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贫民窟的未来

Robert Neuwirth: The "shadow cities" of the future

我为大家展示一些影像
Let me show you some images
一些我对城市未来的看法.
of what I consider to be the cities of tomorrow.
那就是基贝拉 内罗比最大的贫民窟.
So, that’s Kibera, the largest squatter community in Nairobi.
这些贫民区在桑贾伊甘地国家公园
This is the squatter community in Sanjay Gandhi National Park
在印度孟买 这被叫做当下孟买(Mumbai).
in Bombay, India, what’s called Mumbai these days.
这是Hosinia 最大最集中的贫民区
This is Hosinia, the largest and most urbanized favela
它在里约热内卢.
in Rio de Janeiro.
这里是苏丹贝利
And this is Sultanbelyi,
这儿是伊斯坦布尔最大的贫困社区.
which is one of the largest squatter communities in Istanbul.
我认为它们代表了城市的未来
They are what I consider to be the cities of tomorrow,
城市的新明天.
the new urban world.
我为什么要这么说?
Now, why do I say that?
下面我谈谈这家伙
To tell you about that I have to talk about this fellow here,
他的名字是Julius.
his name is Julius.
上周我住在基贝拉时遇见Julius.虽然
And I met Julius the last week that I was living in Kibera.
我住在这将近三个月
So, I had been there almost three months,
我在贫民窟的不同区域云游
and I was touring around the city going to different squatter areas
Julius尾随我
and Julius was tagging along, and he was bug eyed
睁大双眼通过交谈我们有着同样的忧虑
and at certain points we were walking around,
他抓紧我的手
he grabbed my hand for support,
以获得支持有些事是肯尼亚人永远不愿触及的事情.
which is something most Kenyans would never consider doing.
他们非常友好然而他们一直跟着我们.
They’re very polite and they don’t get so forward so quickly.
我找到内罗比后去了那 Julius还是头一次去
And I found out later that it was Julius’ first day in Nairobi,
他是少数中的一个.然而
and he’s one of many.
每天将近20人
So, close to 200,000 people a day
从乡下迁移到城市.
migrate from the rural to the urban areas.
我要公平的统计
That’s, and I’m going to be fair to the statisticians
谁在早上放话 每周并没有达到150万人
who talked this morning, not almost 1.5 million people a week,
而是近140万人 还有像我这样的新闻工作者
but almost 1.4 million people a week but I’m a journalist,
我们也会向城市扩张 因此每周将近150万人
and we exaggerate, so almost 1.5 million people a week,
每年大约有700万人.
close to 70 million people a year.
如果你精确计算 那就是每分钟是130人.因此
And if you do the math, that’s 130 people every minute.
那将是–我在这里演讲的18分钟
So, that’ll be — in the 18 minutes that I’m given to talk here,
就有2–3千人将前往这座城市.
between two and three thousand people will have journeyed to the cities.
这是统计.
And here are the statistics.
今天–十亿城市寄居者
Today — a billion squatters,
占到了六分之一的地球人口.
one in six people on the planet.
2030年–20亿
2030 — two billion squatters,
四分之一地球人口.
one in four people on the planet.
以此类推在2050年 这里将有三十亿城市寄居者
And the estimate is that in 2050, there’ll be three billion squatters,
超过三分之一的地球人口.因此
better than one in three people on earth.
这些城市的未来 我们要让他们参与进来.
So, these are the cities of the future, and we have to engage them.
今天早上我还在思考美好的生活
And I was thinking this morning of the good life,
在我向你陈述我的演讲前
and before I show you the rest of my presentation,
我将违反TED的规则
I’m going to violate TED rules here,
我将快速为你读一段我书中的精华.
and I’m going to read you something from my book as quickly as I can.
因为我觉得这些话是关于逆转我们的固有观念的
Because I think it says something about reversing our perception
它让我们反思 美好的生活指的是什么.
of what we think the good life is.
“小屋是用金属铁皮建造 安装在一个水泥衬垫上.
So — “The hut was made of corrugated metal, set on a concrete pad.
这是一个10米乘以10米的房间
It was a 10 by 10 cell.
Armstrong O’Brian Jr与其他三人合住.
Armstrong O’Brian, Jr. shared it with three other men.
Armstrong和他的朋友没有水了
Armstrong and his friends had no water —
他们买附近水龙头主人的水来使用.
they bought it from a nearby tap owner —
没有单独厕所 大家用着仅有的一个公共厕所
no toilet — the families in this compound shared a single pit-latrine —
没有排水管和清道夫.
and no sewers or sanitation.
他们有电力
They did have electricity,
但那是从别人电流里偷盗的非法电力
but it was illegal service tapped from someone else’s wires,
也仅能供应一个微薄的电灯泡.
and could only power one feeble bulb.
这就是南部地区一个小的可怕境地
This was Southland, a small shanty community
在内罗比 肯尼亚的西边.
on the western side of Nairobi, Kenya.
但并不是遍布整个城市
But it could’ve been anywhere in the city,
因为在内罗比超过一般的城市是这样生活的.
because more than half the city of Nairobi lives like this.
有150万人是生活在垃圾堆旁的小铁皮屋下
1.5 million people stuffed into mud or metal huts
不享受任何服务 没厕所 没有任何权利.
with no services, no toilets, no rights.
Armstrong解释了他们残酷现实的因由
“Armstrong explained the brutal reality of their situation:
他们付1500先令房租 大约20头公羊每个月
they paid 1,500 shillings in rent, about 20 bucks a month,
如此高额的佣金付给肯尼亚临时破社区
a relatively high price for a Kenyan shantytown,
然而他们无法承担起如此高额的费用.
and they could not afford to be late with the money.
如果你欠了一个月的房租 房东会和他的手下
‘In case you owe one month, the landlord will come with his henchmen
把你捆起来.他将没收你的东西 ‘Armstrong说.
and bundle you out. He will confiscate your things,’ Armstrong said.
不只是一个月 甚至一天 ‘他的室友Hilary Kibagendi Onsomu插话说道
‘Not one month, one day,’ his roommate Hilary Kibagendi Onsomu,
他在做饭 白玉米面糊糊
who was cooking ugali, the spongy white cornmeal concoction
这是这个国家的主食
that is the staple food in the country, cut into the conversation.
他们管房东叫Wabenzi 意思是他是一个
They called their landlord a Wabenzi, meaning that he is a person
有足够钱买得起奔驰车的人.
who has enough money to drive a Mercedes-Benz.
Hilary做着炸薯条和炸肉
Hilary served the ugali with a fry of meat and tomatoes;
太阳炙热的烤在小铁皮屋上
the sun slammed down on the thin steel roof;
我们汗流浃背.
and we perspired as we ate.
我们吃完后 Armstrong整理了下他的领带
“After we finished, Armstrong straightened his tie,
穿上一件羊毛运动夹克 我们的首领闪亮登场.
put on a wool sports jacket, and we headed out into the glare.
外边的垃圾山形成一道边界
Outside a mound of garbage formed the border
南部与临近的合法国度兰格塔.
between Southland and the adjacent legal neighborhood of Langata.
这大约有8英尺高 40英尺长 10英尺宽.
It was perhaps eight feet tall, 40 feet long, and 10 feet wide.
他座落在一个宽广的污水沟旁.
And it was set in a wider watery ooze.
当我们经过时两个男孩爬上了肯尼亚的垃圾堆.
As we passed, two boys were climbing the mount Kenya of trash.
他么肯定没超过五六岁.
They couldn’t have been more than five or six years old.
他们光着脚丫 每一步赤脚 脚趾陷入淤泥
They were barefoot, and with each step their toes sank into the muck
吵醒从腐臭堆散射的百只苍蝇
sending hundreds of flies scattering from the rancid pile.
我猜想他们是在玩躲猫猫
I thought they might be playing King of the Hill, but I was wrong.
但我错了.一个在顶山 另外一个男孩脱下他的裤子蹲下
Once atop the pile, one of the boys lowered his shorts,
便便.
squatted, and defecated.
苍蝇饥渴的围着男孩的腿打转.
The flies buzzed hungrily around his legs.
20个家庭–100个人左右–共用一个厕所
When 20 families — 100 people or so — share a single latrine,
一个男孩在垃圾堆里便便也许不是什么大问题.
a boy pooping on a garbage pile is perhaps no big thing.
但他形成鲜明对比
But it stood in jarring contrast
Armstrong曾经说过 正如我们吃的东西–
to something Armstrong had said as we were eating —
他的友邻在乎的是生活质量.
that he treasured the quality of life in his neighborhood.
Armstrong说 南部不能用物质条件来束缚人们.反之
“For Armstrong, Southland wasn’t constrained by its material conditions.
人们的精神辐射出
Instead, the human spirit radiated out
对薄铁皮屋和垃圾强的愤怒
from the metal walls and garbage heaps to offer something
你合法的友邻–向往自由.
no legal neighborhood could: freedom.
生活在这个地方非常成瘾 ‘他曾说过.
‘This place is very addictive,’ he had said.
这里生活很简单 没有人束缚你.
‘It’s a simple life, but nobody is restricting you.
没有人约束做任何事情.
Nobody is controlling what you do.
一旦你选择居住在这 你将无法回头.’
Once you have stayed here, you cannot go back.’
他指的是穿越那座垃圾山
He meant back beyond that mountain of trash,
回到合法的城市
back in the legal city, of legal buildings,
合法的建筑合法租赁和拥有法定权利.
with legal leases and legal rights.
‘一旦你选择居住在这
‘Once you have stayed here,’ he said,
‘他说你就会在此度过你剩余的生命.'”所以
‘you can stay for the rest of your life.'”
他曾有希望 这就是这些社区的开始.
So, he has hope, and this is where these communities start.
这也许是你可以在基贝拉找到的最原始的境地
This is perhaps the most primitive shanty that you can find in Kibera,
小泥巴屋旁的垃圾堆.
little more than a stick-and-mud hut next to a garbage heap.
这是为印度孟买的雨季所准备的.
This is getting ready for the monsoon in Bombay, India.
这也可以叫家居装饰.
This is home improvement:
把塑料布遮挡在你的屋顶上.
putting plastic tarps on your roof.
这里是里约热内卢 这个看起来好一点了
This is in Rio de Janeiro, and it’s getting a bit better, right?
对吧?我们能看到土陶泥和小残骸的迹象
We’re seeing scavenged terra cotta tile and little pieces of signs,
灰泥填满砖缝
and plaster over the brick, some color,
混杂的颜色这里是Sulay Montakaya在苏丹贝利的房子 这里看起来更像个家了.
and this is Sulay Montakaya’s house in Sultanbelyi, and it’s getting even better.
他修了一道篱笆 还清扫了院子.
He’s got a fence; he scavenged a door;
屋顶还填了新瓦片.
he’s got new tile on the roof.
当你在荷欣尼亚
And then you get Rocinha
你可以看到这里变化更大.
and you can see that it’s getting even better.
这里的高层建筑.
The buildings here are multi-story.
你可以看到这里的发展
They develop — you can see on the far right
从远处看起来只是堆栈房间
one where it seems to just stack on top of each other,
挨着房间 紧跟着还是房间.
room, after room, after room.
人们所做的就是和他们的家人生活得更贴近
And what people do is they develop their home on one or two stories,
他们出售他们的凉亭和屋顶产权
and they sell their loggia or roof rights,
房屋建造在别人的屋顶上
and someone else builds on top of their building,
当这个人出售他的屋顶产权时
and then that person sells the roof rights,
别人就可以合法累建了.
and someone else builds on top of their building.
建筑物是由钢筋混凝土和砖砌成.
All of these buildings are made out of reinforced concrete and brick.
当你到了苏丹贝利在土耳其 那里甚至建造了
And then you get Sultanbelyi, in Turkey, where it’s even built
一个高水准设计.
to a higher level of design.
眼前的杂物是床垫的填充物
The crud in the front is mattress stuffing,
这在土耳其到处可见.
and you see that all over Turkey.
人们在屋顶晒干燥或者潮湿的床垫填充物.
People dry out or air out their mattress stuffing on their roofs.
但在后边的这些建筑
But the green building, on behind,
你可以看到他们的屋顶是没有任何的杂物
you can see that the top floor is not occupied,
人们正在建设的可能性的扩张.
so people are building with the possibility of expansion.
然后建成一个高水准的设计.
And it’s built to a pretty high standard of design.
最后社区将会是这个样子
And then you finally get squatter homes like this,
这是建在郊区的样板房.看
which is built on the suburban model.
那是单独家庭的社区.
Hey, that’s a single family home in the squatter community.
这仍然是在伊斯坦布尔
That’s also in Istanbul, Turkey.
土耳其.这些社区对他们来说是非常重要的地方.
They’re quite vital places, these communities.
这是荷欣尼亚的交通要到 在埃斯特拉达
This is the main drag of Rocinha, the Estrada da Gavea,
这儿是公交路线.在这穿行着
and there’s a bus route that runs through it,
许多人露宿街头.
lots of people out on the street.
这些社区在城市里实际上是至关重要的
These communities in these cities are actually more vital
比起非法社区.
than the illegal communities.
他还有更多的作用.
They have more things going on in them.
这是一个典型的山路在荷欣尼亚被叫做小塔楼–
This is a typical pathway in Rocinha called a “beco” —
这些都是让你如何到达周围的社区.
these are how you get around the community.
这里地面非常陡峭.
It’s on very steep ground.
他们被建在山上 在里约的海滩内陆
They’re built on the hills, inland from the beaches in Rio,
你可以看到那房子仅仅是大自然的悬臂障碍物.所以
and you can see that the houses are just cantilevered over the natural obstructions.
这只是在山坡上的岩石.
So, that’s just a rock in the hillside.
这些小塔楼屋通常都很集中
And these becos are normally very crowded,
人们运输各种家具
and people hump furniture up them, or refrigerators up them,
冰箱各种各样的生活用品.
all sorts of things.
啤酒都是被抗上来的.
Beer is all carried in on your shoulders.
啤酒对巴西人很重要
Beer is a very important thing in Brazil.
在肯尼亚这是一项生财之道 沿著火车铁轨
This is commerce in Kenya, right along the train tracks,
靠近火车站台这里的商人们
so close to the train tracks that the merchants
有时不得不把商品拿到偏僻的地方出售.
sometimes have to pull the merchandise out of the way.
这是一个交易集市 在肯尼亚
This is a marketplace, also in Kenya, Toi Market,
电话市场许多商家 在这里你几乎可以买到所有你想要的东西.
lots of dealers, in almost everything you want to buy.
这些绿色显眼的东西是芒果.
Those green things in the foreground are mangoes.
这是基贝拉的商业街
This is a shopping street in Kibera,
你可以看到汽水经销商
and you can see that there’s a soda dealer, a health clinic,
诊所两个美容院、酒吧、两个杂货店 和一所教堂
two beauty salons, a bar, two grocery stores, and a church, and more.
还有更多.这是典型的市中心 但恰恰是自建房屋.看这里
It’s a typical downtown street; it just happens to be self-built.
右手边上
This here, on the right-hand side,
也就是我们所说的–如果你仔细看大棚下的小字–
is what’s called a — if you look at the fine print under the awning —
是一间客栈.
it’s a hotel.
在肯尼亚和印度客栈的意思是 是吃饭的地方.因此
And what hotel means, in Kenya and India, is an eating-place.
这是一家餐馆.
So, that’s a restaurant.
这里是里约人们普遍偷盗电力.
People steal electrical power — this is Rio.
人们管盗电的人叫做蟑螂或者蟋蟀
People tap in and they have thieves who are called “grillos” or “crickets,”
他们偷盗电力
and they steal the electrical power
然后给邻居安装电线.
and wire the neighborhood.
他们用焚烧来处理垃圾
People burn trash to get rid of the garbage,
他们自己挖掘下水道.
and they dig their own sewer channels.
比起浮游生物更令人头疼是塑料袋
Talk about more plastic bags than plankton.
然而有时他们具有天然的垃圾处理器.
And sometimes they have natural trash-disposal.
当他们些小钱的时候便会维修社区设施
And when they have more money they cement their streets,
维修下水道和安装水泵
and they put in sewers and good water pipes, and stuff like that.
诸如此类.这里是去往里约的水域 人们接通了所有的自来水管道
This is water going to Rio. People run their water pipes all over the place,
那儿有一个小木屋 那就是人们所做的.
and that little hut right there has a pump in it, and that’s what people do:
他们偷盗电力
they steal electricity; they install a pump
安装水泵挖掘给水总管道 排压到每户人家因此
and they tap into the water main, and pump water up to their houses.
问题在于你如何从脏乱的小村庄
So, the question is how do you go from the mud-hut village,
发展到一个城市 甚至是高度发达的苏丹贝利吗?
to the more developed city, to the even highly developed Sultanbelyi?
这里我说两件事
I say there are two things.
一个人要保证它们不会被逐出.
One is people need a guarantee they won’t be evicted.
这并不一定意味着产权
That does not necessarily mean property rights,
在这个问题上我不会同意 Hernando de Soto的观点
and I would disagree with Hernando de Soto on that question,
因为财产权存在着很多并发症
because property rights create a lot of complications.
他们是最常被出售给他人 人们就会欠下债务和1
They’re most often sold to people, and people then wind up in debt
必须偿还债务
and have to pay back the debt,
有时不得不卖掉他们的财产
and sometimes have to sell their property
来偿还债务.
in order to pay back the debt.
这存在着各种不定因素
There’s a whole variety of other reasons why property rights
财产权有时候是不管用的
sometimes don’t work in these cases,
但他们需要保障.
but they do need security of tenure.
然而他们需要获得政治 这意味著两件事.
And they need access to politics, and that can mean two things.
这就意味着服从社区组织
That can mean community organizing from below,
但它也可能代表着上级的可能性.
but it can also mean possibilities from above.
我之所以这样说是因为这个系统在Turkey是显著的.
And I say that because the system in Turkey is notable.
土耳其有两大法律保护房屋.
Turkey has two great laws that protect squatters.
一是–这是一种被称为棚户在土耳其
One is that — it’s called “gecekondu” in Turkish,
这意味着一夜间建立起来的 并且如果你建立你的房子
which means “built overnight,” and if you build your house overnight
在土耳其 没有正当的法律程序你是不能被驱逐出城的
in Turkey, you can’t be evicted without due process of law,
前提是他们在夜间并没有抓到你.
if they don’t catch you during the night.
第二个方面是一旦你有2千人拥护者
And the second aspect is that once you have 2,000 people
在社区里 你可以向政府申请
in the community, you can petition the government
成立子城市
to be recognized as a legal sub-municipality.
当申请获得批准后 你瞬间就有了政治权利.
And when you’re a legal sub-municipality, you suddenly have politics.
你将拥有选举权
You’re allowed to have an elected government, collect taxes,
可以征税提供市政服务 而这正是他们所做的工作.看
provide municipal services, and that’s exactly what they do.
这是未来的领袖.
So, these are the civic leaders of the future.
中间的那个女人是Geeta
The woman in the center is Geeta Jiwa.
Jiwa.她住在孟买高速公路上的一个帐篷理.
She lives in one of those tents on the highway median in Mumbai.
那是Sureka Gundi 她和家人住在一起
That’s Sureka Gundi; she also lives with her family
沿公路上的数个帐篷.
on the tent along the same highway median.
他们非常坦率.也非常活跃.
They’re very outspoken. They’re very active.
他们是这个社区的领导.
They can be community leaders.
这个女人是Nine 她奶奶在土耳其.
This woman is Nine, which means “grandma” in Turkish.
和三个老太太住在一起–
And there were three old ladies who lived in —
后边就是她自己建的房屋–他们已经在那生活了三四十年了
that’s her self-built house behind her — and they’ve lived there for 30 or 40 years,
他们是社区里的骨干.
and they are the backbone of the community there.
这位是Richard Muthama
This is Richard Muthama Peter,
Peter他是基贝拉的街拍摄影师.
and he is an itinerant street photographer in Kibera.
他为邻居拍照赚钱
He makes money taking pictures of the neighborhood,
对于街坊邻居
and the people in the neighborhood,
这是一个巨大的资源最后
and is a great resource in the community.
我选择的竞选市长在里约
And finally my choice to run for mayor of Rio is Cezinio,
水果商和他的两个孩子
the fruit merchant with his two kids here,
一个我不怎么了解的坦率和及有爱心的男士.
and a more honest and giving and caring man I don’t know.
未来社区的人们
The future of these communities is in the people
我们尽所能与这些人一起工作.因此
and in our ability to work with those people.
我认为我带来的这些信息 是来自于我对这本书的理解
So, I think the message I take, from what I read from the book,
Armstrong说
from what Armstrong said, and from all these people,
这些人这些街坊邻居.
is that these are neighborhoods.
问题不在于城市贫困与否.
The issue is not urban poverty.
问题也不是着急就可以解决的.
The issue is not the larger, over-arching thing.
问题是我们要接受这是一个社区.
The issue is for us to recognize that these are neighborhoods —
这是一个合法的形式的城市发展
this is a legitimate form of urban development —
然而城市需要对公民承诺
and that cities have to engage these residents,
因为这关系到城市的未来.
because they are building the cities of the future.
非常感谢.
Thank you very much.

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