆
Buzzcar lets people rent out their own cars
出租给自己的朋友和邻居。
to their friends and neighbors.
这样子,我们不再投资在车辆上,而是投在整个社区。
Instead of investing in a car, we invest in a community.
我们将原本是公司的运作方式
We bring the power of a corporation
转化为带着自己的汽车加入我们的社区网络的人们的个人行为。
to individuals who add their cars to the network.
有些人把这称之为群体共享。
Some people call this peer-to-peer.
这正体现了人性的发展
This does express the humanity of what’s going on,
和人与人之间的关系,
and the personal relationships,
但这也可以说是类似于
but that is also like saying that it’s the same thing
庭院旧货出售, 或是烘烤品义卖, 或是临时保姆。
as a yard sale or a bake sale or babysitting.
这就是群体共享。
That’s peer-to-peer.
这就像说庭院旧货出售和eBay一样,
It’s like saying yard sales are the same thing as eBay,
或小手工艺品交易会等同于Etsy 。
or craft fairs are the same thing as Etsy.
但所有一切的发生都源于我们拥有一个
But what’s really happening is that we’ve got the power
自由和开放的互联网,
of a free and open Internet,
在此基础上,我们建立了一个利于参与的平台,
and on top of that we’re putting a platform for participation,
而参与者与公司实际上成了合作伙伴关系,
and the peers are now in partnership with the company,
在共享的基础上创造着共同的价值,
creating shared value on shared values,
同时,相互取长补短.
and each strengthening the other, and doing what the other can’t do.
我把这一运作模式叫”群体共享公司”。
I call this Peers, Inc.
从公司构成方面来看,这种公司
The incorporated side, the company,
业绩显著。
is doing things that it does really well.
它有何成绩呢?它创建了规模经济,
What does it do really well? It creates economies of scale,
拉动了显著的、长远的资源投资,
significant and long-term resource investment,
为各色各类的合作者创立了一种可以参与的公司
the expertise of many different kinds of people
而这些合作都拥有多样的恩维方式, 同时对个人、
and different kinds of minds, and for individuals,
对消费者来说,它提供标准, 法规和索赔的权利,
consumers, it’s bringing the standards, rules and recourse
这一切都是我们作为消费者梦寐以求的,
that we really want as consumers,
这些都与”品牌承诺”紧密相关,
and this is kind of bound up in a brand promise,
这种公司为参与者们提供了一个参与的平台。
and the companies are providing this on a platform for participation.
这些参与的个体所能提供的东西和所能做的事情
Peers are giving and doing things
其投入之少是一般公司可望而不可及的。
that are incredibly expensive for companies to do.
它们带来了什么?它们带来难以想象的多元化,
What do they bring? They bring this fabulous diversity,
而一般公司要做到这点就要花投入巨资。那这又意味着什么呢?
expensive for companies. And what does that deliver?
这意味着产品服务本地化,具体化,
It delivers localization and customization,
专业化,揭开了社交网络的”面纱”,
specialization, and all of this aspect about social networks
为什么那么多的公司积极踊跌的参与进来呢?
and how companies are yearning and eager to get inside there?
对于我,这很自然。我和我的朋友们可以很容易的互相联络。
It’s natural for me. Me and my friends, I can connect to them easily.
更让人惊喜的是它鼓励创新的一面,
And it also delivers really fabulous innovation,
我会稍后再谈。
and I’ll talk about that later.
因此,我们有”群体共享”意识的人们提供着服务和产品,
So we have the peers that are providing the services and the product,
同时有公司做着它应该做的事情,
and the company that’s doing the stuff that companies do.
二者结合,为我们提供了一个完美的世界。
The two of these are delivering the best of both worlds.
下面是一些我最喜欢的案例:
Some of my favorite examples:
在交通业, 十年前, Carpooling.com (拼车公司网站)组建,
in transportation, Carpooling.com. Ten years old,
目前拥有350 万会员,
three and a half million people have joined up,
每天有1,000,000次的拼车纪录。
and a million rides are shared every day.
这是一件很了不起的事。1,000,000人相当于
It’s a phenomenal thing. It’s the equivalent
2,500列TGV 列车的满载量,
of 2,500 TGV trains,
试想想,公司不需要铺设一根轨道,也不需投入一辆小汽车.
and just think, they didn’t have to lay a track or buy a car.
这些业绩只是用那些过剩的生产力来取得的。
This is all happening with excess capacity.
这不仅仅存在于运输业, 亲爱的,
And it’s not just with transportation, my love,
当然还有其他领域。比如 Fiverr.com网络公司(5元公司)。
but of course in other realms. Here’s Fiverr.com.
在他们开业几周后,我拜见了那些创建者,
I met these founders just weeks after they had launched,
现在,两年后,你会用五美元做什么呢?
and now, in two years, what would you do for five dollars?
两年之后,75 万个小型音乐表演的信息张贴在这个网站上,
Seven hundred and fifty thousand gigs are now posted after two years,
人们会为5美元做什么呢?
what people would do for five dollars.
而且这些事情并不是轻而易举。
And not just easy things that anyone can do.
“群体共享"公司这个概念是个非常错综复杂的问题。
This Peers, Inc. concept is in a very difficult and complex realm.
TopCoder 有四十万工程师承担着
TopCoder has 400,000 engineers who are delivering
复杂的设计和工程服务工作。
complex design and engineering services.
当我跟他们的首席执行官讨论时,发现他有一个宏观的理念:
When I talked to their CEO, he had this great line.
他说,”其实我们任何一个社区都可以拥有一间自己的公司。”
He said, “We have a community that owns its own company.”
而我的最爱是 Etsy。
And then my all-time favorite, Etsy.
Etsy 提供了一个网上交易市场,
Etsy is providing goods that people make themselves
人们可以买卖他们手工制作的商品。
and they’re selling it in a marketplace.
它刚刚庆祝了开业七周年,
It just celebrated its seventh anniversary,
七年后,也就是去年, 它的全部会员的商品成交额达到
and after seven years, last year it delivered
5 亿 3000 万美元,
530 million dollars’ worth of sales to all those individuals
这些可以他们亲手制作的货物。
who have been making those objects.
在座的许多都是商人,
I know you guys out there who are businesspeople,
你们可能正在盘算:”上帝!我也想建立一个这样的公司。
are thinking, “Oh my God, I want to build one of those.
有这种令人难以置信的速度和规模发展,
I see this incredible speed and scale.
而你的意思是说我所要做的就是建这么个网上平台, 人们就会
You mean all I have to do is build a platform and all these people are going
把东西拿到上面来卖买,而我就可以什么都不做, 只等着钱滚滚而来?”
to put their stuff on top and I sit back and roll it in?”
建立这些平台让人们来参与并不是件简单的事情。
Building these platforms for participation are so nontrivial to do.
我总是在思考 Google 视频与 YouTube 的差异。
I think of the difference of Google Video versus YouTube.
谁会想到这两个年轻人, 一个刚刚起步的小公司
Who would have thought that two young guys and a start-up
会击败 Google 视频呢?为什么?
would beat out Google Video? Why?
我其实也不知道为什么。我没有跟他们谈过。
I actually have no idea why. I didn’t talk to them.
但我想,他们可能运用了
But I’m thinking, you know, they probably had
“共享”这个理念稍微好了一点,
the “share” button a little bit brighter and to the right,
因此使得群体与公司平台之间结合得更容易和紧密,
and so it was easier and more convenient for the two sides
从而把人们牢牢吸引?
that are always participating on these networks.
所以,我其实总结了很多关于建立群体共享平台
So I actually know a lot about building a peer platform now,
和公司的经验,因为我花了
and a Peers, Inc. company, because I’ve spent
过去的两年时间,在巴黎做着类似的事情。
the last two years doing that in Paris.
所以让我带你回到最初的话题,看一看
So let me take you back how it’s so incredibly different
建立 Buzzcar 与建立Zipcar 是多么的截然不同,
building Buzzcar than it was building Zipcar,
因为现在我们做每一件事都要考虑到两个
because now every single thing we do has these two
不同的主体,
different bodies that I have to be thinking about:
一方面是提供车的车主们,
the owners who are going to provide the cars
另一方面是来租车的司机们。
and the drivers who are going to rent them.
每一项决定,我都要考虑到两方面的利益得失。
Every single decision, I have to think about what is right for both sides.
有很多很多的例子,我给你举一个,
There are many, many examples and I’ll give you one
就是那个最让我头疼的例子: 保险。
that is not my favorite example: insurance.
我花了一年半的时间去搞定这个棘手的问题。
It took me a year and a half to get the insurance just right.
我走访了许多保险公司, 花去了大量的时间,
Hours and hours of sitting with insurers and many companies
和他们探讨风险问题和如何创立一套新的保险体系
and their thoughts about risk and how this is totally innovative,
(这种体系)他们以前想都没想过。
they’d never thought of it before.
商谈的过程太繁琐了, 我真的不想再想那些事了,我与律师一起,
Way too much money, I just can’t even go there, with lawyers,
试图找出这种保险有何不同,谁应向谁负责,
trying to figure out how this is different, who’s responsible to whom,
最终的结果是:我们可以为车主提供
and the result was that we were able to provide owners
保护他们自己的驾驶记录和自己的驾驶历史的保险。
protection for their own driving records and their own history.
在租赁期间, 车子获得全保,
The cars are completely insured during the rental,
和司机们的最大利益。那是什么呢?
and it gives drivers what they need, and what do they need?
他们需要最低的免赔额,
They need a low deductible,
和 24 小时救援服务。
and 24-hour roadside assistance.
这就是如何使双方满意的小例子。
So this was a trick to get these two sides.
所以,现在我们回到正题上来:
So now I want to take you to the moment of —
你是一名企业家,正要开办一个新的公司,
When you’re an entrepreneur, and you’ve started a new company,
上面提到的前期准备工作也已经齐备,
there’s the, here’s all the stuff we do beforehand,
然后公司开业大吉。然后会发生什么事呢?
and then the service launches. What happens?
所有这几个月准备的工作,开始发挥作用。
So all those months of work, they come into play.
去年六月一日,我们推出了我们的服务,那是一个令人兴奋的时刻。
Last June 1, we launched. It was an exciting moment.
所有车主都在我们的网站添加他们的汽车。真是激动人心。
And all the owners are adding their cars. It’s really exciting.
所有的未来租车人也成为了会员。真是太棒了。
All the drivers are becoming members. It’s excellent.
用车预订喷涌而来,同时
The reservations start coming in, and here,
车主也获得了短信和电子邮件
owners who were getting text messages and emails
说,”嘿,乔想这个周末租你的车,
that said, “Hey, Joe wants to rent your car for the weekend.
你可以赚 60 欧元。很棒吧?行还是不行?”
You can earn 60 euros. Isn’t that great? Yes or no?”
没有答复。好象很大一部分人都是这样,
No reply. Like, a huge proportion of them
就在他们签约承诺给予答复后没多久就消声匿迹了….
couldn’t be bothered after they had just started, they just signed up, to reply.
所以我想,”啊,罗宾,学着点,这就是
So I thought, “Duh, Robin, this is the difference between
工业生产和”群体共享”之间的区别。
industrial production and peer production.”
工业生产, 重点在于
Industrial production, the whole point of industrial production
提供一个标准化的, 完全一致的服务模式,
is to provide a standardized, exact service model
这就是每一次都一样,
that is consistent every single time,
我真的感激我的智能手机是通过
and I’m really thankful that my smartphone is made
工业生产制作的。
using industrial production.
同样,Zipcar 提供了一个很好的、 一致的服务
And Zipcar provides a very nice, consistent service
它运作得也很棒。
that works fabulously.
但群体共享做些什么呢?群体共享
But what does peer production do? Peer production
运作起来完全不同,
is this completely different way of doing things,
你有一个参差不齐的资源范畴,所以eBay 很聪明,
and you have a big quality range, and so eBay, cleverly,
这家最早的群体共享平台, 我认为,
the first peer production, Peer, Inc. company, I’d say,
他们早些时候想出对策,我们需要对参与者打分,
they figured out early on, we need to have ratings
写评语和揭露所有令人作呕的行为。
and commentaries and all that yucky side stuff.
我们可以给这些人加标识,冷落他们, 让
We can flag that and we can put it to the side, and people
买家和消费者不必理会他们。
who are buyers and consumers don’t have to deal with it.
所以回过头来看,这些才是我所认知的兴奋和喜悦,
So going back, this is my look of excitement and joy,
因为这一切的东西也是我所期望的,
because all this stuff that I’d also been hoping for
而且事实上确实出现了,那是什么呢?
actually really did happen, and what’s that?
就是这种多样性。
That is the diversity of what’s going on.
你有这些各式各样热情的车主们,
You have these different fabulous owners
和他们不同的汽车,不同的价格,
and their different cars, different prices,
来自不同的地区。(笑声)
different locations. (Laughter)
他们着装不同,长相各异,
They dress differently, and they look different,
而且,真的,每次看到这些照片我都爱不释手。
and, really, I love these photos every time I look at them.
很酷的家伙,兴奋的家伙,
Cool guys, excited guys,
这里是塞尔玛,— — 我很喜欢这个司机。
and here is Selma, who — I love this driver.
一年后,我们有 1000 辆汽车
And after a year, we have 1,000 cars
它们遍布整个法国和 6000 个
that are parked across France and 6,000 people
成员随时等待使用它们。
who are members and eager to drive them.
对于一个传统的公司来说,这种经济时尚
This would not be possible to do that in economic fashion
简直是天方夜谭。
for a traditional company.
返回到此座标轴,
Back to this spectrum.
到底发生了什么: 我们看到不好的一端,
So what’s happening is, we had the yuck side,
但我们其实还有非常出色的一面。
but we actually had this real wow side.
我可以告诉你两个动人的故事。
And I can tell you two great stories.
有个司机告诉我他们要租一辆车
A driver was telling me that they went to rent a car
去法国海岸游玩, 车主不但把车租给了他,
to go up the coast of France and the owner gave it to them,
并且告诉他那些悬崖在哪里,
and said, “You know what, here’s where the cliffs are,
哪里有海滩,哪里是我们最好的海滩,
and here’s all the beaches, and this is my best beach,
哪里是最好的海鲜餐厅。”
and this is where the best fish restaurant is.”
而且”群体共享”为
And the peers also become,
租车者和车主建立了友好的关系,
peers and owners create relationships,
因此,在最后一刻, 有人可以-
and so at the last minute people can —
例如一个司机可以说,”嘿,老兄,我真的需要用一下车,
a driver can say, “Hey, you know what, I really need the car,
行吗?” 车主会说:
is it available?” And that person will say,
“当然可以,,我妻子在家。你去问她拿钥匙。开走它。”
“Sure, my wife’s at home. Go pick up the keys. Go do it.”
因此你会遇到这些你以前没碰到过的好事,
So you can have these really nice things that can’t happen,
碰到这种事你肯定会说:”哇噻“的, 而且我想要说”哇!”
and it’s a kind of “Wow!” and I want to say “Wow!”
这种事情发生是因为个体化的原因。
type of thing that’s happening here, because individuals,
如果你是一家公司,有可能
if you’re a company, what happens is you might have
你也许有十个人负责创新,
10 people who are in charge of innovation,
或是一百人。
or 100 people who are in charge of innovation.
但是在群体共享这种模式下
What happens in Peer, Inc. companies is that you have
有成百上千甚至上百万的
tens and hundreds and thousands and even millions
人在此模式基础上实践着,
of people who are creating experiments on this model,
所以在此类影响和各方努力下,
and so out of all that influence and that effort,
你会有数以万计的新生事物
you are having this exceptional amount of innovation
孕育而生。
that is coming out.
所以其中原因之一,如果我们追溯为什么我会
So one of the reasons, if we come back to why did I
叫它Buzzcar?我想要提醒所有的人
call it Buzzcar? I wanted to remind all of us
有关蜂巢的力量,
about the power of the hive,
和创造这一平台令人难以置信容量
and its incredible facility to create this platform
它为每一个工蜂创建了参与与创新的平台。
that individuals want to participate and innovate on.
对我而言,当我想到我们公司的未来,
And for me, when I think about our future,
和所有的那些貌似非常棘手问题,
and all of those problems that seem incredibly large,
规模不可想象, 而且还非常紧迫,
the scale is impossible, the urgency is there,
“群体共享”公司不正提供了这种速度和规模,
Peers, Inc. provides the speed and scale
这种公司的改进和创新不正是问题之答案?
and the innovation and the creativity that is going to answer these problems.
我们所要做的就是建立这种有意义的平台让人们参与进来–不简单。
All we have to do is create a fabulous platform for participation — nontrivial.
于是, 我还在想,
So I continue to think that
交通是全球最令人头痛的问题。
transportation is the center of the hard universe.
所有问题都回到我的运输上面来。
All problems come back to transportation for me.
但这里还有许多其他领域的问题, 很深远,
But there are all these other areas that are these profound,
矛盾重重, 但我知道我们可以努力解决,
big problems that I know that we can work on,
而且人们正在为许多不同的部门探求着答案,
and people are working on them in many different sectors,
与此同时,我们发现了
but there’s this really fabulous group of things
“群体共享” 的神奇力量。
with the power of this Peers, Inc. model.
所以过去十年,我们已经沉迷在
So over the last decade, we’ve been reveling in
互联网的巨大魔力之中,亲眼目睹了个人的力量是如何变得万般强大,
the power of the Internet and how it’s empowered individuals,
对我来说,”群体共享” 公司
and for me, what Peers, Inc. does
实际上起到了推波助澜的效益。我们现在要集
is it takes it up a notch. We’re now bringing the power
大,小公司的资源
of the company and the corporation
和充分利用个体参与者的力量来进行公司的动作。
and supercharging individuals.
所以对我来说,这就是协作精神。
So for me, it’s a collaboration.
让我们一起努力吧!(掌声)
Together, we can. (Applause)
谢谢。(掌声)
Thank you. (Applause)

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