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宗教信仰是进化优势吗? – 译学馆
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宗教信仰是进化优势吗?

Religion Is Nature's Antidepressant | Robert Sapolsky

当你看着从洞穴壁画到Snapchat(阅后即焚社交软件)
So when you look at the really unique bizarre things humans have come up with,
以及这期间人类所创造的所有奇特东西时
ranging from cave paintings to Snapchats and everything in between,
你会发现 这其中最为独特而又广泛的东西
probably the most unique and universal thing
可能就是宗教了
we’ve come up with is this religion business.
我们讨论具有象征意味的思想
We talk about the symbolic metaphorical thinking.
基本上 世界上所有地方的文化都创造出了
Essentially there has been no culture on earth that has not invented some form of
各种形式的可以说是是超魔幻的想法
what could be termed meta-magical thinking
来作为那些不可见事物的解释
attributing things that cannot be seen,
这些都是类似的基于信仰的信念系统
faith-based belief systems, things of that sort.
很普遍的 90-95%的人们都相信
It’s universal, and 90-95 percent of people
某种无所不能的东西
believe in some sort of omnipotent something
在每种文化中都存在着
or other out there every culture has it.
人类无止境地猜测虔诚信仰的演变
People have endlessly speculated about the evolution of religiosity,
最终 我们从西方宗教的角度
and at least in terms of westernized religions
完美解释了它们为什么会发展壮大
it makes perfect sense why they’ve evolved:
因为它们是极好的减压方法
Because they’re wonderful mechanisms for reducing stress.
外部世界糟糕恐怖 发生各种不好的事情
It is an awful, terrifying world out there where bad things happen
并且我们最终都要面临死亡
and we’re all going to die eventually.
内心相信总有什么事物或是谁是造成这些的原因
And believing that there is something, someone responsible for it
这至少让人们在明白因果关系的基础上减少压力
at least gives some stress reducing attributes built around understanding causality.
如果在那之上 你相信不仅仅有事物造成所有的这些状况
If on top of that you believe there is not only something out there
其背后还有更大的意图
responsible for all of this but that there is a larger purpose to it,
那这就是减压解释的另一个层次
that’s another level of stress reducing explanation.
如果在那之上 你相信还有一个仁慈的人物
If then on top of it you believe that individual out there is benevolent—
甚至更有可掌控性和可预测性
even more so control and predictability.
仁慈并且倾听人类的乞求?
Benevolent and listens to human entreaties?
更具可控性
More elements of control.
仁慈 倾听人类的祈求
Benevolent, listens to human entreaties,
尤其愿意倾听和你一样的人的祈求
and prefers to listen to people like you who look like you,
像你一样 和你一样祈祷 有和你一样的要求 甚至更多
pray like you, request like you? Even more so.
他们完全可控 可预测 他们让你减少压力
They’re just all these levels of control, predictability; they’re stress reducing.
让我这么一个彻底的无神论者感到十分恼火的是
And what is infuriating to me as an utter complete atheist is a
那些宣扬虔诚信仰能够给健康带来的好处的顽固文学作品
very very solid literature showing the health benefits of religiosity,
它们独立于你想加入的任何社会支持性组织之外
independent of you tend to get a social supportive community.
当你拥有宗教信仰时 你就少了很多危险的生活方式
When you’re religious you have fewer lifestyle risk factors.
这样的去认识因果关系 原因和仁慈——
The mere ability to perceive causality, reason, benevolence—
“如果我将单词拼写正确并且坚定的信仰它就能降临到我头上这样的仁慈”
“Benevolence especially for people like me
——的微不足道的能力
if I say the right combination of words and fervently believe in it”
具有极大的保护性并且有健康的好处
—that’s wonderfully protective and there’s health benefits to it.
如果这是一个完全冷漠的无情世界
If it is a totally heartless indifferent apathetic universe out there
你将更倾向于更有逻辑性的东西
you are far more at risk for all the logical things
而它们将让你得出这是一个令人沮丧的世界的危险结论
which is to conclude it is an utterly depressing universe out there.
数据显示抑郁的概率在无神论者群体中更高
Rates of depression are much higher among atheists go figure.
因此我们可以对人们为什么
So in terms of that it makes perfect sense why this is something
创造出这些东西给出完美的解释
that people have come up with and rather than asking
而且比起思考95%的人类为什么创造出各种形式的宗教信仰
why is it that 95% of humans come up with some form of religiosity,
对我来说更具有生物学趣味性的问题是
a much more biologically interesting question to me is:
那5%的无神论者为什么没有这样做?
What’s up with the 5% of atheists who don’t do that?

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视频概述

本视频简要介绍了宗教信仰的由来极其进化原因

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oldj11NEsc0

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