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机器人能从蟑螂身上学到什么?

Robert Full: The secrets of nature's grossest creatures, channeled into robots

连大自然最恶心的生物
Even nature’s most disgusting creatures
都有着重要的秘密
have important secrets,
但谁会想要一群蟑螂
but who would want a swarm of cockroaches
向他们走来?
coming towards them?
然而 在自然和人类技术之间最大的区别之一
Yet one of the greatest differences between natural and human technologies
与稳健性有关
relates to robustness.
稳健系统是复杂而稳定的
Robust systems are stable and complex
在新环境中也是如此
and new environments.
值得注意的是 蟑螂可以自我稳定
Remarkably, cockroaches can self-stabilize
在崎岖的地形上奔跑
running over rough terrain.
当我们把喷气背包放在他们身上
When we put a jet pack on them,
或者给他们像地震一样的扰动
or give them a perturbation like an earthquake,
我们发现他们那神奇的可调整的腿
we discovered that their wonderfully tuned legs
让他们自我稳定
allow them to self-stabilize
而它们不必使用他们任何的智力
without using any of their brainpower.
就可以穿越复杂的地形如草
They can go over complex terrain like grass,
没问题 不会晃动
no problem, and not get destabilized.
我们发现了一个新的行为
We discovered a new behavior where,
因为他们的形状
because of their shape,
他们自动侧身滚动
they actually roll automatically to their side
穿过这个人工的草地
to go through this artificial test bit of grass.
健壮稳定的系统可以执行多个任务
Robust systems can perform multiple tasks
用相同结构
with the same structure.
这里有一个新的行为 我们发现
Here’s a new behavior we’ve discovered.
动物迅速反转消失
The animals rapidly invert and disappear
在不到150毫秒-你从来没有看到他们—
in less than 150 milliseconds — you never see them —
使用相同的结构 他们跑 他们的腿
using the same structures that they use to run, their legs.
他们可以倒立
They can run upside down
在杆、枝和线上非常迅速
very rapidly on rods, branches and wires,
如果你感到一个枝桠
and if you perturb one of those branches,
他们能做到这一点
they can do this.
他们可以进行体操动作
They can perform gymnastic maneuvers
像我们还没有的机器人
like no robot we have yet.
他们几乎无限
And they have nearly unlimited
同一结构的操纵性
maneuverability with that same structure
和前所未有的访问各种
and unprecedented access to a variety
不同地区
of different areas.
他们有翅膀飞行时 他们得到温暖
They have wings for flying when they get warm,
但他们用同样的翅膀翻转
but they use those same wings to flip over
如果他们不稳定
if they get destabilized.
非常有效
Very effective.
稳健系统也可以容错和保证故障安全
Robust systems are also fault tolerant and fail-safe.
这是蟑螂的脚
This is the foot of a cockroach.
它有刺 胶垫和爪
It has spines, gluey pads and claws,
但如果你把那些脚
but if you take off those feet,
他们仍然可以走过崎岖的地形
they can still go over rough terrain,
像底部的视频 你看到
like the bottom video that you see,
几乎不放慢 非凡
without hardly slowing down. Extraordinary.
他们可以运行网格没有他们的脚
They can run up mesh without their feet.
这是一个动物使用正常 交替三脚架:
Here’s an animal using a normal, alternating tripod:
三条腿 三条腿 三条腿
three legs, three legs, three legs,
但在自然界中 昆虫经常失去双腿
but in nature, the insects often have lost their legs.
这里有一个移动两个中间腿走了
Here’s one moving with two middle legs gone.
它甚至可以失去三条腿 在三脚架
It can even lose three legs, in a tripod,
采用新的步态 跳跃的步态
and adopt a new gait, a hopping gait.
我指出 所有这些视频
And I point out that all of these videos
减速20次
are slowed down 20 times,
所以他们真的很快 当你看到这个
so they’re actually really fast, when you see this.
稳健系统也是抗损伤的
Robust systems are also damage resistant.
这是一只爬上墙的动物
Here’s an animal climbing up a wall.
它看起来像一个快速 平稳 垂直攀登
It looks like a rapid, smooth, vertical climb,
但当你放慢脚步
but when you slow it down,
你看到了非常不同的东西
you see something very different.
以下是他们所做的
Here’s what they do.
他们故意迎头相撞墙
They intentionally have a head-on collision with the wall
所以他们不放慢速度 便爬上墙
so they don’t slow down and can transition up it
在75毫秒
in 75 milliseconds.
他们可以这样做的一部分 因为他们有
And they can do this in part because they have
超出寻常的骨架
extra ordinary exoskeletons.
他们真的只是由柔顺的关节组成
And they’re really just made up of compliant joints
那是管子和盘子
that are tubes and plates
彼此相连
connected to one another.
这是一只蟑螂腹部的解剖
Here’s a dissection of an abdomen of a cockroach.
你看这些板块 你看到柔性膜
You see these plates, and you see the compliant membrane.
我在伯克利的工程同事
My engineering colleague at Berkeley
与他的学生设计
designed with his students
一种新型制造技术
a novel manufacturing technique
你基本上折纸外骨骼
where you essentially origami the exoskeleton,
你激光切割它 层压它
you laser cut it, laminate it,
你把它折叠成一个机器人
and you fold it up into a robot.
现在你可以在不到15分钟的时间
And you can do that now in less than 15 minutes.
这些机器人 叫做短跑
These robots, called DASH,
动态自治躺足
for Dynamic Autonomous Sprawled Hexapod,
是高度兼容的机器人
are highly compliant robots,
他们是非常强大的结果
and they’re remarkably robust as a result
这些特征
of these features.
他们肯定是令人难以置信的损害抵抗
They’re certainly incredibly damage resistant.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
他们甚至有一些蟑螂的行为
They even have some of the behaviors of the cockroaches.
所以他们可以使用他们聪明 顺从的身体
So they can use their smart, compliant body
爬上墙
to transition up a wall
以非常简单的方式
in a very simple way.
他们甚至有一些开始
They even have some of the beginnings
行为的快速反演
of the rapid inversion behavior
它们消失的地方
where they disappear.
现在我们想知道为什么他们可以去任何地方
Now we want to know why they can go anywhere.
我们发现他们可以通过
We discovered that they can go through
三毫米缝隙
three-millimeter gaps,
两便士的高度 两个堆叠的便士
the height of two pennies, two stacked pennies,
当他们这样做
and when they do this,
他们实际上可以通过这些密闭空间
they can actually run through those confined spaces
在高速
at high speeds,
虽然你从未见过
although you never see it.
更好地理解它
To understand it better,
我们做了CT扫描的外骨骼
we did a CT scan of the exoskeleton
并表明他们可以压缩自己的身体
and showed that they can compress their body
超过百分之40
by over 40 percent.
我们把它们放在材料试验机
We put them in a materials testing machine
应力应变分析
to look at the stress strain analysis
并表明他们可以承受的力量
and showed that they can withstand forces
体重的800倍
800 times their body weight,
之后 他们可以飞和运行
and after this they can fly and run
绝对正常
absolutely normally.
所以你永远不知道哪里
So you never know where
以好奇心为基础的研究将会把你带去哪里
curiosity-based research will lead,
有一天你可能想要一群
and someday you may want a swarm
由蟑螂启发的机器人
of cockroach-inspired robots
来到你身边
to come at you.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
谢谢
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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视频概述

自然界中的小生物能给仿生机器人的研究带来很大启发!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

lizao

审核员

赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ekUh9AW1hKg

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