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神经可塑性和焦虑周期

Rewiring the Anxious Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Anxiety Cycle: Anxiety Skills #21

So here is the amazing thing about your brain,
我们的大脑有个很神奇的功能
it’s made to rewire itself all the time.
那就是不断自我更新
This is called neuroplasticity.
这被称为神经可塑性
Scientists used to think that after childhood
过去的科学研究认为
our brain was pretty much locked in place,
儿童期结束后 人脑不再发育
but now that we have better imaging technology,
不过如今利用更好的成像技术
we can literally see how the brain changes
可以观察到 随着我们不断用脑
depending on how we use it.
大脑也在不断变化
So in this video I’m going to talk about one very simple thing
这期视频我将介绍一种
you can do to rewire your brain to be less anxious,
改善大脑焦虑症状的简单方法
and it is simple, but it’s not easy.
这很简单 但并不容易做到
So I’m also going to share three steps you can take to make it happen,
因此我将把它拆分成三个可行步骤
and share ten extra skill you can develop on your own, or with a therapist,
并分享10个提升抗焦虑能力的方法
to build up your ability to take control of your anxiety.
你可以自己尝试 或和心理治疗师合作
And if you would like to learn more in depth information about how treat your anxiety,
如果想要了解更多处理焦虑的方法
I’ve got a course on Udemy that I am working on
可以点击视频简介中的链接
called “Rewiring the anxious brain”,
关注我在Udemy上
so you can also check out that link in the description.
开设的“焦虑大脑重构”课程
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So, let’s start off with one example of neuroplasticity.
下面 我们先来举一个神经可塑性的例子
In London the taxi drivers have this super difficult exam
伦敦出租车司机要通过一场超级难的考试
where they have to prepare by memorizing all of the streets
他们需要记住这座大都市里
and events and locations in this huge city.
所有的街道 发生过的大事件及其地点
Researchers took images of their brain before they started studying,
研究者对比了司机们开始学习前
and after this two year process
和学习两年后大脑的图像
and they were literally able to see
可以观察到
the new neural connections
新神经连接的产生
and the wiring that changed in the brain.
和脑回路的改变
And there’s good evidence that changing how you think,
有研究表明 接受心理治疗之类
like going to therapy,
改变思维方式的行为
can actually change the structure of your brain
其实能够改变你大脑的结构
and the types of chemicals that it’s pumping out.
和大脑分泌化学物质的种类
Our brain has an amazing ability
我们的大脑自我重构以完成
to rewire itself to learn, grow, and heal.
学习 发育 修复的能力非常惊人
So, let’s talk about how to do that with anxiety.
下面我们来谈谈如何处理焦虑
If we want to change how our brain processes anxiety,
如果想要改变大脑处理焦虑的方式
we need to understand three principles of anxiety.
首先要知道关于焦虑的三大原则
Number 1, understand what is anxiety.
第一 我们要知道什么是焦虑
Now, this may sound dumb,
这大概听起来很蠢
because you already know what anxiety feels like,
毕竟大家都知道焦虑是什么感觉
but what you need to do is to understand your perspective on anxiety.
但你还是需要了解自己对焦虑的看法
You need to let go of the idea that anxiety is “bad.”
不要再认为焦虑是坏事
Anxiety is not inherently bad.
焦虑本身并不是坏事
Anxiety is uncomfortable,
焦虑使人不适
some times anxiety is disordered,
有时会失控
sometimes anxiety gets in the way,
有时会影响正常生活
but we all experience anxiety
但我们都会经历焦虑
because it is supposed to serve a really important function
因为它发挥着
To motivate us to avoid real danger.
让我们规避真正危险的重要功能
We’re supposed to feel anxious when standing on a cliff edge,
站在悬崖边时 我们会感到焦虑
it helps us be safe.
这保证我们的安全
We’re supposed to feel anxious
重要考试即将到来时
when we know we have an important test coming up
我们会感到焦虑
because that should motivate us to study.
这会促使我们去学习
Anxiety tells us that something is important to us.
焦虑提醒我们一些事情的重要性
Anxiety and excitement are basically
焦虑和兴奋本质上是
the same chemical reaction in your body
同样的体内化学反应
with adrenaline triggering that sympathetic activation
它们使肾上腺素激动交感神经
and prepping you for action.
促使你准备行动
When we look at anxiety as being uncomfortable,
当你把焦虑当作使人感到不适
but acceptable and a normal part of life,
但却是日常生活中可以接受的一部分时
suddenly we develop new tools to work with it,
我们就有处理焦虑的新方法了
and that includes working with the other type of anxiety.
也能解决其他类型的焦虑
So, the second thing we need to understand
那么 要知道的第二件事就是
is we need to understand disordered anxiety.
什么是焦虑症
And this is when anxiety seems to take over your life.
这种情况下 焦虑似乎占据了你的生活
This is anxiety that makes it hard to go to work,
这样的焦虑让你很难投入工作
to school,
学习
or to enjoy life at all.
无法享受生活
And the harder you try to make it go away,
你越是努力克服它
the stronger and stronger it gets.
它就变得越强烈
Now, contrary to popular belief that
其实 与普遍认知不同的是
anxiety is disordered when it is more severe,
并不是焦虑到一定程度就会得焦虑症
anxiety is actually disordered when one of two things happens.
只有下面两种情况之一发生时 焦虑才会成为疾病
When, number one,
第一
when you feel endanger when you are actually safe,
你身处安全的环境却感到危险
and I made a video on this,
我出过这个主题的视频
it’s called perceived versus actual safety.
叫《感觉安全VS实际安全》
For example I worked with a client who was afraid of radiators.
举个例子 我以前有个客户害怕暖气
She would feel anxious and sweaty around them
在暖气边时 她会感到焦虑 直冒冷汗
and she couldn’t make herself
她不敢进入
go into a room with a radiator in it.
装有暖气片的房间
now radiators are not actually dangerous,
我们知道暖气并不危险
but she was having a real, physiological response
但她对这种实际上是安全的东西
to something that was actually safe.
产生了真实的生理性恐惧
So anxiety can be disordered
像这样当自己很安全时
when you have a “danger” response in your body,
身体却做出“危险”反应
but you are actually safe.
焦虑就构成了疾病
The second way anxiety can be disordered
第二种焦虑症的情况是
is when your anxiety interferes with your ability to function.
焦虑干扰了你的某些功能
This is essentially what determines
我们基本上用这一点
if you meet the criteria for
作为患者是否患有焦虑症的
an anxiety disorder diagnosis.
临床诊断标准
When your anxiety,
当你的焦虑
or your attempts to avoid anxiety
或者逃避焦虑的尝试
stop you from effectively facing life.
使你无法正常面对生活时
When this happens you start avoiding school,
此时 你开始逃避上学
or calling in sick to work.
称病不去上班
You stop leaving the house, or spending time with friends,
你不再出门 也无心社交
pretty soon your anxiety is taking over your life
很快焦虑就会占据你的生活
and stopping you from doing the things you love.
使你不再能做自己喜爱的事
So lets talk about
那么下面来谈谈
what causes anxiety to spiral out of control.
导致焦虑失控的原因
This is called the anxiety cycle.
这被称为焦虑周期
Every day throughout our day
我们会把
we have experiences
自己每天经历的事
and we interpret these experiences as either being safe or dangerous.
分为安全经历和危险经历两类
So let say for example you see a dog.
举个例子 你遇到一只狗
Now, each person interprets an experience differently,
大家对这种经历的感受会各有不同
for some people this would be extincting and fun,
有些人会觉得很开心很有趣
but for some reason you think
但出于某种原因 你会想
“that dog is going to bite me!”
“那狗会咬我!”
This leads to feelings of fear, anxiety, maybe even panic.
因此你会感到害怕 焦虑甚至恐惧
These are uncomfortable feelings
这些感觉令人不适
and you may even take them as a sign
这种不适甚至可能使你认为
that your thoughts are true.
你的想法是对的
So, you escape, you run away, you get outta there.
因此 为了逃避 你从那里逃走了
And, Nothing bad happens.
接下来并没有什么坏事发生
So your brain releases this surge of relief,
因此你的大脑会感到如释重负
“Whew! That was close!
“呼!好险
The only way I survived was because I ran away.
多亏我逃跑了才能活下来
I could have died!”
我差点死掉!”
And your brain thinks
你的大脑会想
“I better do that again,
“下次最好也这么干
I’m going to make my human to avoid that situation
我要让我的主人对此感到更加焦虑
by increasing their anxiety about it.”
来避免这种情况”
And, vola! your anxiety goes up.
这样 你的焦虑一下就增加了
Every single time that we avoid a threat and survive,
每次我们避开威胁存活下来
our brain thinks, “Let’s do that again.”
我们的大脑就会想“下次继续”
So it lays down neural pathways,
因此它建立神经通路
this wiring that reinforces that behavior.
增强这种行为
And the whole function of emotions
情感的功能应该是
is to motivate us to action,
激励我们行动
but that’s a whole other video.
这点在以后的视频里展开说
So our brain, because we have convinced it that the dog was a threat,
我们的大脑已确信这只狗是个威胁
it takes action into it’s own hands
它就会自主采取行动
and it increases you anxiety levels around dogs.
增加你对狗的焦虑程度
Every time we feel anxiety, and then avoid the situation,
每次我们感到焦虑后再回避这种情况
our anxiety level will go up a notch.
我们的焦虑水平就会上升一个等级
So this is principle number three,
这就是原则三
avoidance feeds disordered anxiety.
逃避只会助长焦虑
It literally creates overwhelming anxiety.
这就使焦虑逐渐失控
Now, there are lots of ways to avoid.
逃避有多种形式
There’s running away, and physically avoiding,
有逃跑 这是身体上的逃避
but there’s also emotional avoidance,
还有情感上的回避
so if you have social anxiety, you might still go to the party,
比如你有社交焦虑 你可能还会参加聚会
but only if you get drunk ahead of time,
但你会提前喝醉了再去
or you might be in a relationship, but scared of getting hurt,
再比如你可能在谈恋爱 但又怕情感受伤
so you don’t allow yourself to let the other person into your heart.
于是你不让别人洞悉你的内心
you stay emotionally distant, or you protect your self by not committing.
你保持情感距离 不做承诺以自我保护
social media, anger, blame, distraction, and even “coping skills,” can be avoidant.
社交媒体 愤怒 责备 分心 甚至“应对技巧”都可以成为回避
Regardless of the type of avoidance,
所有类型的回避
it increases your anxiety
都会增加你的焦虑
and even worse, it shrinks down your world.
更糟的是它会蚕食你的世界
So with the dog example,
在狗的这个例子中
you might start avoiding situations where a dog might be present,
你也许会避开可能有狗出现的场合
by not going to friend’s homes, or skipping the park.
不去朋友家 不去公园
And your world shrinks,
你的世界缩小了
you miss out on good relationships, or you stop going to parties.
你错过美好的感情 不再参加聚会
And your world gets more and more constrained.
你的世界被限制的越来越小
Avoidance can make your world small and scary and unhappy.
逃避让你的世界变得狭小 可怕 令人不悦
But every time you get anxious and avoid something and survive,
但每次对某事感到焦虑 逃避 之后存活
your brain increases your anxiety in that area.
大脑都会增加你这方面的焦虑
Now, looking at this cycle,
在这个循环中
we have two places where we can intervene.
有两处可以进行干预
Where we can stop that anxiety from spiraling out of control.
可以阻止焦虑失控
The first place is with our actions.
首先是我们的行为
When we feel anxiety but we are actually safe,
当我们身处安全的环境中却感到焦虑时
if we stick with it, if we stay there,
如果我们坚持待在那里
we experience our emotions and sensations with out running away,
选择体验我们的情绪感受而非逃跑
and again, if you do this, and you don’t die,
如果你这样做了并且活了下来
then your brain learns “whew! what a relief!
那么大脑就会学到“呼!松了一口气!
I guess that not all dogs are dangerous, let’s do that again!”
我想狗并不都很危险 下次继续吧!”
And it sends out a surge of relief.
它会让你松一口气
This leads to a gradual decrease in anxiety over time,
这使焦虑随着时间的推移逐渐减少
and a gradual increase in your emotional muscles,
情绪感受能力逐渐增加
your ability to feel emotions and sensations that are uncomfortable
你能直接面对不适的情绪感受
without needing to escape them all the time.
而不会总是逃避
So you get better at feeling.
你能更好地处理情绪
As you do this your brain literally lays down new neuro pathways
这样做时 你的大脑会产生新的神经通路
saying “not all dogs are dangerous,
告诉你“狗并不都很危险
I don’t need to be anxious around dogs.”
我不需要在狗狗面前焦虑”
And it literally changes your brain chemistry,
这最终会改变你脑内的化学物质
releasing less cortisol and adrenaline and other stress hormones.
减少皮质醇 肾上腺素和其他压力激素的释放
This is the most straight forward way
这是重构大脑 减少焦虑的
to rewire your brain to have less anxiety.
最直接的方法
But, I get it, this is super hard.
但我知道这非常难
If it were easy, you would have already done it.
如果这很容易的话 你早就做了
So I’m going to break it down
因此我将把它
into three big steps for you.
分解成三大步骤
Now on a side note,
下面一点
the second place in this cycle to intervene is with your thoughts.
循环中可干涉的第二处是你的想法
Changing how you think about the dog.
改变你对狗的看法
And this can be a powerful and effective treatment too,
这也可以是一种强有力的治疗方法
but it can also get really complicated.
但也会非常复杂
And it works best before your anxious, rather than during.
在你焦虑前这样做比在焦虑时效果好
Now I’ll talk about some of the ways you can change your thinking in other videos,
我会在其他视频中讲解改变思维的方式
but in this video we’re going to talk about
这个视频中我们主要讨论
the most straight forward way to rewire the anxious brain
重构焦虑大脑最直接的方法
and that’s through action.
即通过你的行动
So, how to do it.
那该怎么做呢
There are three steps.
可以分为三个步骤
So step one, make an exposure hierarchy.
第一步 划分焦虑等级
I’ve made and entire video about this,
我出过一期这个主题的视频
but basically you take one thing that scares you
简单来说就是选择一件让你害怕的事
and you break it down into teeny tiny steps,
把它分解成非常小的步骤
and you start by courageously facing the easiest one first.
然后鼓起勇气先面对最容易的那个
Now this is the part that most people miss.
这是大多数人忽略的部分
They jump in too fast and then they panic or the escape
他们进行太快 就会恐慌或者逃跑
and they never do it again,
最终不再尝试
and then that fear is reinforced.
之后这种恐惧又被强化了
So make and exposure hierarchy
所以划分等级时
and write down as many teeny little steps as you can think of.
尽可能多地写出能想到的小步骤
Step two, change your rules.
第二步 改变你的原则
Now, courage doesn’t mean the absence of fear,
勇敢并不是完全不害怕
but choosing that something is more important that avoiding fear.
而是选择比逃避更该做的事
In acceptance and commitment therapy, this is called willingness.
在接纳与承诺疗法中 这叫做意愿
Allowing yourself to do something even though it makes you uncomfortable.
让自己做一些令人不适的事
If you make a rule for yourself
如果你为自己订立的原则是
like I’m going to do this until I get too anxious,
等到焦虑的受不了我就不做了
then you brain will be like “cool, let’s do that, then I can escape.”
你的大脑就会想“行 就这样吧 做完就可以溜了”
So it will make you really anxious,
这会让你非常焦虑
and when we say “I’m going to do this thing
当我们对自己说
unless it makes me too anxious,”
等到焦虑的受不了我就不做了
then we are just inviting anxiety
我就是在让焦虑
to make all of our decisions for us.
主导我们的决定
So when it comes to exposure,
因此在面对恐惧时
you choose an easier activity to start with
要选择一个更容易的着手
and then you stay with it
坚持下来
and watch yourself for a certain amount of time,
进行一段时间的自我观察
or until your anxiety decreases by half during the exposure.
直到过程中你的焦虑减少一半
Now, while you’re facing your anxiety
当面对焦虑时
and practicing your willingness, grounding activities, and self-regulation activities,
锻炼自己的意愿 基础行动和自我调节
this body-up approach to decreasing anxiety can be helpful.
这是有助于稳定减少焦虑的方法
But the most important part is that
但最重要的是
you sit with your anxiety for a little while until it decreases,
你要面对焦虑 直到它开始减少
or at least for a certain set amount of time.
或者至少坚持一段时间
Now, step three.
下面是第三步
Do it. Face it.
行动起来 面对它
Go get anxious and see if you survive.
去直面焦虑 看看自己能否存活
A little spoiler alert here, you will.
剧透警告 你肯定会的
So with the dog example,
在狗的例子中
start be repeatedly imagining yourself interacting with a dog
你可以先反复想象自己和一只狗互动
and you practice every day for ten minutes
每天练习十分钟
until that activity no longer makes you very anxious.
直到这不再使你焦虑
And then you might work with a friend who has a dog
下一步的工作
to set up the nest steps.
你可以和养狗的朋友合作
So you might see a dog through a window
你可以透过窗户观察一只狗
and just stay there and you sit with it and you breath
就这样和它呆一会儿 深呼吸
and you allow your self to relax
让自己放松
and you do this every day for ten minutes
坚持每天这样做十分钟
until your anxiety decreases.
直到你的焦虑减轻
And then you practice being in the same room
之后试着和一只拴着绳的小狗
with a tiny dog on a leash,
待在同一个房间
and then perhaps touching a tiny dog on a leash
接着试着摸摸拴着绳子的小狗
and then petting a tiny dog on a leash
再试试撸撸它
and eventually you are moving up to a bigger dog
最后你可以尝试接触更大的狗
and then off a leash
不用拴着绳子
then eventually you get yourself to the point
最终你甚至可以
where you can go to a dog park,
去狗狗公园
sit down and stay there for thirty minutes.
坐下来待上半个小时
It’s ok it you feel anxious.
感到焦虑也没关系
It’s ok if you feel uncomfortable or you sweat, or you shake, or whatever,
如果你感到不适 冒冷汗 发抖等等都没关系
but you just stick with it.
坚持下来
And pretty soon your brain learns
你的大脑很快就会明白
“It’s cool, most dogs are safe, you are ok.”
“挺好的 大多狗狗都很安全 我很好”
And your anxiety will decrease.
这样你的焦虑就会减少
Now again, you can do some physiological grounding activities
在你焦虑的时候
while in the midst of your anxiety,
可以做些生理学基础训练
but don’t use those as another way to just avoid anxiety.
但是不要用这些来逃避焦虑
Use those as a way to practice willingness.
而是用这些来锻炼意愿
This willingness to feel what you are feeling
愿意去感受你的情绪
and accept it as being normal, natural and ok.
正常自然地接受它 没什么大不了
So there’s the simple solution to anxiety.
这是解决焦虑的简单方法
face your fears and they will decrease.
直面你的恐惧 恐惧就会减少
This may seem too simple, or too impossible, too big of a leap,
这似乎很简单 但不太现实 跨度太大
so therapist have devised a bunch of ways
因此心理治疗师想出了很多
to break that leap down into a bunch of tiny steps,
把这个大跨度分解成很多小步骤的方法
a bunch of skills
这些技巧能帮你
that you can learn to make it easier.
把这件事变得轻松
If you want to go more in depth into that
下面就如你所愿
Let’s do that!
展开说说
Let’s talk about the more detailed process of how we do this.
详细讲解这个方法的细节和过程
The specific skills that help us move from anxiety avoidance
讲讲帮我们从逃避焦虑转为战胜焦虑的
to power over our anxiety.
具体方法
Because I am trying to cram so much information into this topic,
我想讲很多关于这个主题的内容
I’ve decided to split this video up in to two parts.
因此我决定把这个视频分成两集
So check out part two for the ten skills
记得收看第二集 它讲的是
you can develop to help you face your fears.
可培养的十个面对恐惧的方法
Gradual exposure therapy,
我刚刚提到的
which is what I just described,
渐进暴露疗法
is a researched backed approach
已经有科研结果证明
shown to help reduce anxiety and treat anxiety disorders.
它能减少焦虑 治疗焦虑症
It does this because it literally changes the brain,
这是因为它改变了大脑的结构
rewiring the neuro pathways
重塑神经通路
and changing the release of chemicals in the brain.
改变大脑中化学物质的释放
So make sure to check out my part two
一定要记得看第二集
with those ten skills to help you face your fears
里面讲了十种直面恐惧的方法
and if you’d like to learn more in depth information
如果你想深入了解
about how to treat you anxiety,
治疗焦虑的方法
I’ve got a course on Udemy that I am working on.
可以看看我在Udemy开设的
It’s call Rewiring the Anxious Brain,
“重构焦虑大脑”课程
so you can also check out that link in the description.
点击视频简介中的链接收看
Now please share this video,
请多多转发这支视频
you never know who might benefit from it,
让更多人从中受益
thanks for watching and take care.
感谢观看 祝生活愉快

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视频概述

我们的大脑有一个神奇的功能,就是一直在自我更新,被称为神经元的可塑性,也就是说我们的大脑有惊人的重塑神经以学习、成长和治愈的能力。我们可以通过训练,改变自己的思维方式,从而的大脑来减少焦虑。今天教你三大步骤,以建立你控制焦虑的能力。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

牧神PAN

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zTuX_ShUrw0

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