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编辑基因的危害 设计婴儿 – 译学馆
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编辑基因的危害 设计婴儿

Richard Dawkins: The Dangers of CRISPR, Designer Babies, and Artificial Genetic Mutation

我坚信预防原则
I think it’s – I’m a believer in the precautionary principle as I’ve just said,
我想我们需要担心的是 我们所做之事可能出现的结果
and I think we have to worry about possible consequences of things that we do,
其中之一 就是利用改造基因组的能力所造成的后果
and the ability to edit our own genomes is one thing we ought to worry about.
我并不认为这是道德层面的问题 它事实上是一个更为现实的问题
I’m not sure it’s so much an ethical problem as a more practical problem.
后果可能是什么?
What would the consequences be?
后果是否会很糟糕?
Would the consequences be bad?
确实有可能产生不良影响
And they might be.
我认为值得注意的是 早在很久以前CRISPR就成为编辑我们基因组的途径
I think it’s worth noticing that long before CRISPR long before it became capable of editing our genomes.
不管怎么说 我们现在一直在利用人工选择编辑家畜和植物的基因组
In anyway we have been editing the genomes of domestic animals and plants by artificial selection,
而非通过克隆手段 不过我们现在所探讨的
not artificial mutation, which is what we’re now talking about,
并不是这种人工的选择基因组方式
but artificial selection.
你认为北京哈巴狗是一匹狼 一匹经过基因改良的狼
When you think that a Pekingese is a wolf, a modified wolf, a genetically modified wolf
这种并非是直接人为操控基因
modified not by directly manipulating genes
而是选择具有某些特点的个体
but by choosing for breeding individuals who have certain characteristics,
比如 短小粗壮的鼻子等等 然后再将一头狼变成的北京哈巴狗
for example small snub-nosed etc and making a wolf turn into a Pekingese.
我们用牲畜比如狗 牛
And we’ve been doing that very successfully with domestic animals like dogs, cows,
植物像玉米已经成功实现了这一点 但我们从未也很难对人那样做
domestic plants like maize for a long time, we’ve never done that to humans or hardly at all.
希特勒曾经试过 但我很高兴从未真正在人身上成功过
Hitler tried it but it’s never really been properly done with humans I’m glad to say.
所以我们对人实验 如果永远不能用简单人工选择法成功
So if we’ve never done that with humans with the easy way, which is artificial selection,
那就很显然 为什么我们要突然开始用困难的方法实现编辑基因组
it’s not obvious why we would suddenly start doing it the difficult way,
也就是直接进行基因操控
which is by direct genetic manipulation.
过去的几个世纪人们并没有对编辑基因有太大的渴望
There doesn’t seem to be any great eagerness to do it over the last few centuries anyway.
许多人在培养孩子上遇到困难
A lot of people have problems with what they call designer babies.
你可以想象一个未来的画面 人们就医
You could imagine a future scenario in which people go to a doctor
和医生说:“医生 我们希望我们的孩子是一个音乐天才
and say, “Doctor, we want our baby to be a musical genius.
请把基因编辑成和巴赫家族的一样
Please edit the genes so that we have the same genes as the Bach family had
或者重组成可以让孩子成为音乐奇才的基因”
or something like that to make them into a musical genius.”
我想那会震惊很多人
I mean that horrifies many people.
这就不难看出为什么编辑基因让很多人惶恐 除了那些
It’s got totally obvious why that’s anymore horrifying than parents
对孩子音乐未来野心勃勃的家长外
who are ambitious for the musical future of their child
他们强迫孩子每天练3个小时钢琴
forcing the child to practice the piano three hours a day.
当然这里面也有区别 强迫弹琴也许会令孩子不愉快
There are differences, of course, forcing it to practice is maybe unpleasant for the child
但是它不会对下一代有影响
but it doesn’t go into the next generation,
改变基因就完全不同了
changing the genes does so there is a difference there.
至少人们对着一个被编辑了音乐基因的婴儿会感到害怕
But at least people who shudder with horror at a designer baby who’s a musical genius,
可为什么你会对强迫一个孩子
people who shudder with horror at that, why don’t you shudder with horror at forcing a child
去上音乐课或者在他不想的时候 强迫他练音乐
to have music lessons when it doesn’t want to or practice music
而无动于衷
when it doesn’t want to?
我认为尽管在技术发展和生物发展间有一个类比
I think although there is an analogy between technological evolution and biological evolution,
把这个类比推的很远会很危险
it’s dangerous to push that analogy too far.
我只是在谴责一个观念 所有人都是专家
I’ve just been decrying the view that everybody is an expert.
我就不是技术方面的专家
And I’m not an expert in technology
并且我认为每位科学家都应该不知为不知
and I think that every scientist needs to admit when they don’t know.
有一个类比 事情都是逐渐在发生改变的 飞机的发展
The analogy is there, things change gradually, the evolution of the airplane starting from
从20世纪初的怀特兄弟到现在
the Wright brothers in the beginning of the 20th century until the present,
发展迅速 但是却还是处在渐进演变的过程中
it’s been spectacularly fast but it is gradual evolution
某种程度上 这有点类似于生物进化
and it looks, to some extent, like biological evolution.
但是这是否是自然选择 还有待讨论
But whether it occurs by natural selection that’s open to argument.
你可以说这是因一种自然选择形式
You could say that it does occur by a form of natural selection,
但却不完全等同于自然选择
but it’s not the same kind of natural selection.
所以我并不认为自己是一名生物进化论者
So I don’t regard myself as a biological evolutionist
就像我也不认为自己有资格讨论技术进化论
as qualified to talk about technological evolution.
不过我对这个类比很有兴趣
I’m interested in the analogy
但我认为这只是个类比 不会产生太大的影响
but I think it only is an analogy and it doesn’t go too far.

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通过举例论证与对比论证,分析编辑基因的优劣之处,同时对设计婴儿这一话题进行阐述

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wvCYLhu6JoM

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