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如何理解圣经中的律法 – 译学馆
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如何理解圣经中的律法

Reading Biblical Law

如果你从头开始读圣经
If you start reading the Bible from the beginning,
读到第二卷《出埃及记》中间的时候
you will get about halfway through the second book, Exodus.
你会遇到大量的古代律法
You will come to a bunch of ancient laws.
“你应当这样做…… 你不可那么做……”
“Thou shalt do this… Thou shalt not do that…”
这些律法都是以散文论述的文学形式撰写的
These laws are all written in the literary style we call”prose discourse”.
它们遍及圣经的第二 第三 第四
They are found all over the second, third, fourth,
和第五卷
and fifth books of the Bible.
一共有600多条律法
There are over 600 laws.
因为阅读古代法典并不是你和朋友们经常会做的事
Since reading ancient law code is not something and your friends do a lot,
你很可能会读得非常吃力
odds are you going to struggle.
所以咱们一起来说说怎样阅读圣经里面的律法
So let’s talk about how to read the law in the Bible.
首先要记住的是
The first thing to remember is
圣经并不是一本行为手册
that the Bible is not a behavior manual
上面没有具体明细
with a complete list
去教你怎么样取悦上帝
of what to do and not to do to make God happy.
是的 圣经是一部叙事性的史诗
Right, the Bible is an epic narrative.
但是在故事里 上帝确实告诉了人们应该去做什么
But in the story, God does tell people what to do.
确确实实
For sure.
故事的开始是从上帝打算通过信任他
The story begins with God’s plan to rule the world
并且仰仗他的智慧生活的人类来掌管世界
through humans who will trust him and live by his wisdom.
这里我们碰到了上帝在圣经中的第一个指示
Here we find the first divine command in the Bible
“分辨善恶树上的果子 你不可吃
“Do not eat from the tree of knowing good and evil,
因为在吃的日子 你必定死”
because the day you do, you will die.”
但是人类掌控了权力
But the humans take the authority,
以自己的认识去定义善与恶 这样是不对的
know and define good and evil for themselves, and it is not good.
这导致了世间充满暴力与死亡
It leads to a world of violence and death.
他们被驱逐出了伊甸园
They are exiled from the garden.
好吧 所以这就是圣经中第一条“律法”吗?
Okay, so this was the first “law” in the Bible?
嗯 这是上帝的第一条指示
Well, it is the first divine command,
它邀请人们相信上帝并仰仗他的智慧生活
and it invites people to trust God and live by his wisdom
所以 虽然这条律法不是给以色列人的
So, while it is not part of the laws given to Israel,
但它是其他律法的先兆
it does foreshadow them.
因为这些律法也邀请人们信任上帝的智慧
Because those too are invitations to trust God’s wisdom.
那么以色列的律法是何时产生的呢?
So when do the laws of Israel come?
好吧 说个故事
Okay, here is the story.
以色列人曾被埃及所奴役
Israel is enslaved in Egypt.
上帝拯救了他们 然后邀请他们
So God saves them and then invites them
结成契约关系 就像结婚
into a covenant relationship, like a marriage.
律法构成了这个契约的条款
The laws make up the terms of that covenant.
那我们有这些上帝给予
So, do we get a catalogue
以色列人的所有律法的目录吗?
of all these laws that God gave Israel?
实际上没有 我们并没有得到所有的法律条款
Actually, no, we do not get all of the laws
只有一些范例
only examples.
这些范例都被巧妙地安置在了
These have been strategically placed in between stories
以色列人如何不断违反律法的故事中
about how Israel keeps violating the laws.
那么 我应该可以见得
So, I am supposed to see
以色列人和伊甸园中的人类没什么分别
that Israel is no different than the humans in the garden.
他们不信任上帝也不仰仗他的智慧去生活
They do not trust God or live by his wisdom.
是的 所以 这导致另一轮的灾难
Right. So, it leads to another round of tragedy,
暴力与死亡
violence and death.
他们最终被流放
And it ends in exile.
所以 尽管这些律法是有益的也显示了上帝的智慧
So, while the laws are good and show God’s wisdom,
但是也揭露了以色列人对上帝的不忠
they also expose Israel’s inability to be God’s faithful partners.
了解
I am following.
但是当我阅读这些律法时
But when I read the laws,
我发现了很多奇怪的东西
I find a lot of strange stuff,
比如不允许穿着两种不同布料所制成的服装
like not allowing clothing to be made of two different fabrics.
这怎么显示上帝的智慧了?
How does that show God’s wisdom?
好吧 你一定要知道
Okay, it is important to realize
这些律法中有许多是古老仪式的象征
that many of these laws are ancient ritual symbols
它们让以色列人被分别出来 变得圣洁
that set Israel apart, that is, made them holy.
一些律法使以色列区别于邻国
Some laws made Israel distinct from neighboring nations.
另一些律法则使他们远离那些
Other laws kept them away from things that
在他们文化中象征死亡 疾病 和道德败坏的东西
in their culture symbolized death, disease, and moral corruption.
好吧 但是牲畜的宰杀仪式又怎么说呢?
Okay, but what about all of the ritual killing of animals?
献祭虽然也是象征性的仪式 但它能把人与上帝联结起来
Sacrifices were also ritual symbols but connected people to God.
因为我们作为凡人
Since you, a mortal,
是无法升到上帝在天上的圣殿里的
can not ascend up to God’s presence in the heavenly temple,
而被献上的无罪的牲畜
a blameless animal that was offered
可以升到圣殿中替你赎罪
could go up in your place, covering for your failures,
那样你就能知道自己被上帝接纳了
so you can know you are accepted by God.
明白了 但是并不是所有的律法都是古代宗教仪式
I see. But not all of the laws are ancient rituals.
其中有一些只是关于做好人 施善行的
Some of them are just about being a good person and treating others well.
是的 但是这些律法并不仅仅只在于做好人
Yes, but these laws are not just about being good.
而在于正义 这对上帝来说是很重要的
They are about justice, which is a big deal to God.
在圣经的第一页上
On the first page of the Bible,
我们得知每个人是照着神的形象创造的
we learn that every human is made in God’s image
而且都是值得尊重的
and is worthy of dignity.
在以色列时代 这些律法应用了这一理想
These laws apply that ideal in Israel’s day.
实际上 现如今有许多我们认为理所当然的
In fact, these laws still underlie many of the concepts
公平公正的概念都是由这些律法所构成的
of justice and equality that we take for granted.
但是有的律法似乎不太公平
But some of the laws do not seem just.
比如允许奴隶制度的存在
Like laws that allow for slavery.
如果你从古代文化的角度审视这些律法
Well, if you look at those laws in their ancient cultural context,
你就会明白神在根据以色列人当时的状况
you will see that God is working with Israel as he finds them,
将他们推向正义
pushing them towards justice.
所以奴隶制度没有被废除 但是有被削弱
So slavery is not abolished, but it is undermined.
比如 以色列人每七年必须像《出埃及记》那样实行解放
For example, Israel was supposed to reenact the exodus liberation
也就是把奴隶释放 把所有债务都免除
by releasing slaves and forgiving all debts every seven years.
此举在古代可谓是革命性的
This was revolutionary in the ancient world.
行吧 那关于每周第七天作为安息日还有
Alright. What about all the laws about Sabbath rest
所有为时七天的节日的律法又怎么讲呢?
on the seventh day and all the seven day feasts?
我的意思是 这些都是怎么设定的
I mean, what is up with all of these sets?
这些关于神圣节日的律法
These laws about sacred time are all connected
都与《创世纪》中开天辟地的故事有关
to the first creation narrative in Genesis.
上帝用六天时间在混沌中创造了秩序
God brings order out of chaos in six days
使得每一天都有开端和结束
that each have a clear beginning and end.
但到了第七天 却没有了尽头
But when you get to the seventh day, it has no end.
因为这旨在体现人类在上帝的统治
That is because it is pointing to the ideal
与休息中结成的合作关系
of humans partnering with God in his rule and rest.
这些为期七天的节日
All of these seven-day feasts are rituals that symbolize
都是象征着人类真实使命与未来的仪式
humanity’s true purpose and future.
好的 所以上帝给予以色列人的律法
Okay. So all of these laws given to Israel
都能分成这些基本类别了
can fit into those basic categories.
没错 而且每一类都彰显了上帝的核心智慧
Yes, and each category expresses a core ideal of God’s wisdom.
律法展现了这些思想该如何应用于
The laws show how those ideals should be applied
古代以色列的文化之中
in the culture of ancient Israel.
但是 故事讲得很清楚
But, as the story makes clear,
以色列人一次又一次地违背律法
Israel failed at fulfilling the law, over and over.
上帝如何让人类相信他的智慧?
How is God going to get humans to trust his wisdom?
嗯 摩西和后来的先知们始终相信
Well, Moses and the prophets after him trusted
总有一天 上帝会改变人类的心灵
that one day, God would transform the human heart
使他们成为相信他智慧的忠实盟约伙伴
so people can be faithful covenant partners who trust his wisdom.
这就要讲到耶稣的故事了
That brings us to the story of Jesus.
耶稣说他是来遵行律法的
Jesus said he came to fulfill the law.
是的 他是忠实的盟约伙伴
Right. He was the faithful covenant partner
以色列人和全人类本来都应该是
that Israel and all humanity was made to be,
但是都未能成功
but has failed to be.
耶稣恪守着以神圣思想为基础的律法
Jesus lived by the divine ideals underlying the laws.
他教导说 只要爱神 并且爱人如己
And he taught that the laws are all fulfilled when you love God
律法就已经被履行了
and love your neighbor as yourself.
而且耶稣承诺神的灵会降临 让信徒们被改变
And Jesus promised that God’s Spirit would come and transform his followers,
这样他们也能如此般生活
so they too could live this way.
所以现如今耶稣的信徒们在读这些律法的时候
So when followers of Jesus read these laws today,
一定要牢记它们都是在古老文化背景之下给予以色列人的
we need to remember they were given to Israel in their ancient cultural setting.
很多律法是你怎么尝试也遵行不了的
You could not follow many of them even if you tried.
但你能做的就是感受神在这些律法中展现的智慧
But, what you can do is see God’s wisdom in the laws.
是的 而且相信上帝的灵
Right. And trust that God’s
会指引你领悟他的智慧
Spirit can guide you to follow that wisdom
只要你爱神 并且爱人如己
as you learn to love God and to love your neighbor as yourself.

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视频概述

本视频通圣经中律法的历史背景及文化环境帮助大家更好地去理解圣经中所提及的一些晦涩难懂的律法

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Proxima Midnight

审核员

审核员B

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sew1kBIe-W0

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