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精神疗法:西格蒙德•弗洛伊德

PSYCHOTHERAPY - Sigmund Freud

This is a thinker who helps us understand why our lives and relationships are full of
这是一位帮助我们理解人生和人际关系为何
so much confusion and pain. He tells us why life is hard, and how to cope.
存在诸多困惑和痛苦的思想家 他告诉我们生活艰辛的原因以及应对方式
His own life incurred a lot of anxiety. Sigmund Schlomo Freud was born to a middle-class Jewish
他自己也遭遇过很多烦心事 西格蒙德·施洛姆·弗洛伊德1856年出生在一个中产阶级的
family in 1856.
犹太家庭
His professional life was not an immediate success. As a medical student, he dissected
他的职业生涯起初并不顺利 作为一个医学生
hundreds of eels in an unsuccessful attempt to locate their reproductive organs.
他为了确定鳗鱼的生殖器官的位置解剖了成百上千条鳗鱼但都失败了
He promoted cocaine as a medical drug, but it turned out to be a dangerous and addictive idea.
他推动了可卡因的药物化 虽然最后证实他的想法危险且致人成瘾
A few years later he founded the discipline that would ultimately make his name.
几年后他创立了一门学科 他也终于声名大噪
A new psychological medicine he called
这个全新的心理医学 他称之为
PSYCHOANALYSIS
精神分析学
The landmark study was his 1900 book The Interpretation of Dreams.
一项具有里程碑意义的研究成果就是他1900年出版的著作《梦的解析》
Many others followed.
后来他有了很多追随者
Despite his success, he was often unhappy.
尽管如此成功 他却经常不快乐
During some particularly strenuous research he recorded, “The chief patient I am preoccupied
在他的某些极其费力的研究中 他曾记录道我最重要且最关注的病人
with is myself…” He was convinced he would die between 61 and 62 and had great phobias
就是我自己…他相信自己将会在61到62岁之间死去 而且对于这个数字
about those numbers. (Although he actually died much later, at age 83.)
他抱有极大的恐惧(虽然事实上他死的更晚 83岁才去世)
Perhaps because of his frustrations, Freud achieved a series of deep insights into the
可能正因为他的失意感 弗洛伊德才能发表一系列
sources of human unhappiness.
对人类痛苦之源的深刻见解
He proposed that we are all driven by the:
他提出我们都
Pleasure Principle
被快乐原则所驱使
which inclines us towards easy physical and emotional rewards:
它使我们更依赖于简单的身体上与情感上的奖励
and away from unpleasant things like drudgery and discipline. As infants we are guided more
同时远离像苦工和处罚这样不愉快的事情
or less solely according to the pleasure principle, Freud argued.
弗洛伊德认为在婴儿时期的我们或多或少仅仅被引导去遵循快乐原则
But it will, if adhered to without constraints, lead us to dangerous reckless things:
但是如果不加限制的遵循 它会引导我们去做那些不计危险后果的事
like never doing any work eating too much
比如任何工作都不做 吃太多
or, most notoriously, sleeping with members of own family.
或者最臭名昭著的是 与自己的家庭成员发生关系
We need to adjust to what Freud called
我们需要适应弗洛伊德所说的
THE REALITY PRINCIPLE
现实原则
Though we all have to bow to this reality principle, Freud believed that there were
虽然我们都得遵从这个现实原则 但是弗洛伊德相信
better or worse kinds of adaptations. He called the troublesome ones
有或好或糟的适应状况 他把棘手的那些类型称做
NEUROSES
神经症
Neuroses are the result of faulty negotiations with –or in Freud’s language, repression
神经症是与快乐原则的失败磨合的结果
of–the pleasure principle.
或是用弗洛伊德的话讲是对快乐原则的约束
Freud described a conflict between three parts of our minds: the
弗洛伊德描述了我们的意识中三个部分之间的一种冲突
ID
这三个部分分别是本我
driven by the pleasure principle, and the
被快乐原则驱使
THE SUPEREGO
超我
driven by a desire to follow the rules and do the right thing according to society.
被遵循社会原则做正确的事情的雄心驱使
and the
还有
EGO
自我
which has to somehow accommodate the two.
它必须以某种方式包含以上两个部分
To understand more about these dynamics, Freud urged us to think back to the origins of our
为了加深理解这些驱动力 弗洛伊德主张我们去回想一下我们
neuroses in childhood.
孩提时代神经症的起源
As we grow up, we go through what Freud termed:
在我们长大过程中 我们会经历弗洛伊德所谓的
THE ORAL PHASE
口腔期
where we deal with all the feelings around ingestion and eating.
此期间我们通过摄入和进食处理所有感观
If our parents aren’t careful we might pick up all kinds of neuroses here: we might take
如果我们的父母粗心的话 我们可能会患上所有这里列举的神经症 :我们也许会
pleasure in refusing food, or turn to food to calm ourselves down, or hate the idea of
以拒绝食物为乐 或变成用食物来安抚自己 抑或讨厌
depending on anyone else for food.
依赖任何其他人获得食物的想法
Then comes
接着是
THE ANAL PHASE
肛门期
which is closely aligned with what we now call “potty-training”.
这和我们现在说的’坐便训练’有着密切的关系
During this period, our parents tell us what to do–and when to go. At this phase we begin
在这段时期 我们的父母告诉我们该做什么 什么时候做 这期间我们开始
to learn about testing the limits of authority.
学着挑战权威的底线
Again, if things go wrong, if we don’t feel authority is benign enough, we might, for
同样 如果出岔子 如果我们感到权威不够亲切 我们可能会
example, choose to withhold out of defiance.
举个例子 选择拒绝反抗
Then, as adults, we might become “anally retentive”; in other words, not able to
然后 作为成人 我们可能会变成“肛门克制型”(指具有谨小慎微、固执和贪婪个性)换句话说
give or surrender.
无法让步或投降
Next comes:
接下来
THE PHALLIC PHASE
性器期
which goes until about age 6. Freud shocked his contemporaries by insisting that little
将会持续到6岁 弗洛伊德坚持认为小孩也有性的感觉
children have sexual feelings. Moreover, in the phallic phase children direct their sexual
这个说法震惊了同时代的人 不仅如此 孩子在性器期将他们的
impulses towards their parents, the most immediately available and gratifying people around.
性冲动放到最快能接触到 且取悦周围人的父母身上
Freud famously described what he called
弗洛伊德非常著名的一个论述就是
THE OEDIPUS COMPLEX
俄狄浦斯情结
Where we are unconsciously predisposed towards
在这种情结中我们无意识地倾向于
“being in love with the one parent and hating the other.”
爱上父母中的一方而厌恶另一方
What is complex is that no matter how much our parents love us, they cannot extend this
复杂的是 无论父母多爱我们 他们都不能把这种爱
to sexual life and will always have another life with a partner. This makes our young
延伸至性生活 而且总是要和配偶过新生活 这让我们年轻的
selves feel dangerously jealous and angry – and also ashamed and guilty about this
自我感到不安的嫉妒和愤怒 还有对这种愤怒的羞愧与负罪感
anger. The complex provides a huge amount of internalised worry for a small child.
这种复杂性给小孩带来了大量的内在焦虑
Ultimately, most of us experience some form of confusion around our parents
最后 我们大多数人会经历某种形式的围绕着父母的困惑
that later ties into our ideas of love.
而之后会和我们爱的观念息息相关
Mum and dad may both give us love, but they often mix it with disturbed behaviour.
爸爸和妈妈可能都会给予我们爱 但是这种爱经常混合着令人烦恼的行为
Yet because we love them, we remain loyal to them and also to their bizarre, destructive
但是因为我们爱着他们 我们仍然会忠于他们 以及他们怪异具破坏性的模式
patterns. For example, if our mother is cold, we will be apt nevertheless to long for her.
比如 如果我们的妈妈很冷漠 尽管如此 我们会更渴望得到她
And as a result, however, we may be prone to always associate love with a certain distance.
然而结果就是 我们可能会倾向于总是把爱和一定距离联系起来
Naturally, the result is very difficult adult relationships. Often the kind of love we’ve
显而易见 这个结果导致成人关系复杂 我们
learned from mum and dad means we can’t fuse sex and love because the people we learnt
从父母那儿学来的那种爱常常意味着我们不能把爱和性融为一体 因为他们教会我们爱的方式
about love from are also those we were blocked from having sex with. We might find that the
我们却不能与之发生性关系 我们可能会发现
more in love with someone we are, the harder it becomes to make love to them. This can
越是爱某个人 就越难和他做爱
reach a pitch of crisis after a few years of marriage and some kids.
这在结婚和有了孩子几年后达到一个危机的最高点
Freud compared the issues we so often have with intimacy to hedgehogs in the winter:
弗洛伊德把这些我们经常在性行为上的问题比作冬日的刺猬
they need to cuddle for warmth, but they also can’t come too close because they’re prickly.
他们需要互相拥抱以取暖 但同时他们又不能靠太近因为彼此都以刺相迎
There’s no easy solution. Freud says we can’t make ourselves fully rational, and
没有轻松的解决办法 弗洛伊德说我们无法让自己保持理智 也无法
we can’t change society, either. In his 1930 book Civilisation and its Discontents,
改变社会 在他1930年的书《文明及其不满》中
Freud wrote that society provides us with many things, but it does this by imposing
弗洛伊德写道 社会给我们提供了很多东西 但却是通过
heavy dictates on us: insisting that we sleep with only a few (usually one) other, imposing
强加命令来实现的 坚持认为我们只能和一小部分人睡觉(通常就一个人)强加
the incest taboo, requiring us to put off our immediate desires, demanding that we follow
乱伦禁忌 要求我们把自己一时的欲望放在一边 要求我们顺从
authority and work to make money. Societies themselves are neurotic–that is how they
权威通过工作来获得财富 社会本身就是神经质的 这也是它们
function – and it’s why there are constant wars and other troubles.
运作的方式 也是战争不断和其他麻烦不断的原因
Freud attempted to invent a treatment for our many neuroses: psychoanalysis. He thought
弗洛伊德试图为众多神经症患者发明一种治疗方法 叫做精神分析法 他想
that with a little proper analysis, people could uncover what ails them and better adjust
通过一些适当的分析 人们可以发现他们苦恼的原因并且
to the difficulties of reality.
更好的去解决现实的难题
In his sessions he analysed a number of key things.
在他的讲谈会上 他分析了很多关键的东西
He looked at people’s dreams, which he saw as expressions of
他关注人们的梦境 将之看做
WISH FULFILLMENTS
愿望实现的表现
He also looked at
他还关注
PARAPRAXES
动作倒错
or slips of the tongue.
或叫做口误
We now call these revealing mistakes
我们现在把这些有启示作用的错误
FREUDIAN SLIPS
称为弗洛伊德式失误
Like when we write ‘thigh’ when we wanted to write ‘though’.
就像当我们心里想写’though’时手上却写成了’thigh’
He also liked to think about jokes. He believed that jokes often help us make fun of something
他还喜欢思考笑话 他相信笑话经常会帮助我们去取笑一些
symbolic like death or marriage, and thus relieve some of our anxiety about these topics.
具有象征性的事物如死亡或婚姻 从而减轻我们对这些话题的一些焦虑
There’s a temptation to say Freud just made everything up, and life isn’t quite so hard
有一种说法认为弗洛伊德只是在捏造一切 而且生活也
as he makes it out to be. But then one morning we find ourselves filled with inexplicable
没他理解的那样艰难 但也许有一天早晨起来后我们发现自己对父母
anger towards our partner, or running high with unrelenting anxiety on the train to work,
充满了毫无缘由的愤怒 或者对上班搭的那辆火车无休止的高度焦虑
and we’re reminded all over again just how elusive, difficult, and Freudian
这时我们会再次想起我们的精神活动
our mental workings actually are.
并感叹它实际上正如弗洛伊德所说多么难以捉摸和复杂
We could still reject his work, of course. But as Freud said,
当然 我们依旧可以拒绝承认他的研究成果 但是正如弗洛伊德所说
“No one who disdains the key will ever be able to unlock the door.”
轻视钥匙的人永远不可能打开大门
We could all use a bit more of Freud’s ideas
我们可以运用更多弗洛伊德的观点
to help us unpick ourselves.
来帮助我们更好的了解自我

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