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2016年的太空探索破纪录事件 – 译学馆
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2016年的太空探索破纪录事件

Record-Breaking Space Discoveries of 2016!

2016年即将结束可能对大部分人来说又是平淡的一年 但是这一年中
2016 is almost over, and I don’t think any of us are going to miss it, but for the last
天文学家可是努力地在探索史前将近138亿年的
year astronomers have been working hard to catch up on what happened in the universe
宇宙中都发生了什么
during the almost 13.8 billion years we weren’t around for.
而且他们确实也有了许多破纪录的收获 包括一些宇宙中最远
And they’ve made some record-breaking discoveries along the way, including some of the farthest,
最小 也最年轻的星体
faintest, and youngest objects in the universe.
3月份的时候 天文学家通过哈勃望远镜
Back in March, astronomers working with the Hubble Space Telescope reported that they’d
找到了迄今为止我们发现的最远星系 这项报告被发表在《天体物理学》
spotted the farthest galaxy we’ve ever seen, in a study published in The Astrophysical
杂志上
Journal.
这个星系被命名为GN-z11 至少已经133亿岁了
The galaxy is called GN-z11, and it’s at least 13.3 billion years old.
极远的距离让它所发出的光线穿行了亿万年才到达地球
It’s so old that in the billions of years the light from that galaxy has taken to get
因为宇宙一直在膨胀 实际上这个星系距离我们已经有
to Earth, the universe has expanded to the point that the galaxy is actually 32 billion
320亿光年了
light years away.
为了测量这个距离 研究者们计算了
To measure its distance, the researchers calculated how the wavelength of the light from the galaxy
从这个星系发出的光的波长是如何偏移的
has shifted.
因为星系离我们原来越远 所以它的光波长一直在变长
Since the galaxy is moving away from us, the wavelength of its light is shifted toward
向红色光偏移 也就是我们所说的红移
the longer, redder side of the spectrum, in what’s known as redshift.
计算出红移的量对我们计算星系间的距离很有帮助
Figuring out how much its light has been redshifted helps determine a galaxy’s distance.
之前的红移最高记录是8.68 但是这个星系的红移是
The previous record holder had a redshift of 8.68, but this galaxy has a redshift of
11.1
11.1.
为了比较 想象宇宙形成的第一批恒星 – 那些在宇宙中距离最远的恒星
For comparison, the first stars ever born — some of the most distant objects in the
-它们的红移会是20
universe — would have a redshift of around 20.
不过当哈勃望远镜更强大的后继詹姆斯韦伯望远镜
But when Hubble’s more powerful successor, the James Webb Space Telescope, launches in
在2018年秋季发射后 科学家将能探测到那些在更远距离
the fall of 2018, scientists should be able to detect galaxies with even higher redshifts
有着更高红移的星系
that are even farther away.
所以很可能GN-z11的记录不会保持太久
So hopefully GN-z11 won’t be the record-holder for long.
不过今年天文学家们可不止发现了最远的星系
But astronomers found more than just the farthest galaxy we’ve ever seen this year.
他们还发现了最小的卫星星系
They also found the faintest satellite galaxy we’ve ever seen.
现在天文学家已经发现了50个左右的卫星星系围绕在银河系
So far, astronomers have discovered around 50 satellite galaxies that orbit the Milky
轨道上
Way.
11月份 发表在《天体物理学》杂志上的另一篇研究里 研究者
And in November, in another study published in The Astrophysical Journal, researchers
宣布他们发现了最暗淡的一个卫星星系
announced that they’d found the dimmest one yet.
名字叫Virgo 绝对星等-0.8
It’s called Virgo I, and it has an absolute magnitude of -0.8.
绝对星等是用来测量大约33光年外的星体亮度的单位
Absolute magnitude is a measure of an object’s brightness from around 33 light years away,
数值越高 星体的亮度越弱
and the higher the number, the dimmer the object.
比较一下 距离银河系最近的仙女座星系
For comparison, the Andromeda Galaxy, the closest major galaxy to the Milky Way, has
绝对星等是-20.9 也就是说 如果它在33光年外
an absolute magnitude of -20.9 — meaning that from 33 light years away, it would be
在地球上看 它会和太阳一样亮
almost as bright as the Sun is from Earth.
而Virgo I 会是夜空中最亮的星之一
Whereas Virgo I would be about as bright as some of the brightest stars in the night sky.
Virgo I 是用在夏威夷的斯巴鲁天文望远镜发现的 斯巴鲁望远镜之所以可以定位到Virgo I 是因为
Virgo I was discovered using the Subaru Telescope in Hawaii, which could spot the galaxy because
它比以前用来寻找卫星星系的望远镜拥有
it has a larger lens and a larger field of view than other telescopes that have been
更大的镜片和更广的视场
used to look for satellite galaxies before.
这项发现有助于解决一个问题:现有关于宇宙如何形成的理论
And its discovery is helping solve a problem: current theories about how the universe formed
预测了宇宙中应该有比我们已知的更多的卫星星系
predict that there should be a lot more satellite galaxies than we’ve seen.
Virgo I 的发现意味着也许有更多暗淡的卫星星系存在
But Virgo I’s discovery might mean there are hundreds more faint satellite galaxies
所以天文学家应该很快能找到更多的邻近星系
out there, so astronomers might soon be finding more galactic neighbors.
除了找到这些最古老的星系外 我们还发现了
In addition to some of the oldest things we’ve ever found, we’ve also found the youngest
最年轻的外行星
exoplanet we have ever seen.
欢迎来到行星家庭 K2-33b
Welcome to the planetary family, K2-33b.
这项发现对天文学家了解行星的生命周期
The discovery is super useful for astronomers trying to learn more about the life cycles
有着巨大帮助
of planets.
我们以前发现的外行星大多很远 至少10亿岁 这大概是
Most exoplanets we’ve seen so far are at least a billion years old, which is middle-aged
行星的中年岁数
by planetary standards.
新发现的外行星就是个婴儿:只有5百万到1千万岁
But this new planet is just a baby: It’s only 5 to 10 million years old.
研究使用了最先进的仪器 结果在6月份被发表在
The research took some of the best instruments we have, and the results were published in
《自然》杂志上
the journal Nature in June.
一开始 NASA的开普勒空间望远镜记录到了恒星K2-33的周期性变暗过程
First, NASA’s Kepler space telescope recorded periodic dimming in the star K2-33, which
这大概在距离地球473年的天蝎座上
is around 473 light years from Earth in the constellation Scorpius.
然后 夏威夷的W.M.Keck天文台
Then, the W.M.
确认了周期性变暗是一颗行星导致的
Keck Observatory in Hawaii confirmed the dimming was being caused by a planet.
之后NASA的Spitzer空间望远镜记录到了这颗行星周围更多的读数
Then NASA’s Spitzer space telescope took more readings about the planet’s neighborhood,
同时开普勒的数据确定了它的轨道 大小和质量
while data from Kepler was used to confirm its orbit, size, and mass.
这是次团队合作
So it was a team effort.
为了估计行星的年龄 研究者们首先用了它的母恒星的密度和
To find the age of the planet, researchers first used its parent star’s density and
温度去推测恒星的年龄
temperature to figure out the star’s age.
结果是恒星年龄大概在5百万到1千万年之间 因为恒星
They found that the star is between 5 and 10 million years old, and since stars come
肯定要比行星老 所以行星的年龄范围大概也就是这个值
before planets, the planet has to be in that range, too.
这颗婴儿外行星带该是地球的6倍大 绕行其母恒星一圈的时间大概是
The baby exoplanet is about six times larger than Earth, and it orbits its star about every
5天
five days.
研究者们希望继续研究新行星 而与这颗行星类似的行星将会告诉我们更多
And researchers hope studying this new planet and others like it will teach us more about
行星是如何形成的细节
how planets form.
今年的天文发现里 你最喜欢的是哪一个呢?
What were your favorite space discoveries this year?
在评论中留言告诉我们 下次见面就是2017年啦
Let us know in the comments, and we’ll see you in 2017.
顺便一说 如果你想帮助我们制作类似这期视频的节目
By the way, if you’d like to help us keep making episodes like this next year and beyond,
访问patreon.com/scishow 成为Patreon团队的一员吧–期待
you can go to patreon.com/scishow and become a member of our Patreon campaign- help us
你们的力量–当然如果你只想单纯的想和我们一起了解天文的知识和
out, I would love that- and if you just want to keep learning about space with us get all
听我讨论天文界的新发现 就来youtube.com/scishowspace
the space news as it comes out of my mouth you can go to youtube.com/scishowspace and
并订阅
subscribe.

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视频概述

视频讲解了天文学界2016年的一些重大发现,包括发现最远的卫星星系和最年轻的外行星。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

[B]刀子

审核员

【MR】Metro

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ppIp7FfvauQ

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