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镭辐射曾经是个神奇的产品直到它开始杀人 – 译学馆
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镭辐射曾经是个神奇的产品直到它开始杀人

Radium Was a Miracle Product, Until it Started Killing People

想让你的贝齿更加亮白么
Hoping to get your pearly whites brighter?
试试辐射牙膏吧
Try radioactive toothpaste!
觉得面包干硬难吃么
Is that a sad, boring piece of toast?
试试美味的放射黄油吧
Spread on some radium butter for a tasty treat.
感到精疲力尽了吗
Looking worn out?
试试放射化妆品吧 让你的肌肤焕发光彩重返青春
Don’t forget to treat your skin with radium cosmetics, for that bright, youthful look.
想到那些放射性物质的危险 这些产品看起来荒谬不堪
Considering what we now know about the dangers of radiation, these products seem preposterous.
但是它们是真实存在的
But they were real.
在二十世纪初 核辐射的有害影响还没有得到广泛认识
In the early 20th century, the harmful effects of radiation exposure weren’t fully known
直到美国新泽西州的一群女士付出了生命的代价 才使人们意识到这一点
until a group of women in New Jersey paid a fatal price for us to find out.
所以 究竟什么是镭呢
So, what is radium anyway?
镭是由居里和居里夫人在1898年发现的化学元素
Well, radium is a chemical element that was discovered by Marie and Pierre Curie in 1898.
它存在于铀矿石之中 由铀和钍分解形成
It’s found in uranium ore and is formed when uranium and thorium break down.
它是一种高辐射的物质 也就意味着它释放出的能量被称为辐射能
It’s highly radioactive, which means it gives off energy called radiation.
这种辐射能对于治疗癌症十分有效 这也是
And that radioactivity is actually useful in treating cancers, which is exactly what
它刚被分解出来时的最初用途
radium was used for shortly after its isolation.
除了这些 它还能释放出炫目的蓝辉光
In addition to all of that, it also gives off a pretty cool faint, blue glow.
现在 20世纪初 这种神奇的治愈功能和能发射出
Now, at the beginning of the 20th century, the mystical healing properties and glow of
镭的特性被广泛应用于从食品到化妆品行业的销售广告
radium were being used by advertisers to sell a range of products from food to cosmetics.
它就像20世纪早期版的羽衣甘蓝 只不过它不是茂盛的绿叶植物
It was like the early 1900’s version of kale, except instead of being a leafy green,
而是一种可怕的致命放射性盐
its horrifically deadly radiation salts.
有时它不过是一个讨巧的活动策划 但是有些产品 比如饮品
Sometimes this was just a clever marketing ploy, but certain products, like the drink
却确实含有微量的这种化学元素
Radithor, actually contained small amounts of the chemical element.
这种万金油式的药物曾因被著名的高尔夫冠军埃本·拜尔斯使用而出名 他后来
The elixir was famously used by celebrity golf champion Eben Byers, who later died from
因核辐射中毒而死
radiation poisoning.
但是并不是镭的药用功能导致它产生危险
But it wasn’t radium’s medicinal uses that led to the exposure of it dangerous side
的功能
effects.
而是因为它在夜光颜料中的使用
It was its use in glow-in-the dark paint.
在新泽西州的奥兰治城 美国镭企业用一种名为”Undark”的镭射夜光颜料
In Orange, New Jersey, the United States Radium Corporation used a radioluminescent paint
去使军用手表的钟面发光
called “Undark” to illuminate the dials on watches used by the military.
工厂里给手表涂颜料的女工被要求用她们的嘴唇去
The women working in the factory who painted the watches were instructed to use their lips
将笔刷尖舔成一个细致的点
to fashion their brushes to a fine point.
虽然她们的衣服和头发会因为暴露在核辐射中而发光
And while their clothes and hair would glow from the radiation exposure, they were all
公司却向她们保证这是完全无害的
assured it was safe.
但是接下来 这些最终被成为“镭女郎”的女孩们开始罹患严重的疾病
But then, the eventually nicknamed “Radium Girls” started to become gravely ill.
她们的牙齿脱落 她们的骨头折断 甚至连她们的下颌骨都脱落了
Their teeth fell out, their bones broke, their jaws actually fell apart.
一开始 没有人怀疑具有“奇迹般功效”的镭是这一切的罪魁祸首
At first, the miraculous radium wasn’t the suspected culprit for all of this.
但是 在1925年 一位医疗检查专家有了一个惊人的发现:这些女工
But, in 1925, a medical examiner made the shocking discovery: the radium that they were
在她们的头发 衣服 皮肤和嘴唇上涂抹的镭元素被吸收进了她们的骨骼中
putting on their hair, clothes, skin and lips had been absorbed into the women’s bones.
原来 镭元素很容易被人体当做钙元素而被吸收
Radium, as it turns out, is easily mistaken for calcium by the human body.
而一旦被吸收了 这些镭元素会用α射线辐射骨骼
And once it’s absorbed, the radium blasts the bones with alpha rays, resulting in bone
导致骨骼损伤 细胞突变和癌症
damage, cell mutation and cancer.
一些工人们对美国镭企业发起诉讼 但是他们的雇主反驳
Some of the workers sued the U.S. Radium Corporation, but their employer fought back, blaming the
将女工们健康条件恶化归咎于梅毒
women’s worsening health conditions on syphilis.
这些女工们将他们告上法庭 得到了终身的保险金和医疗优惠条件
The women settled their case out of court, receiving a lifetime annuity and medical benefits.
但是她们在十年之内就全部死亡了
Within a decade, they had all died.
镭女郎们的故事在法庭判决之后仍然继续着
But the Radium Girls story continued after their court case.
国家领导将此作为员工因工作中的
The ruling set the precedent that workers could sue employers
非人待遇导致的损害而将雇主告上法庭的先例
based on damages for on-the-job abuse.
而且 她们的故事带动了关于核辐射负面作用的更深入的研究
And their story led to further investigation into the adverse effects of radiation.
如今我们对核辐射的适用非常广泛 从x光到癌症治疗
Today we use radiation in a lot of different ways, from x-rays to treating cancer.
我们已经更加了解核辐射和它的风险 而且也有了许多相关法律来
We better understand radiation and its risks, and there are several laws in place to protect
保护我们远离核辐射的危险
us from the dangers of radiation.
不幸的是 直到那场悲剧的发生才有人停下来审视
Unfortunately, it took a tragic event for someone to stop and take a look at the possible
放射性材料对人体可能存在的危害
dangerous effects of radioactive material on the human body.
想要知道更多关于医学历史的信息吗?
Want to know more about medical history?
那就去看看这个我讲述第一次种牛痘是什么感觉的视频吧
Well check out this video I did about what it was like to get the very first vaccine.
别忘了点击订阅我们的视频 一定要回来观看更多的Seeker视频喔
Don’t forget to subscribe and make sure you come back for more Seeker videos.

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视频概述

谁能想到,镭这种稀有的放射性元素竟然曾经被广泛使用在日用品里??

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木子望鹭

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UVTn0-HvRyk

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