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麦当劳的创始人雷·克罗克

RAY KROC The Founder of McDonald's | Animated Book Summary

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OBTAIN EUDAIMONIA
雷•克拉克:麦当劳餐厅建设者
RAY KROC:MCDONALD’ RESTAURANTS BUILDER
乔安妮•马特恩制作
BY JOANNE MATTERN
雷•克拉克使麦当劳从一个单纯的餐厅变成了如今的
Ray Kroc is the man who turned McDonald’s from a single restaurant into the fast-food
快餐届的领头羊
giant it is today.
在他成长期间他的家庭并不是特别富有 但克拉克却拥有一个快乐的童年
His family did not have much money growing up but Kroc had a happy childhood.
他喜欢打排球并且在6岁的时候学习钢琴
He liked playing baseball and learnt playing piano at the age of 6.
即使是小时候 他也很擅长卖东西
He was also good at selling things, even at a young age.
身为创业家 他作出的努力包括 与朋友合作经营柠檬汁摊位
His entrepreneurial endeavours included running a lemonade stand and starting a music store
以及音乐商店
with his friends.
早期的这些工作为商人克拉克铺好了一条通向成功的道路
This early work set Kroc on the path to becoming a successful businessman.
1917年 美国参与了第一次世界大战
In 1917, the United States entered World War I.
15岁时 克拉克谎报年龄以加入红十字会 为战争出力
At 15, he lied about his age to join the Red Cross and help the war effort.
他参加了救护车司机的培训 但在他可以出国之前 战争结束了
He trained to be an ambulance driver but the war was over before he could go abroad.
战争结束之后 克拉克结婚了并且有了一个女儿
After the war, Kroc got married and had a daughter.
为供养初成的家庭 他找了份向餐厅售卖纸杯的工作
To support his young family he took a job selling paper cups to restaurants.
没多久 他就成为了公司的最佳销售人员之一
It did not take him long to become one of the best salesmen in the company.
他也尝试过其他工作 如售卖房地产和弹钢琴
He experimented with other jobs such as selling real estate and playing the piano but it was
但 很明显他还是在销售方面做得最好
clear selling was what he did best.
最终他返回了莉莉郁金香杯具公司
He returned to the Lily-Tulip Cup Company
在他的顾客中 有一位是在芝加哥拥有几家冰淇淋店的商人
One of his customers was a businessman who owned several ice cream shops in Chicago.
他曾发明了一种叫做多用混合器的机器 它一次能做五杯奶昔
He had invented a machine that could make five milk shakes at once called the Multimixer.
在克拉克了解到那是一个很棒的产品之后 他就去努力说服他的公司售卖多用混合器
Kroc tried to get his company to sell the Multimixer as he knew it was a great product
但公司对这个并不感兴趣
but they were not interested.
所以1939年 他做了一个重大的决定 辞职然后开办自己的公司
So in 1939, he made the huge decision to quit his job and start his own company selling
向其他的餐馆和冰淇淋摊位售卖多用混合器
the Multimixer to other restaurants and ice cream stands.
作为一个曾经的最佳销售人员 克拉克将他的公司发展得非常成功
As he was an excellent salesman, Kroc developed his company into a very successful outfit.
他采用了一些策略 如用他的机器开发新品种的饮品
He employed tactics such as inventing new drinks to make with his machine and a decade
十年后 他在国内各大城市的年销售量已经超过9000台
later he was selling over 9,000 Multimixers a year in cities all around the country.
在20世纪50年代 克拉克的顾客开始流失
By the 50s, Kroc began losing customers.
人们不断从市区搬去郊区 他们开车去大餐厅
People were moving from the cities into suburbs and drove to large restaurants instead of
而不是去一个单独售卖冰淇淋的摊位
going to independent ice cream stands.
结果 冰淇淋摊位逐渐倒闭 再没有克拉克的顾客了
As a result, the ice cream stands went out of business and were no longer Kroc’s customers.
但是克拉克仍然从一家小餐厅接到了大量订单
Kroc was still getting plenty of business from one small restaurant.
那就是圣贝纳迪诺州和加利福尼亚州的麦当劳 他们订了八台多用混合器
It was called McDonald’s in San Bernardino, California and they had eight Multimixers.
1954年 克拉克拜访了拥有这个餐厅的兄弟俩 莫里斯和理查德•麦克唐纳
Kroc went to visit the brothers who owned the restaurant, Maurice and Richard McDonald
他发现这是个非常小的餐厅 人们都在外面排队
in 1954 and discovered it was a very small restaurant with people queuing up outside,
在窗口点餐
ordering food from a window.
而且这里的食物种类很少 他们只卖汉堡 炸薯条 软饮料以及奶昔
The food was very limited as they only sold burgers, fries, soft drinks and milk shakes
但这的食物供应非常快
but the food was served extremely quickly.
克拉克觉得这种餐厅的经营模式非常不错 于是建议这对兄弟
Kroc thought the restaurant was a brilliant idea and suggested to the brothers that they
来拓展他们的生意
expand their business.
兄弟俩拒绝了 因为他们不想承受更多的责任
The brothers refused as they didn’t want the added responsibility.
于是克拉克换了个方式 提出获得餐厅的特许经营权
Instead, Kroc offered to start a restaurant franchise.
他们三人一致同意克拉克使用麦当劳的名字 并且兄弟二人可以
The three of them agreed that Kroc could use the McDonald’s name and the brothers would
获得一定比例的销售额
get a percentage of the sales.
1955年 克拉克开了第一家特许经营公司 麦当劳系统公司
In 1955, Kroc started his franchise company, McDonald’s System Inc. and opened his first
并于同年四月在德斯普兰斯市开了第一家麦当劳
McDonald’s in Des Plaines in April that year.
麦当劳兄弟教他如何像他们那样来经营餐厅
The McDonald brothers taught him how to run the restaurant like they did, including how
包括如何快速准备和供应食物
on the restaurant’s first day, Kroc made $366.
幸好有厨房高效的组织
Thanks to an efficient setup in the kitchen,
餐厅开业第一天 克拉克收入366美元
on the restaurant’s first day, Kroc made $366.
他极其努力地经营这个餐厅 来保证餐厅的成功运营
He worked extremely hard at his restaurant to ensure it was a success,
从捡拾餐厅外的垃圾以使餐厅看上去吸引人并干净
from picking up rubbish outside to make the restaurant look attractive and clean,
到训练他的员工牢记 质量 整洁和服务都非常重要
to training his workers to remember quality, cleanliness and service were all important.
克拉克也帮助别人开办特许经营的麦当劳新餐厅
Kroc also helped other people set up new McDonald’s restaurants as franchises.
第一年 他开了18家分店 到1957年已有40家麦当劳
In the first year, he sold 18 franchises and by 1957 there were 40 McDonald’s.
对克拉克来说 一致性很重要
Consistency was important to Kroc.
就像每间店都有着同样的名字 他也想让顾客在每间店
As well as each restaurant being called the same, he wanted every customer to have the
拥有同样的体验 因此每个分店代理人都需遵守许多规则
same experience so there were many rules to follow for each franchise owner.
菜单必须一样 菜单上的每一种商品也必须按同样的方式准备
The menu had to be the same and each item on the menu had to be prepared the same way
不论顾客在哪家餐厅进餐
regardless of which restaurant a customer was eating in.
这个策略奏效了 有的代理人赚到的钱比克拉克还多
This strategy worked and some franchise owners were making more money than Kroc was.
克拉克迈向成功的下一步是 创办一个房地产公司
Kroc’s next step toward success was to set up a real estate company.
公司将会购买土地供经销商租赁和开店
The company would buy the land that franchisees could then rent to run a McDonald’s restaurant on.
这种运作系统主要有两个好处
There were two major benefits of this system.
第一 克拉克能够为每一家新店选址
One it let Kroc choose the location for each new McDonald’s
第二 他会赚很多钱
and two, it made him a lot of money.
1960年 克拉克卖掉他的Malt-A-Mixer公司
By 1960, Kroc sold his Malt-A-Mixer Company
同时麦当劳系统公司成为了麦当劳公司
and McDonald’s System Inc. became McDonald’s Corporation.
当时克拉克从他现有的228家餐厅的利润里 给麦当劳兄弟俩分红
Kroc was sharing the profits from the 228 restaurants he now had with the McDonald’s brothers
1961年 他同意以270万美元从兄弟俩手中买下麦当劳的名称
and in 1961 he agreed to buy the McDonald’s name from them for $2.7million
并取得其独家的经营权
to take sole control of the company.
在以后的六十年代中 克拉克的餐厅开办进入了一个大肆扩张的时期
Throughout the rest of the 60s, Kroc entered a period of vast expansion opening restaurants
遍及全美 甚至进入加拿大和波多黎各
all over the US and into Canada and Puerto Rico.
为了保证一致 他在每个餐厅都力行严格条例
He enforced his strict rules at each restaurant to ensure consistency and conformity
但允许代理人提出新想法
but did allow franchisees to suggest new ideas.
1962年 在辛辛那提市 菜单中新增了麦香鱼汉堡
In 1962 in Cincinnati the Filet-O-Fish was added to the menu.
1968年在匹兹堡市 推出新品巨无霸
In 1968 in Pittsburgh the Big Mac was introduced.
克罗克也总是能很快认清错误
Kroc was also quick to acknowledge when he was wrong.
推出的草裙舞堡夹由一片烤菠萝片
The Hulaburger was introduced as a slice of grilled pineapple
两片奶酪和小圆面饼组成 没有任何肉
and two slices of cheese on a bun with no meat.
事实证明 它并不受欢迎 很快它就被移出了菜单
It did not prove popular and was quickly taken off the menu.
克拉克将麦当劳定位于家庭友好型餐厅
Kroc pitched McDonald’s as family-friendly restaurants,
在电视和杂志上宣传麦当劳的干净和物美价廉
promoting the fact that they were clean and affordable places to eat on TV and in magazines.
1963年罗纳德·麦当劳作为一位搞笑的小丑被推出
In 1963, Ronald McDonald was introduced as a playful clown,
并很快成为世界上最有识别度的儿童角色之一
soon becoming one of the most recognizing children’s characters in the world
和一个非常成功的销售吉祥物
and a very successful marketing mascot.
许多餐厅也推出游戏区 小孩子可以在那里玩耍
Many of his restaurants also introduced play areas where children could have fun
以维持家庭友好的主题
to maintain the family-friendly theme.
1979年 所有餐厅首次推出了开心乐园餐
1979 saw the rollout of Happy Meals to each McDonald’s.
每个套餐都包含一个小玩具 极其受小朋友们的欢迎
Each meal included a small toy and proved extremely popular with children.
因此儿童乐园餐也是一个极其强大的营销工具
Therefore it was also an extremely powerful marketing tool,
可以宣传电影周边 电视节目或者玩具品牌
allowing tie-ins with films, TV shows or toy brands.
克拉克从麦当劳中受益颇丰 他向慈善事业捐献了他的部分财产
Kroc became extremely wealthy from McDonald’s and donated part of his fortune to charity
通过捐款和其他一些慈善活动
through donations and other charitable activities.
他在1969年建立了克拉克基金会来为抵御疾病募捐 比如
He started the Kroc Foundation in 1969 to raise money to help fight diseases such as
糖尿病 关节炎以及多发性硬化症
diabetes, arthritis and multiple sclerosis.
克拉克1973年从麦当劳辞去CEO一职
Kroc retired as CEO from the McDonald’s Corporation in 1973
但是 他仍然活跃在董事会层面
but still stayed active on the board of directors
一直为麦当劳工作直至他在1984年去世
and carried on working for McDonald’s until he died in 1984.
他的遗产流传至今 麦当劳已经在119个国家里 拥有了超过36000家餐厅
His legacy continues to this day and the company has over 36,000 restaurants in 119 countries.
雷•克拉克使制作食物快速 便捷 一致的简单想法
Ray Kroc’s simple idea of making food fast, convenient and consistent
永久改变了许多人的吃饭方式
has changed the way many people eat forever.
他的努力 销售技巧和对创新的兴趣 帮助麦当劳成为了
His hard work, skill as a salesman and interest in innovation has helped McDonald’s become
世界上最伟大的商业成功案例之一
one of the greatest business success stories in the world.

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