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Richard Baraniuk谈开源学习 – 译学馆
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Richard Baraniuk谈开源学习

Richard Baraniuk on open-source learning

I’m Rich Baraniuk and what I’d
我叫Rich Baraniuk.
like to talk a little bit about today
今天我想谈的是我的一些看法
are some ideas that I think have just tremendous resonance
我觉得它们可以和过去两天中
with all the things that have been talked about the last two days.
大家讨论的问题产生巨大的共鸣
So many different points
事实上 有许多的不同的共鸣点
of resonance that it’s going to be difficult to bring them all up,
很难把它们一一涉及
but I’ll try to do my best.
但我会尽力
Does anybody remember these?
大家还记得这些吗?
(Laughter)
(笑声)
OK, so these are LP records and they’ve been replaced, right?
是的 这些都是LP大碟 它们都已经被取代了
They’ve been swept away over the last two decades
过去40年中 它们已经被席卷殆尽
by these types of world-flattening digitization technologies, right?
取而代之的是使世界扁平化的数字化技术
And I think it was best witnessed
而且我认为这件事最好的证明
when Thomas was playing the music as we came in the room today.
是我们今天走进会场的时候 托马斯在演奏音乐
What’s happened in the music world is there’s a culture,
在音乐世界 所发生的是有一种文化
or an ecosystem that’s been created that,
或是一种生态系统已经建立
if you take some words from Apple,
如果你愿意采用苹果公司的一些说法
the catchphrase — that we create, rip, mix and burn.
就会学到一些时髦词 比如我们创造 翻录 混合并烧录音乐
What I mean by that is
我想指出的是
that anyone in the world is free and allowed
世界上任何人都可以自由地
to create new music and musical ideas.
创造新的音乐和有关音乐的想法
Anyone in the world is allowed
世界上任何人都可以翻录或复制
to rip or copy musical ideas,
音乐的想法
use them in innovative ways.
以创新的方式使用它们
Anyone is allowed to mix them in different types of ways,
任何人都可以以不同的方式混合它们
draw connections between musical ideas,
在音乐灵感之间建立联系 另外人们可以
and people can burn them or create final products and continue the circle.
刻录或是创造的最终产品 循环往复 这样做所达到
And what that’s done is it’s created, like I said,
的效果就是 像我所说的 创造了一个充满活力的社会
a vibrant community that’s very inclusive,
它有很大的包容性
with people continually working to connect musical ideas,
使音乐人可以连续不断将音乐理念联系起来
innovate them and keep things constantly up to date.
创新 并使之不断更新
Today’s hit single is not last year’s hit single.
今天的热门单曲不再是去年的热门单曲
But I’m not here to talk about music today.
不过 我今天来这里不是要谈论音乐
I’m here to talk about books.
我来这里是要谈谈书籍
In particular, textbooks and the kind of educational materials
特别是课本及其他教材
that we use every day in school.
我们每天上学都使用的东西
Has anyone here ever been to school?
在座的各位有没有人上过学?
(Laughter)
(笑声)
OK, does anybody realize there’s a crisis in our schools,
好 大家知不知道我们的学校面临一场危机?
around the world?
世界各地的学校都如此?
I’m not going to spend too much time on that,
我希望我无需花费太多时间说这事儿
but what I want to talk
但我想谈的是
about is some of the disconnects
当作者出版了
that appear when an author publishes a book.
一本书后所出现的一些断裂
That in fact, the publishing process —
事实上 谈及出版过程——
just because of the fact that it’s complicated,
正因为出版过程相当复杂
it’s heavy, books are expensive —
书籍沉重 而且书籍价格昂贵等这些事实——
creates a sort of a wall between authors of books
结果造成了一本书的作者
and the ultimate users of books, be they teachers,
和终极读者之间的一堵墙 不论这些最终用户是
students or just general readers.
教师、学生 或只是一般读者
And this is even more true
而且
if you happen to speak a language
如果恰好你所使用的语言
other than one of the world’s major languages, and especially English.
不是世界的主要语言之一 尤其英语 就更会遇到这种情况
I’m going to call these people below the barrier”shutouts”
我把这些人成为隔离障碍之下的人
because they’re really shut out of the process
因为他们真的是无法进入
of being able to share their knowledge with the world.
与全世界分享他们知识的这一进程
And so what I want to talk
所以我今天想谈的
about today is trying to take these ideas
就是试图把这些想法 对 就是我们今天
that we’ve seen in the musical culture
所看到的音乐文化的表现
and try to bring these towards reinventing the way
并努力重新塑造
we think about writing books, using them and teaching from them. So,
我们对写书 用书和教书的看法
that’s what I’d like to talk about and, really,
是的 这就是我想谈的 以及
how we get from where we are now
我们如何从我们目前的位置 到达我们希望
to where we need to go.
到达的目的地?
The first thing I’d like you to do is a little thought experiment.
因此 我希望大家做的第一件事就是做一些思维实验
Imagine taking all the world’s books. OK,
所以大家想象一下世界上所有的书籍
everybody imagine books and imagine just tearing out the pages. So,
对 大家都要想象一下书 并想象把书页撕开
liberating these pages
解放这些书页
and imagine digitizing them and then storing them
将它们数字化 然后把它们储存
in a vast, interconnected, global repository.
在一个巨大的 相互连接的 全球存储库中
Think of it as a massive iTunes for book-type content.
可以把它看成是一个巨大的iTunes 对 是存储书籍的内容的iTunes
And then take that material and imagine making it all open,
然后想象把所有的材料都(对众)开放
so that people can modify it, play with it, improve it.
这样人们可以修改它 使用它
Imagine making it free,
完善它想象使它免费
so that anyone
这样世界上的任何人
in the world can have access to all of this knowledge,
都可以访问 所有这些知识
and imagine using information technology
并利用信息技术
so that you can update this content,
这样你就可以更新这里的内容改进它
improve it, play with it,
使用它
on a timescale that’s more on the order of seconds instead of years.
每分每秒都可以做这些事情 而不是动不动就花几年的时间修订某个内容 这样
Instead of editions of a book coming out every two years,
新版本就无需每两年出一次了 大家可以想象
imagine them coming out every 25 seconds. So,
每25秒就可以有新版 好的
imagine we could do that and
想象我们可以这样做
imagine we could put people into this.
并想象我们让人们参与进来
So that we could truly build an ecosystem
这样我们就可以真正建立一个生态系统
with not just authors,
不仅与作者
but all the people who could
而是与所有可以或想
be or want to be authors
成为作者的人
in all the different languages of the world,
使用世界上任何语言
and I think if you could do this,
我认为 如果大家可以做到这一点 那么我们可以将其称作
it would be called —

I’m just going to refer to it as a knowledge ecosystem. So,
我暂时就称之为知识生态系统
really, this is the dream,
所以 真的 这是我的梦想
and in a sense what you can think
在某种意义上说
of it is we’re trying to enable anyone in the world,
你可以认为我们正在努力使全世界的人
I mean anyone in the world —
我的意思是世界上任何人
(Laughter)
都可以做他们自己
to be their own educational DJ,
的教育的DJ
creating educational materials, sharing them with the world,
创造教育材料 与世界分享
constantly innovating on them. So,
不断创新 对
this is the dream.
这就是我的梦想
In fact, this dream is actually being realized.
实际上 这一梦想正在实现
Over the last six-and-a-half years,
在过去的6年半的时间里
we’ve been working really hard at Rice University
我们在赖斯大学一直非常努力地工作 进行一个叫做
on a project called Connexions,
Connections(连接)的项目
and so what I’d like to do
所以在我演讲的剩余时间里
for the rest of the talk
我想告诉大家
is just tell you a little bit
参与Connections的人
about what people are doing with Connexions,
在做什么
which you can kind of think of as the counterpoint
大家可以将其看作是与 昨天尼古拉斯
to Nicholas Negroponte’s talk yesterday,
·尼葛洛庞帝的演讲紧密相关的
where they’re working on the hardware of bringing education to the world.
他们正在开发的 给全世界带去教育的硬件
We’re working on the open-source tools
我们正在努力开发开源
and the content. So,
的工具和内容所以
that’s sort of to put it in perspective here. So,
这里我们就来审视一下这个项目 因此
create.
创造 那么哪些人正在
What are some of the people that are using these kind of tools? Well,
使用这些工具呢 在做什么?
the first thing is, there’s a community of engineering professors,
嗯 首先 从剑桥到京都 有一个工程系教授
from Cambridge to Kyoto,
(组成的)社区
who are developing engineering content in electrical engineering
他们在开发电子工程方面的工程内容
to develop what you can think
以建立某种类似超级教科书的东西
of as a massive, super textbook

that covers the entire area of electrical engineering.
就是涵盖整个电气工程领域
And not only that —
不仅如此 它还可以被用户化
it can be customized for use in each of their own individual institutions.
以适用于每一个特定的机构 如果像Kitty
If people like Kitty Jones, a shut-out —
Jones那样的人——对 被隔离在外的人——
a private music teacher and mom from Champagne, Illinois,
一个私人音乐教师和来自伊利诺伊州某个小镇的母亲
who wanted to share her fantastic music content with the world,
如果她想要与世界上的其他人分享她的美妙的音乐内容
on how to teach kids how to play music —
以及如何教给孩子演奏音乐
Her material is now used over 600,000 times per month.
她的(教学)材料现在每月被使用60多万次
Tremendous use.
这一使用量真的是非常巨大
In fact, a lot
非常巨大
of this use coming from United States K-12 schools,
很多使用者都来自美国 涵盖从幼儿园到高中的所有阶段
because anyone who’s involved in a school scale back,
因为任何参与过学校经费缩减的人都知道
the first thing that’s cut is the music curriculum.
学校做第一件事就是砍掉音乐课程
And so this is just indicating the tremendous thirst
所以这就表明了人们如何渴求
for this kind of open, free content.
这种开放而且免费的内容
A lot of teachers are using this stuff.
很多老师都利用这样的内容 那么
What about ripping? What about copying, reusing?
音乐的翻录呢? 那么什么是复制以及再利用? 得克萨斯大学
A team of volunteers at the University
埃尔帕索分校的一伙志愿者
of Texas at El Paso —
一批研究生
graduate students translating this engineering super textbook ideas.
将这一工程超级教科书的想法付诸实施
And within about a week,
并在大约一个星期内
having this be some of our most popular material
使之成为我们最受欢迎的一些材料
in widespread use all over Latin America,
在拉丁美洲各地广泛使用
and in particular in Mexico,
特别是在墨西哥
because of the open, extensible nature of this. People,
这是因为它具有开放性和可扩展性等特点
volunteers and even companies
很多人 有志愿者
that are translating materials into Asian languages
甚至是商业公司 将材料翻译成亚洲语言
like Chinese, Japanese and Thai,
比如中文 日文和泰文
to spread the knowledge even further. OK,
将这些知识进一步传播开来那么
what about people who are mixing?
参与混合的人做什么?
What does”mixing” mean?
混合是什么意思?
“Mixing” means building customized courses,
混合指的是创建可定制的课程
means building customized books.
以及制作定制的书籍
Companies like National Instruments, who are embedding very powerful, interactive simulations
像美国国家仪器公司这样的商业公司 将非常强大的 交互式仿真的内容嵌入到这些材料中
into the materials,
这样我们
so that we can go way
阅读的体验
beyond our regular kind of textbook
就会远远超越传统的教科书
to an experience
获得使用所有这些教材和
that all the teaching materials are
内容的全新经验
things you can actually interact with
实际上你可以进行交互
and play around with and actually learn as you do.
寓教于乐 通过实作进行学习
We’ve been working with Teachers Without Borders,
我们一直在与“教师无国界”组织合作 他们对我们的混合材料
who are very interested in mixing our materials.
很感兴趣 他们将使用Connections
They’re going to be using Connexions as their platform
作为他们的平台
to develop and deliver teaching materials
开发和并提供教材
for teaching teachers how to teach
指导教师如何教学
in 84 countries around the world.
这些教师分布在世界各地的84个国家
TWB is currently in Iraq,
在美国国际开发署的支持下
training 20,000 teachers supported by USAID.
教师无国界目前正在伊拉克培训2万多名教师
And to them, this idea of being able to remix
对他们来说 这种能够混合材料
and customize to the local context is extraordinarily important,
和并根据当地情况定制的特性是非常重要的
because just providing free content to people
因为仅仅向人们提供免费内容
has actually been likened by people in the developing world
其实在发展中国家
to a kind of cultural imperialism —
已经被人们与 某种文化帝国主义联系在了一起
that if you don’t empower people
也就是说 如果你不让那些人
with the ability to re-contextualize the material,
有能力重新组织材料
translate it into their own language and take ownership of it,
翻译成自己的语言 并拥有其所有权
it’s not good. OK,
就会出力不讨好
other organizations we’ve been working with, UC Merced —
此外 我们一直以来合作的其他组织还有加州大学默塞德
people know about UC Merced.
大家都知道加州大学默塞德
It’s a new university in California, in the Central Valley,
这是一个在加州的新大学 位于中央谷地
working very closely with community colleges.
它与社区学院有非常密切的合作
They’re actually developing a lot of their science and engineering curriculum
他们实际上正在开发很多科学和工程课程
to spread widely around the world in our system.
应用我们的系统 广泛传播到世界各地
And they’re also trying to develop all of their software tools
而且他们也在努力将自己开发的软件工具做成完全开源的
completely open-source.
我们一直
We’ve been working with AMD, which has a project called 50×15,
在与AMD合作进行一项名为50/15的项目
which is trying to bring Internet connectivity
就是试图到2015年 将互联网连接
to 50 percent of the world’s population by 2015.
提供给世界上50%的人口 我们将会使用
We’re going to be providing content to them
多种不同的语言
in a whole range of different languages.
他们提供内容
And we’ve also been working with a number of other organizations.
此外我们还与其他一些组织合作特别是
In particular, a bunch
一批项目
of the projects that are funded by Hewlett Foundation,
由Hewlett基金会提供资助
who have taken a real leadership role in this area of open content. OK,
该组织在开放内容这一领域起到了真正的领导作用
burn — I think this is, sort of, quite interesting.
接下来 该谈谈烧录了 我认为这个话题很有趣
“Burn” is the idea of trying to create the physical instantiation
烧录是试图将这些课程的内容变成物理对象的过程
of one of these courses.
我想有不少
And I think a lot of you received —
人收到过
I think all of you received one of these music books
我相信大家都收到过这样的礼包 就是某种这类音乐书籍
in your gift pack.
是给大家
A little present for you.
的一个小礼物
Just to tell you quickly about it: this is an engineering textbook.
我在这里简要介绍一下 这是一本工程的教科书
It’s about 300 pages long, hardbound.
它有大约300页
This costs — anybody guess?
精装的费用大家猜猜有多少?
How much would it cost in a bookstore?
如果在书店里它会值多少钱?
(Audience) 65 dollars.
观众:
Richard Baraniuk: OK. This costs 22 dollars to the student.
65美元 Richard Baraniuk:这本书对学生的定价是22美元
Why does it cost 22 dollars?
为什么它只需22美元?
Because it’s published on demand and it’s developed
因为它是按需出版的
from this repository of open materials.
而且是基于这种开放的资料库开发的
If this book were to be published by a regular publisher,
如果是由正规出版社出版这本书
it would cost at least 122 dollars.
它的定价至少是122美元
So what we’re seeing is moving this burning or publication process
所以 我们看到的 这种烧录过程 或说是出版过程
from the regular, sort of single-authored book
已经从某一单一的作者
towards community-authored materials
写作的过程过渡到了作者社区撰写的材料
that are modular, that are customized to each individual class
这是一种模块化的材料 可以根据每个班级定制
and published on demand very inexpensively,
并以相当低廉的价格按需出版
either pushed out through Amazon
既可以通过亚马逊网站推出
or published directly through an on-demand press, like QOOP.
或是直接通过按需出版的出版社 比如Coop出版
And I think that this is an extraordinarily interesting area
我认为 这是一个非常有趣的领域
because there is tremendous area under this long tail in publishing.
因为在这个出版业的长尾下 存在一个巨大的领域
We’re not talking about the Harry Potter end,
我们谈的不是哈利波特的尾巴下
right at the left side.
它是在左边
We’re talking about books on hypergeometric partial differential equations.
我们所说是那些超几何偏微分方程之类的书籍
Books that might sell 100 copies a year, 1,000 copies a year.
对 就是那些一年可能出售100份、1000份的书
There is tremendous sustaining revenue under this long tail
确实存在巨大的可持续收入 在这个长尾下
to sustain open projects like ours,
支持像我们这样的开源项目
but also to sustain this new emergence of on-demand publishers,
而且还要支持这种新出现的按需出版商
like QOOP, who produced these two books.
比如像出版这两本书的Coop我想
And I think one of the things
大家从我的谈话中
that you should take away from this talk
应该认识到的一点
is that there’s an impending cut-out-the-middle-man disintermediation,
就是中间人即将被削减掉 是的 非中介化
that’s going to be happening in the publishing industry.
这将是出版业即将发生的事情
And it’s going to reach a crescendo
而且将在今后几年达到高潮
over the next few years,
我认为
and I think that it’s for our benefit, really,
这对我们
and for the world’s benefit. OK,
对世界都是有利的 那么
so what are the enablers?
是什么促使这一切发生?
What’s really making all of this happen?
到底是什么让这一切发生?
There’s tons of technology,
这其中有大量的技术
and the only piece
而我真的
of technology that I really want to talk about is XML.
想谈的是XML技术
How many people know about XML? Oh,
有多少人知道XML?
great.
哦 很好
So it’s the future of the web, right?
对 它是网络的未来
It’s semantic representation of content.
它是内容的语义描述此刻
And what you can really think of XML in this case
大家应该将XML
is it’s the packaging that we’re putting around these pages.
看作是我们的包装 是我们用来包装这些页面的工具
Remember we took the book, tore the pages out? Well,
大家记得我们撕开了书页
what the XML is going to do is
对吧? 那么 XML所要做的
it’s going to turn those pages into Lego blocks.
基本上是—— 它可以把这些书页变成乐高积木
XML are the nubs on the Lego
对 XML就是乐高积木上的凸起
that allow us to combine the content together
它让我们能够以多种不同的
in a myriad different ways,
方式将内容组合起来
and it provides us a framework to share content. So,
而且它我们提供了一个框架 以分享内容
it lets you take this ecosystem
因此 它让你把这个生态系统
in its primordial state of all this content,
以其原生状态呈现 所有这些内容
all the pages you’ve torn out of books,
所有从书本中撕开的书页
and create highly sophisticated learning machines: books,
然后创造出这种高度复杂的学习机器 是不是?
courses, course packs.
书籍 课程
It gives you the ability to personalize the learning experience
课程包……它使你能够将学习体验个性化
to each individual student,
对个别学生都如此
so that every student can have a book or a course
这样每一个学生都可以有一本书或课程
that’s customized to their learning style, their context,
是根据他们的学习风格 他们的具体环境
their language and the things that excite them.
以及他们的语言和能够激起他们兴趣的事情所定制的
It lets you reuse the same materials in multiple different ways,
它让你能够以多种不同的方式 以令人惊讶的新途径
and surprising new ways.
重新使用相同的材料
It lets you interconnect ideas, indicating how fields relate to each other.
它让你把想法联系起来 表明各个领域存在何种相互关系
And I’ll just give you my personal story.
这里我来给大家讲讲你我个人的故事
We came up with this six-and-a-half years ago
我们是六年半前提出这一设想的
because I teach the stuff in the red box.
因为我教的的东西都是公文包里有的
And my day job, as Chris said —
而我的日常工作 正如克里斯说的
I’m an electrical engineering professor.
我是电机系教授
I teach signal processing and my challenge was to show that this math — Wow,
我教信号处理 而且我的挑战是要表明
about half of you have already fallen asleep
这种数学—— 哇 你们中大约有一半人一看到这个方程
just looking at the equation.
已经睡着了——
(Laughter)
(笑声)
But this seemingly dry math is
但这个看似枯燥的数学其实是
actually the center of this tremendously powerful web
这个功能异常强大的网络
that links technology —
技术的核心——
that links really cool applications like music synthesizers
它将非常酷的应用 比如音乐合成器
to tremendous economic opportunities,
以及巨大的经济机会联系在一起
but also governed by intellectual property.
但也受知识产权的保护
And the thing that I realized is there was no way
问题是 我意识到我没有办法——
that I, as an engineer,
作为一名工程师——我没有
could write this book that would get all of this across.
办法写出这样一本书 把所有的相关问题都谈清楚 我们需要一个
We needed a community to do it
社区去做这件事
and we needed new tools to be able to interconnect these ideas.
我们需要新的工具能够将这些想法连接在一起
And I think that really, in a sense,
而且我认为 在某种意义上 我们正在试图做的
what we’re trying to do
是使明斯基(Minksy
is make Minsky’s dream come to a reality,
数学家)的梦想变成现实
where you can imagine all the books in a library
你可以想象 图书馆里所有的书
actually starting to talk to each other.
都开始相互交谈 对
And people who are teachers out here —
也可以和所有的教师交谈
whoever taught, you know this —
只要他在教某种课程
it’s the interconnections between ideas that teaching is really all about. OK,
这就是思想的相互之间的联系 这也正是教学的真正意义 好
back to math.
回到数学上来
Imagine — this is possible:
我们可以想象 这是可能的
that every single equation that you click
在你的新的电子文本中
on in one of your new e-texts
每一个公式只要你点击它
is something that you’re going to be able to explore and experiment with.
就能够对其进行探索和试验
So imagine your kid’s algebra textbook in seventh grade.
那么可以想像 你的孩子的代数教科书 比如七年级的代数书
You can click on every single equation
你可以点击每一个方程
and bring up a little tool
这样就能弹出一个小工具
to be able to experiment with it,
你可以拿它进行实验
tinker with it, understand it.
摆弄它
Because we really don’t understand until we do.
了解它 因为我们必须通过做才能理解
The same type of mark-up, like MathML, for chemistry.
化学可以用相同类型的标注语言 比如mathML表示
Imagine chemistry textbooks that actually understand the structure of how molecules are formed.
想象一下 你的化学教科书能真正理解 分子结构是如何形成的
Imagine Music XML that actually lets you delve
想象一下音乐的XML 可以让你进入音乐
into the semantic structure of music,
的语义结构进行钻研
play with it, understand it.
摆弄它 理解它
It’s no wonder that everybody’s getting into it, right?
这样大家就都能理解它 对不对? 即使是古希腊
Even the three wise men.
三智者都能弄懂
(Laughter) OK,
(笑声)
the second big enabler,
好 说到第二大的推动者
and this is where I told a big lie.
正是这里我曾说过一个大大的谎
The second big enabler is intellectual property. Because,
第二大推动者是知识产权
in fact,
因为事实上我站在了这里
I got up here and I talked about how great the music culture is.
并且说到音乐文化多么了不起 我们可以分享
We can share and rip, mix and burn,
、抓取 混合和烧录
but in fact, that’s all illegal.
但实际上这是违法的
And we would be accused of [piracy] for doing that,
是的 我们这样做会被指责为盗版
because this music has been propertized.
因为这种音乐已经被财产化了
It’s now owned, much of it by big industries. So,
它现在为人所拥有 其中大部分由大公司拥有 因此
really,
实在的
the key thing here is we can’t let this happen.
这里的关键是我们不能让这种情况发生
We can’t let this Napster thing happen here. So,
我们不能让Napster这类事情在这里发生所以
what we have to do is get it right
我们要做的就是从一开始就要做得对
from the very beginning.
而我们
And what we have to do
所要做的
is find an intellectual property framework
是找到一个知识产权框架
that makes sharing safe and makes it easily understandable.
使得共享是安全的 并使其易于理解
And the inspiration here is taken from open-source software.
这里的灵感是来自开源软件
Things like Linux and the GPL.
比如Linux和GPL诸如此类的东西
The Creative Commons licenses.
以及相关的思想 如创作共用许可证
How many people have heard of creative commons?
有多少人听说过创作共用?
If you have not, you must learn about it.
如果你没有听说过 那你必须了解它 Creativecommons
Creativecommons.org.
.org Connections
At the bottom of every piece of material in Connexions
中的每一份材料
and in lots of other projects, you can find their logo.
和许多其他项目的底下 你都可以他们的标志
Clicking on that logo takes you to an absolute no-nonsense,
点击该标志 它将带你到一个绝对没有胡说八道
human-readable document, a deed,
人类可读懂的文件 这是一个契约
that tells you exactly what you can do with this content.
告诉你关于此内容你到底可以做些什么
In fact, you’re free to share it,
事实上 你可以自由地分享它
to do all of these things:
做所有这些事情复制它
to copy it, to change it,
改变它
even to make commercial use of it,
甚至将它用于商业用途
as long as you attribute the author.
只要你指出原作者
Because in academic publishing and much of educational publishing,
因为在学术出版 和许多教育出版领域
it’s really this idea of sharing knowledge
人们的观念就是分享知识 这就是为什么出版
and making impact.
以及作出影响
That’s why people write, not necessarily making bucks.
这就是为什么有人写书 不一定非要赚钱
We’re not talking about Harry Potter, right?
我们现在谈论的不是《哈利波特》
We’re at the long tail end here.
我们处于长尾的末端
Behind that is the legal code, very carefully constructed.
其背后是法律条款 所以如果你想仔细地建造它
And Creative Commons is taking off —
那么创作共用正在崛起 那里有超过4300
over 43 million things out there,
万种东西
licensed with a Creative Commons license.
都被授予了创作共用许可权
Not just text,
不只是文本 而且还有音乐
but music, images, video.
、图像、视频
And there’s actually a tremendous uptake
而且越来越多的人还将音乐的版权
of the number of people that are actually licensing music
授予它 这一现象在上升
to make it free
这样那些希望
for people who do this whole idea of re-sampling, ripping,
将某个音乐概念重新取样的人 就可以自由地去做
mixing, burning and sharing. OK,
采集、混合 烧录并共享
I’d like to conclude with just the last few points. So,
所以我想用最后的几点意见结束我的讲话
we’ve built this idea of a commons.
我们建立创作共用的想法
People are using it.
人们使用它
We get over 500,000 unique visitors per month, just to our particular site.
我们每月的个体访问者就超过50万 只是在我们单一的网站上 麻省理工学院
MIT OpenCourseWare, which is another large open-content site,
的开放式课件 是另一个庞大的开放内容网站
gets a similar number of hits.
其点击数跟我们差不多 但我们如何保护它们呢?
But how do we protect this?
我们如何保护它们
How do we protect it into the future?
使之流传久远?
And the first thing that people are probably thinking
人们想到的第一件事很可能是
is quality control, right?
质量控制
Because we’re saying that anybody can contribute things to this commons.
对因为我们说 任何人都可以贡献内容 到这个共用网站
Anybody can contribute anything.
任何人可以提供任何内容
So that could be a problem.
这样可能就带来一个问题
It didn’t take long until people started contributing materials,
所以没多久 就有可能有人开始提供像
for example, on lingerie,
和内衣相关的材料
which is actually a pretty good module.
实际上这是一个很好的模块
The only problem is it’s plagiarized
唯一的问题是 它是抄袭的
from a major French feminist journal,
抄自一份主流法国女性杂志
and when you go to the supposed course website,
当你去访问课程网站的时候
it points to a lingerie-selling website.
它指向了一个内衣销售网站
So this is a little bit of a problem.
对吧?因此 这里就有点问题
So we clearly need some kind of idea of quality control
所以我们需要一些质量管理的理念
and this is really where the idea of review and peer review comes in.
因此我们才引入了审查和同行审查的想法嗯
You come to TED. Why do you come to TED?
大家来参加TED 为什么来TED?
Because Chris and his team have ensured
是由于克里斯和他的团队
that things are very, very high quality, right?
确保了它的质量非常非常的高
And so we need to be able to do the same thing.
因此 我们需要做同样的事情
And we need to be able to design structures,
我们需要能够设计出某种结构
and what we’re doing is designing social software
我们正在做的是设计社交软件
to enable anyone to build their own peer review process,
让每个人都能建立自己的同行审查过程 我们将这些东西称作
and we call these things”lenses.”
“镜头”(lenses)
And basically what they allow is anyone
它的作用 就是允许任何访问者
out there can develop their own peer-review process,
建立自己的同行审查过程
so that they can focus on the content in the repository
这样他们就能够专注于库中的内容
that they think is really important.
以及他们认为真正重要的东西
And you can think of TED as a potential lens.
大家可以将TED视为潜在的镜头 所以
So I’d just like to end by saying:
我只是想在结束之前 呼吁大家关注
you can really view this as a call to action.
Connections
Connexions and open content is all about sharing knowledge.
Connections和开放内容关注的是分享知识
All of you here are tremendously imbued
在座各位都拥有
with tremendous amounts of knowledge,
无穷无尽的知识
and what I’d like to
我想要做的就是邀请
do is invite each and every one of you
在座的每一位
to contribute to this project and other projects of its type,
为这一项目和其他类似项目贡献自己的内容
because I think together we can truly change the landscape
因为我想 大家一起合作 就能实实在在地改变
of education and educational publishing. So,
教育和教育出版的面貌
thanks very much.
谢谢!

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