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量子计算 – 万物的基础1 – 译学馆
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量子计算 - 万物的基础1

Quantum Computing - The Foundation of Everything - Extra History - #1

1927年
The year is 1927.
29个人聚集在布鲁塞尔谈论物理问题
29 people gather in Brussels to discuss physics.
其中17个人将最终获得诺贝尔奖
17 of those people will eventually win a Nobel Prize.
几天后在利奥波德公园中心
And for a few short days in the middle of Leopold Park.
他们将对最微小的
They will wrestle with the smallest question
或人类史上最大的问题进行挑战
or perhaps the biggest one to ever face mankind.
关于万物组成的基本问题
The question at the foundation of everything.
音乐
[Music]
在那几天里那29个物理学家
For those few days those 29 physicists
与量子决定因素问题斗智斗勇
wrestled with the question of the quantum determinancy
以及我们这个世界归根到底
and whether our world at the minutest level operates
是有固定的运行机制还是都是偶然
as a fixed system or merely as a group of probabilities.
他们的问题都基于现代物理中最古老的问题
Their question stemmed from one of the oldest problems in modern physics,
光的问题
the problem of light.
三个世纪以来
For nearly three centuries,
自从牛顿写了他著名的《光学》论文
since Newton wrote his famous treatise on optics.
物理学家们就在争论光是粒子还是波
Physicists had debated whether light was a particle or a wave.
1803年这个争论似乎被
in 1803, this argument was thought to be put to rest
史上最出色最简单的实验解决了
by one of the most beautiful and simple experiments ever created.
双缝实验
The double slit experiment.
好的
Okay
假设有两个浮标在水中上下抖动
Think of two buoys bobbing up and down in the water.
当波向外扩散
As the waves spreading out
碰到对面浮标的波并重合
from these buoys hit each other and overlap.
它们就在干涉对方
They interfere with each other.
如果一个波的波峰撞上另一个波的波峰
If the peak of one wave hits the peak of another,
它们就会增强变成一大波
they’ll amplify and become a bigger wave.
波谷也一样
Same with the troughs,
但是如果一个波峰撞到另一个波谷上
but if a peak of one wave hits the trough of the other,
它们就会变平 结合在一起什么也没有
they’ll just flatten out they’ll combined back down to nothing.
一个叫托马斯·杨的男人说过
A man named Thomas Young said,
“ 我们试试光是否适用这个原理 ”
“Let’s take that principle and apply it to light.”
之后他就做了最简单的事
And so he did the simplest thing imaginable.
他找了一个单色光
He took a monochromatic light
以确定光有相同波长
to make sure that all the lighthad the same wavelength,
他把光照向隔板
and he shone it on a partition
划了两个小缝
with two small slits cut into it.
如果光是粒子
If light acted like a particle,
他只会看见两列光
he should simply see two columns of light
照在另一侧的墙上
on the wall on the other side.
但是如果光是波
But if light was a wave
那么波两个缝都会透过
then the waves coming through each of the slits
并会干扰对方
should interfere with each other,
一路增益或相消
amplifying and cancelling each other out in places.
他就会看到奇怪的图案
And he would instead see a weird pattern of
一排亮线和暗线
bright and dark lines as a result.
果不其然他真的看见了
And as he expected he did indeed see
这个很潮的图案 就这样
that funky pattern and that was that.
光的粒子理论解决了并束之高阁
The particle theory of light was done and dusted.
他把这个鬼东西解决了
He’d solved the dang thing.
大家可以接下来
Now everyone could finally move on
讨论一下他多聪明啊
to talking about just how smart he was.
但是其它实验室的物理学家们
But then physicists in other labs,
发现他们的自己实验结果有些奇特
found something strange in their own experiments.
他们发现当光撞到一个物质
They found that when light strikes a material
光会强迫这个物质吐出电子
it can force electrons to spew out of it.
这并不奇怪
This wasn’t that startling
但是不该是这种方式
but the way it happened was all wrong.
也不该这么发生
and definitely not how it should have happened
如果光真的是
if light was the continuous wave,
他们认为的连续波
they’d believed it to be.
之后在1900年一个叫马克斯·普朗克的男人
Then in 1900 a man named Max Planck
提出一个匹配的方程式
came up with an equation that fit.
解释的很合理
It made sense what was happening.
但是正如普朗克后来所说
But as Planck himself would later say,
这是无奈之举
It was an act of desperation.
它颠覆了他的认知
It went against everything he thought he knew.
唯一能使方程式运作的方法
The only way he could get all of the math to work
就是把能量视为
was by treating energy as something
只能被吸收或释放的离散单元
that could only be absorbed or released in discrete units.
他觉得 怎么可能呢
How could this be? He thought.
能量怎么会不是连续的
How could energy not be continuous?
怎么不是一个波
How could it not be a flow?
他都整不明白
He had no idea.
然后这个叫爱因斯坦的小伙子
But then this fellow named Einstein
将普朗克的绝望变成自己的起点
took Planck’s act of desperation and ran with it.
他宣称光本身就是量子化的
He declared that light itself was quantized.
我们可以这么想
That in many ways we can think of it
它是一个质量为零的粒子
as a particle of zero mass always moving at,
一直以光速运动
well, the speed of light.
正因为这个理论
And it is for this theory,
而不是狭义或广义相对论
not for special or general relativity,
让爱因斯坦获得诺贝尔奖
that Einstein was awarded his Nobel Prize.
因为这个理念 现在称它为光子
Because this concept, which we now call the photon
解决了许多遗留问题
solved a number of lingering issues with
关于光如何在世界上运行
how light interacted with the world.
但是光子又把我们带回
But the photon brings us right back to
托马斯·杨的双缝实验的问题上去
the problem of Thomas Young’s double-slit experiment.
如果光同时拥有
Because if light has both the properties
波和粒子的属性
of a wave and a particle.
那么把那些粒子对着狭缝
What happens, if you fire those particles through the slits
一个一个发射会怎么样
one at a time?
就这样史上最神奇
Well, here is where this becomes the most astonishing
最简陋的实验就出现了
and humble experiment ever devised.
因为如果你把一个光子射向狭缝
Because if you shoot one photon at the slits
然后检测到它撞在另一面的位置
and detect where it hits on the other side
结果是撞的位置非常随意
You’ll find that it impacts some arbitrary point,
跟你想的差不多
just the way you think it should.
你再发射第二枚光子
And if you fire a second photon through
它也一样
you’ll find that it too shows up
出现在另一面其他非常随便的地方
at some other arbitrary point on the other side.
但是只要次数足够多
But if you do this enough times,
你将最终看见它们堆出来的干涉图
you’ll eventually see the same interference pattern build up
跟之前托马斯的原实验一模一样
that we got back in Thomas’s original experiments.
疯了吧
That is madness.
每一个光子
Each individual photon,
应该不受其他光子影响
which should be completely independent of the rest,
射到墙上看起来很随机的位置
shows up at some seemingly random point on your wall.
到底会射到哪里
And exactly where they show up
每一次都不固定
will be different each time you run the experiments
还有!
And!
知道之前的光子撞到哪
Knowing where the previous photon appeared,
根本不可能让你推测出
in no way allows you to predict,
下一颗会出现在哪里
where the next one will show up.
但是 把它们看成一个整体 它们好像
Yet, when taken as a group it’s as if they’re affected
又有规律的影响彼此
by how they should interfere with each other.
感觉不可能 但是实验就是这样
This feels impossible and yet it is experimental fact.
这个现象的原因
And the reason for this phenomenon
是物理学中热议的神秘现象
is one of the most hotly debated mysteries in physics.
因为唯一能解释的通的说法是
Because the only way to conceptualize this
每一个光子穿过两个狭缝时
is that each photon passes through both slits
是以波的形式自我干扰
as a wave interferes with itself.
然后又变成光子
and then resolves down to a photon,
撞到墙上
when it actually hits the wall.
搞什么 这是什么
What is going on here? What is this?
不 不 不 这不可能
No, no, no, this is magic.
这不可能
This is magic!
– 喵- 好 佐伊我听话
– Meow- No, you’re right Zoey.
我得冷静一点还没讲完
I should calm down because we are not done yet.
接下来才是更诡异的时刻
Because here is where it gets really freaky.
还记得托马斯第一次是怎么做实验的吗
Remember how when Thomas was first doing his experiment?
我们说过如果光真是个粒子
We said that if light were really a particle,
我们只能看见两条光柱
we should just see two columns of light
照在双狭缝纸的另一侧
on the other side of his double slit paper?
如果你在狭缝上放一个探测器
Well, if you put a detector on the slits,
用来检测
so that you can determine
发射的光子从哪个狭缝通过
which slit the photon you fired passes through.
事实就是这样
That is exactly what you get.
只要这么做
That’s all you have to do.
你都不要改变实验
You don’t have to change the experiment
一点都不要改或干扰光子
in any way or interfere directly with the photon.
你只要检测
You simply have to measure
光子从哪个狭缝通过
which slit the photon passes through.
为什么会这样
Why does it do this?
因为光子是粒子也是波
Because a photon is a particle and a wave,
但是它不能同时是两者
but it can’t be both simultaneously.
这种测量光子会通过哪个路径行为
The mere act of measuring which path the photon took
强迫光子改变波形本性
forces it to resolve the wave-like nature
变成一个粒子
of the photon into a particle.
这可能是最难理解的事
And this may be the hardest thing
将思维沉浸于量子物理中
to wrap your head around in all of quantum physics.
常规理念是
because the most common way to view this
当光子的行为像波的时候
is that the photon when acting like a wave
它不是真正的波
isn’t a real wave at all.
而是一堆可能性组成的波
But rather a wave of possibilities.
那波表示光子
That wave represents where the photon
会在哪而不是在哪里
could be but not where it is.
只有当有东西检测
It’s only when something acts to detect the photon
可以是测量仪或是
whether it be your measuring device or the wall
双缝实验另一侧的墙
on the opposite side of your double slit experiment.
光子才会没办法被迫
That the photon is forced to, for lack of a better term,
决定到底会出现在哪里
decide on where it will actually be
这样做的话它就变成了一个粒子
and in doing so becomes a particle.
更难理解的是 事实上这些可能性的波
More unsettling still, is the fact that these waves of possibility
互相干扰就像其他正常的波
interfere with each other just like normal waves.
我们看到光子发射的干涉图像
The interference pattern we see from firing particles
那个光子一个一个穿过双缝的实验
one at a time through the double slit experiment
是由波峰与波谷的可能性组成的
is caused by peaks and troughs of possibility,
其它可能性就相消了
cancelling each other out.
当你发射一个光子
When you fire that photon
这个可能性波撞到你的双缝实验纸
and the wave of possibility hits your double slit paper.
它挤过去形成两个可能性波
It is funneled through as two possibility waves.
跟其它实体波一样运动
Just in the way that any regular physical wave would be.
也像那些波一样
And just like those regular waves,
可能性波互相影响
waves of possibility interfere with each other.
基本上
Essentially making it so there are places
或多或少
where it is more or less likely
光子有固定的地方可以检测到
for a photon to land when detected.
这样当你一次性发射许多光子的时候
Thus, when you fire a lot of photons one at a time
它们穿过你的双缝实验
through your double slit experiment.
你看到的光带只是高可能性线的展示
The bands you see are simply the high probability lines playing out.
但是如果你以为我们奇葩理念都讲完了
But if you think we’re done getting weird,
你再想一下 我们才第一集
think again, we’re only on episode one.
所以下次继续我们将会认真的扩展这个概念
So join us next time as we get serious about this idea
能量只运载在离散的信封中
that energy only comes in discrete packets.
接下来就能了解
and begin our journey on what this means
量子计算的前景
for the future of quantum computing.
下次见
We’ll see you next time
还是我们下次能探测到你
or will we just perceive you next time
那我们就需要监视你看我们
because would that mean we’d have to watch you watching us
才能知道… 天呐
to know the… Oh, boy

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视频概述

万物基础问题的解释第一课

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

刘倩Rachel

审核员

审核员1024

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iol5936dZho

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