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梅兰尼·克莱恩与儿童精神分析学 – 译学馆
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梅兰尼·克莱恩与儿童精神分析学

PSYCHOTHERAPY - Melanie Klein

梅莱尼·克莱恩是一位极具独创性的维也纳犹太籍心理分析学家
Melanie Klein was a highly creative and original Viennese Jewish psychoanalyst
她在32岁这一年开始研究弗洛伊德的学说
who discovered the work of Freud at the age of 32
并在此后致力于拓展并细化精神分析学
and devoted her life to enriching and nuancing it
她的学说引人入胜 富有价值
in intriguing and valuable ways.
克莱恩生于1882年
Born in 1882,
在父亲阻拦了她做医生的意向后
Klein was held back by her father from her desire to become a doctor
她被家人逼迫着嫁给了一个粗俗的男人
and was pushed by her family into a loveless marriage
开始了一段没有爱情的婚姻
with a coarse, unpleasant man
她跟丈夫毫无共同语言
with whom she had nothing in common.
婚姻生活乏味不调 她感到很痛苦
She was bored, sexually frustrated and mentally unwell.
精神分析学拯救了她
Psychoanalysis saved her.
她离开丈夫 开始尽可能的阅读
She left her husband, read everything she could,
参加讲座 甚至开始发表论文
attended lectures, and started publishing papers of her own.
很快 她便脱离弗洛伊德学派
She soon departed from Freud
开拓了一个此前一直被分析家们忽略的新领域:
in an area that most other analysts had overlooked:
儿童精神分析学
the analysis of children.
弗洛伊德曾经就儿童能否作为精神分析对象表示怀疑
Freud had been sceptical that children could ever be analysed properly,
他认为儿童的思维尚未成熟
their minds being in his view too unformed
潜意识观点还没形成
to allow for a perspective on the unconscious.
但是克莱恩认为通过观察儿童如何玩耍
But Klein now argued that an analyst could get a useable view into a child’s inner world
分析家们可以窥探到他们的内心世界
through studying how they played with toys.
她把小马 小雕塑和玩具火车搬进了她的咨询室
She therefore equipped her consulting room with small horses, figurines and locomotives
开始了她的儿童心理分析研究
and established herself as a child psychoanalyst,
1926年时克莱恩从柏林移居伦敦
first in Berlin and then in London, where she settled in 1926
并且在那里一直生活到去世
and remained for the rest of her life.
在对儿童观察的过程中 克莱恩致力于发掘
In her work with children, Klein wanted to understand
人们是怎么从婴幼儿时期追求快乐的原始冲动
how human beings evolve from the primitive pleasure-seeking impulses of early infancy
成长到后期的成熟适应阶段的
to the more mature adaptations of later life
她尤其想要研究 这个阶段中哪个环节出了问题
and in particular, she wanted to know what might go wrong on this journey,
才会导致成年后的神经适应性改变
giving rise to the neurotic adaptations of adults.
在1932年出版的《儿童心理分析学》里
In her 1932 book The Psychoanalysis of Children
克莱恩描述了婴幼儿的困境
she described the difficulty of the young infant’s situation.
这些脆弱的 只能任大人们摆布的小生灵
Weak, utterly at the mercy of adults,
其实无法获知周遭发生的一切
unable to grasp what is happening,
据克莱恩描述 婴儿根本不知道围绕在他身边的人是“人”
the infant cannot– in Klein’s description – grasp that people around it are in fact people,
是有着自己独特的现实世界和独立的观点的人
with their own alternative reality and independent points of view.
婴儿在出生几周的时候 母亲对他们而言也不是“母亲”
In the early weeks, the mother is not even ‘a mother’ to her child,
这也正是梅莱尼·克莱恩的理论的一个关键点:
she is – to come to the crux of Melenie Klein’s theories
她认为在孩子眼中 母亲只是一对来去无常的乳房
– just a pair of breasts which appear and disappear with unpredictable and painful randomness.
在与母亲的关系中
In relation to this mother,
所有的婴儿感受到的都是强烈的痛苦或愉悦
all the infant experiences are moments of intense pain and then equally intense pleasure.
当母亲给他哺乳时
When the breast is there and the milk flows,
他能感受到一种原始的宁静和满足
a primordial calm and satisfaction descends upon the infant:
洋溢着幸福 感激 和柔和的情感
it is suffused with feelings of well-being, gratitude and tenderness
这些情感与其成年后恋爱的感觉极其相似
feelings that will, in adulthood, be strongly associated with being in love,
后者中乳房同样起到了显著的作用
a moment where breasts continue to play a notable role for many.
但是如果母亲因某种原因没有及时喂食
But when the breast is, for whatever reason, missing,
婴儿就会感到饥饿 愤怒 恐惧 生出报复的心理
the infant feels starving, enraged, terrified and vengeful.
克莱恩认为 这样一来
This, thought Klein,
婴儿便会采取一种原始的防御机制
leads the infant to adopt a primitive defence mechanism
用以抵抗主体产生的无法忍受的焦虑感
against what would otherwise be intolerable anxiety.
婴儿将母亲划“分裂”成两个客体:
The infant ‘splits’ the mother into two very different breasts:
“好乳房”和“坏乳房”
a ‘good breast’ and a ‘bad breast’.
婴儿对“坏乳房”抱有强烈的憎恨
The bad breast is hated with a passion;
他想要啃咬 伤害 摧毁这个恼人又罪恶的东西
the infant wants to bite, wound and destroy this object of unholy frustration.
但对于“好乳房” 他则是带着同样深沉但略显温和的爱意
But the good breast is revered with an equally thorough though more benign intensity.
随着时间增长 如果婴儿健康发展
With time, in healthy development,
这种“分裂”便会消失
this ‘split’ heals.
他会逐渐意识到
The child will gradually perceive that there is in truth
根本不存在极端的“好乳房”或“坏乳房”
no entirely good and no entirely bad breast,
二者同属于自己的母亲
both belong to a mother
而母亲本人也是积极与消极并存的一个复杂个体:
who is a perplexing mixture of the positive and the negative:
是自己的快乐与挫败 愉悦与痛苦的来源
a source of pleasure and frustration, joy and suffering.
这也就是克莱恩派心理分析中很重要的一个观点
The child discovers a key idea in Kleinian psychoanalysis:
即“矛盾性”的概念
the concept of AMBIVALENCE.
在克莱恩学派看来 能意识到他人的矛盾性
To be able to feel ambivalent about someone is, for Kleinians,
是婴儿在心理发展上取得的长足进步
an enormous psychological achievement
也是他走向真正成熟的标志
and the first marker on the path to genuine maturity.
但这种发展并不是必然的
But it isn’t inevitable or assured.
一个健康的婴儿要花很长时间
Only slowly can a healthy child
才能明白臆想与现实之间的巨大差别
grasp the crucial distinction between intention and effect
才能区分他母亲想给予他的是什么
between what a mother may have wanted for it
而他自己最终的感受又是什么
and what the child might have felt at her hands nevertheless.
这些复杂的心理反应
These complicated psychological reactions
原因来自于克莱恩提出的“忧郁心理位置”的概念
belong a phase that Klein called THE DEPRESSIVE POSITION.
即“清醒和忧郁的心理状态”
a moment of soberness and melancholy
它指的是婴儿在成长过程中会渐渐明白
when the growing child takes on board unconsciously:
现实其实没有他设想的那么简单和纯净
the idea that reality is more complicated and less morally neat than it had ever previously imagined:
他的挫败感不能简单归咎于母亲(又或是其它人)
the mother (or other people generally) cannot be neatly blamed for every setback;
也没有什么是绝对美好或是绝对邪恶的
almost nothing is totally pure or totally evil, things are a perplexing,
所有事物都是集好与坏为一体的复杂的存在
thought-provoking mixture of the good and bad…
这个过程很难 克莱恩认为 这也解释了为什么
This is hard to take and – for Klein – explains the serious faraway look
孩子们在发呆时 眼里时常会涌现一种恍惚的眼神
that may sometime enter the eyes of children during daydreams.
在这种时候 小不点们表现出的是不合年龄的了然与凝重
These small beings look oddly wise and grave at such moments;
也许在内心深处
they are, somewhere deep inside,
他们也意识到了成人世界里道德界限的暧昧不明
cottoning on to the moral ambiguity of the real adult world.
然而 克莱恩认为
Unfortunately, in Klein’s analysis,
不是所有婴儿都能进入“忧郁心理位置”
not everyone makes it to the depressive position,
有的婴儿会沉溺在最开始的对客体的分裂状态里
some get stuck in a mode of primitive splitting
而停留在她所说的“偏执—分裂心理位置”
she termed THE PARANOID-SCHIZOID POSITION
当这些孩子长大成人之后
For many years, even into adulthood, these unfortunate people
将会无法容忍任何一个矛盾体的存在
will find themselves unable to tolerate the slightest ambivalence:
他们执着于追求自己所认为的“纯净”
keen to preserve their sense of their own innocence,
对事物非爱即恨
and they must either hate or love.
认为除了目标物之外其余都只是替代品
They seek scapegoats or their idealise.
在恋爱关系中 他们常常会疯狂地爱上某一个人
In relationships, they tend to fall violently in love
但当他们发现对方有哪一点让自己觉得失望了
and then – at the inevitable moment when a lover in some way disappoints them –
又会迅速地转变态度 爱意消失殆尽
switch abruptly and become incapable of feeling anything anymore.
他们可能会频繁更换交往对象
These unfortunates are likely to move from candidate to candidate,
试图找到一位毫无瑕疵的完美恋人
always seeking a vision of complete satisfaction, total goodness,
却总是因为对方无意识的一个错误而恋情告吹
which is repeatedly violated by an unwitting error on the lover’s part.
我们不必将克莱恩所有的理论都奉为圭臬
We don’t have to believe in the literal truth of every part of Klein’s theory
只消将它们看作一种有一定价值的
to see that it has value for us as an unusual but useful representation of
对严格意义上的“成年人”的特殊诠释
what it means to be a proper grown-up.
那种把别人限定为“对我们有什么作用”
The impulse to reduce people into what they can do for us
(如喂养我们 给我们挣钱 逗我们开心)
(give us milk, make us money, keep us happy),
而忽视他们本身是什么样的人(忽视他们的多面性)的做法
rather than what they are in and of themselves (a multifaceted being),
在情感生活中处处可见 这个现实让人痛心
this can be painfully observed in emotional life generally.
因为梅兰尼·克莱恩
With Melanie Klein’s help,
我们明白了
we learn that coming to terms
学会接受情感关系的复杂性与矛盾性
with the ambivalent complex nature of all relationships
是成长的必修课(成长是永远不会结束的进程)
belongs to the business of growing up (a task we’re never quite done with)
也让我们体会到了一丝伤感
and is likely to leave us a little sad,
甚至可以说是 绵长的惆怅
if not for a time, quite simply, depressed.

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视频概述

梅兰尼·克莱恩是儿童精神分析的先驱。在儿童精神分析研究过程中,她创造性地提出了“忧郁心理位置”和“偏执-分裂心理位置”两个观念,二者也成为了克莱恩理论对于精神分析理论的重要贡献之一。

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