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重新思考什么是思考

Rethinking thinking - Trevor Maber

在我们的大脑中想象出一个微型的梯子并将其称为潜意识
Imagine a microscopic-sized ladder contained in the part of our brain that we’ll label our subconscious.
“推论之梯”理论 最早由哈佛大学的克里斯·阿吉里斯教授提出
The ladder of inference, which was first proposed by Harvard professor Chris Argyris,
是这个模型的基础
is the basis of this model.
每次我们和某一个人交流时
Every time we interact with someone,
这种经历进入到梯子的底端
that experience enters the ladder at the bottom.
一眨眼的瞬间
That same experience zips up the ladder in the blink of an eye,
相同的经历把就梯子顶端的出口封住了
exiting at the top.

这个过程一天会发生千百次 但是我们并没有意识到呃3
This process happens thousands of times a day without us knowing it.
让我们来关注发生在梯子的每一级上的事
Let’s focus on what happens on each rung of the ladder.
在第一个梯级上 是我们对自身经历的体察和原始的数据
On the first rung, we have the raw data and observations of our experience.
就像一个正在看记录着我们经历视频的旁观者那样
This is very similar to what someone watching a video recording of our experience would see.
接下来 我们来看梯子的第二级
Moving up to the second rung
根据我们的经历 我们在具体的信息和细节间进行筛选
we filter in specific information and details from our experience.
我们会无意识地根据自己的 爱好 倾向
We unknowingly filter based on our preferences, tendencies,
或者我们认为重要的其他方面来进行筛选
and many other aspects that we believe are important.
到了第三梯级
On to the third rung.
我们开始为筛选出来的信息赋予意义
We assign meaning to the information we have filtered through.
这时我们才开始试图去解码信息
This is where we start to interpret what our information is telling us.
在第四梯级 即将发生一件关键的事情
On our fourth rung, a very crucial thing happens.
我们开始提出假设 这种假设主要基于前几个梯级上产生的意义
We develop assumptions based on the meaning we created on the previous rung,
这时 我们开始混淆真实和虚幻之间的区别
and we start to blur the distincition between what is fact and what is story.
在第五梯级 我们开始从之前的假设中推导出结论
On the fifth rung, we develop conclusions based on our assumptions.
同时也产生出情绪反应
This is also where our emotional reactions are created.
在第六梯级 我们会调整对周围世界的看法
On the sixth rung, we adjust our beliefs about the world around us,
以及对于我们共处的个人或集体的看法
including the person or people involved in our experience of the moment.
最后一个梯级 也就是第七级
On the seventh and final rung,
我们开始就我们调整过的想法采取行动
we take action based on our adjusted beliefs.
跟得上吗?很好!
Still with me? Great!
让我们举一个现实生活中的例子 来看看每个梯级是怎样运作的
Let’s take a real-life example and run it up the ladder to see how this all works.
你可曾有过这样的经历?开着车尾灯 挡在一个空车位前面
Have you ever been cut off in a parking lot, signal light on
正要拉下手闸 朝垂涎已久的停车位倒进去的最后一刻时
as you steer toward your coveted spot, only to slam on your brakes at the last minute
突然有一个人冲出来停在你前面 抢了你的车位
as someone pulls in front of you and steals your spot away?
现在开始想象这个情景 注意发生在第一梯级的所有数据和你的观察
Imagine that experience and notice all of the data and observations landing on the first rung of your ladder.
现在来看看在第二梯级我们重点关注了些什么
Now let’s watch what we pay attention to on the second rung.
谁管它是鸟语花香还是风和日丽
Who cares that it’s sunny out and the birds are chirping?
谁管自己喜爱的商店是不是打五折
The 50% off sign outside of your favorite store is meaningless.
你此刻只注意到自己紧握方向盘的手
You filter in the sensation of your grip tightening on the wheel,
你感觉血脉贲张 血压都升高了
you feel your blood pressure rise,
仿佛听到了踩下刹车的吱呀声
you hear the squeal of your brakes,
然后你注意到了那个抢你车位司机的表情——他马上把头扭了过去
and you notice the expression on the face of the other driver as he pulls in front of you and quickly looks away.
是时候登上第三梯级了
Time for our third rung.
打小你的父母就教育你排队等候 遵秩秩序的重要性
Ever since you were young, your parents taught you the importance of waiting in line and taking your turn.
你这辈子都守着先到先得的铁律
You live and die by the rule of first come, first serve.
然后现在这哥们就抢了你的车位 凭啥啊!
And now this guy has just stolen your spot. What gives?
现在往上来到第四梯级
Up to the fourth rung we go.
看清楚了因为我们开始假设并构建幻想
Watch closely as our assumptions take over and our story creates itself.
太没礼貌了,难道他父母没有教过他吗?
‘That stupid jerk, didn’t his parents teach him anything?
我明明开了尾灯的!他一定是没注意
How could he not see my signal light? He must never pay attention!
他凭啥就认为自己比别人了不起
Why does he think he’s more important than anyone else?’
暴跳如雷的你跳上了第五梯级
Jumping quickly to the fifth rung,
我们得出结论 这哥们无情无义无法无天 是时候给他上一课了 不然他都不知道自己算老几
we conclude that this guy is heartless, inconsiderate, he needs to be taught a lesson and put in his place.
你感到愤怒、沮丧 你怀恨在心 觉得自己理直气壮
We feel angry, frustrated, vindictive, justified.
在第六梯级 根据刚刚的经历 我们调整了我们的想法
On our sixth rung, we adjust our beliefs based on the experience.
我发誓这是我最后一次让步了 下次要是还有谁胆敢抢我的车位
‘That’s the last time I give in! Next time someone tries to cut me off,
我把胎磨冒烟也要超他 然后停在我的车位里
tires will be smoking on the pavement as I squeal past them into my spot.’
终于到了最后的梯级 你开始采取行动
And finally our last rung: we take action.
你把车倒回去 停在他后面 猛按喇叭 摇下车窗朝着他破口大骂
We back up, pull up behind his car, honk our horn, and roll down our window to scream a few choice words his way.
现在再设想一下 他马上开走了车 并礼貌地道歉
Now imagine, he walks over quickly, apologizing.
他挺着大肚的老婆 正在商场里呼唤着他的名字
His wife, who’s almost due with their first baby, called him from inside the mall
说她马上就要生了 要立刻去医院
to say she is in labor and needs to get to the hospital immediately.
这一秒钟你是懵逼的 旋即向他赔礼 并朝着他向商场出口绝尘而去的背影喊了声祝好运
We’re momentarily shocked, apologize profusely, and wish him luck as he rushes toward the entrance.
等等 刚刚发生了什么?什么东西变了?为什么这个这么重要?
What just happened here? What changed? Why is this so significant?
在这个抢车位的例子里
In our parking lot example,
我们的想法跟着那个人的潜意识梯绕了一圈
our beliefs were short-circuited by the ladder of the other individual.
我老婆要生了 我得马上去那儿
‘My wife is in labor, I need to get there quick,
那儿有个车位 咻~
there’s a parking spot. Whew!
我去 我把别人堵了 我得马上道歉 不然人家得觉得我是个混帐了
Oh, jeez, I cut someone off. I’d better apologize quickly so they don’t think I’m a jerk.’
但要是我们能自己绕着自己的潜意识梯一圈呢?
But what if we were able to short-circuit our ladders ourselves?
主动的 自己选择绕一圈呢?
Proactively, by choice?
你猜怎么着 其实我们是可以的!
Guess what? We can!
让我们回到我们人类独有的自由意志上来
Let’s return to our unique human function of free will.
下次当你意识到自己在自己的潜意识里环游时
Next time you notice yourself reacting to your experience,
请一定注意那个梯子
pay focused attention to your ladder.
问问你自己 有什么想法在作祟 他们是打哪儿冒出来的
Ask yourself what beliefs are at play, where do they come from.
因为你的想法 有哪些数据和观察结论被筛选出来了?为什么?
What data and observations did you filter in as a result of your beliefs, and why?
你做的假设确定是基于实际而且有效的吗?
Are your assumptions valid and supported by facts?
不同的假定情况是否会导致不同的情绪 以及更新更好的结论和行动呢?
Would a different set of assumptions create different feelings, and result in new and better conclusions and actions?
我们心中都有自己的一架梯子
We all have our own unique ladder.
扶好自己的 也扶好别人的
Be mindful of yours, and help others to see theirs.

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