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精神疗法 | 安娜·弗洛伊德 – 译学馆
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精神疗法 | 安娜·弗洛伊德

PSYCHOTHERAPY - Anna Freud

安娜·弗洛伊德是精神分析学派创始人西格蒙·弗洛伊德之女
Anna Freud was the daughter of the founder of Psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud.
她1895年出生于维也纳 彼时她父亲关于性心理的激进理论
She was born in Vienna in 1895 – when her father’s radical theories of sex and the
让他享誉欧洲 安娜后来成了一名教师
mind were starting to make him famous across Europe. She became a school teacher and then
最后也成为一名精神分析学家——她开创了儿童精神分析治疗法 建立儿童心理诊所及诊护所
a psychoanalyst – and pioneered the treatment of children, establishing clinics and nurseries
照顾战争中的遗孤 大屠杀遗孤以及普通的
for children who were war victims, survivors of the holocaust or just generally troubled
问题儿童
by their lives.
最重要的是 她是我们现在所知道的
Perhaps most importantly for us, she is our finest guide to what we call
“防御机制”理论的最佳先导
DEFENCE MECHANISMS
在她1936年的著作《自我与防御机制》中系统阐述了这一概念
which she described best in her 1936 book The Ego and Mechanisms of Defence.
此书第一次提出这样一个重要论点: 我们本能地采用一系列
The book laid out for the first time the core idea that we instinctively try to protect
防卫手段来保护“自我”(我们所认识的自己)
our ‘ego’ (our acceptable picture of who we are) with a variety of defences.
问题是我们在抵御即时的疼痛时
The problem is that in the act of defending ourselves against pain in the immediate term,
会伤害到我们面对现实的机会 从而也减少了发展与
we harm our longer-term chances of dealing with reality and therefore of developing and
成熟的机会
maturing as a result.
安娜·弗洛伊德强调了十种防御机制:
Anna Freud highlighted ten key types of defence mechanisms.
第一种 否认
Firstly, Denial
否认是指我们不承认问题的存在 我们总想着:“我们非常喜欢
Denial is when we don’t admit there is a problem. We think things like: ‘I enjoy
喝酒 有时候会严重宿醉 但我能处理得了”
drinking very much and I sometimes get quite bad hangovers. But I can handle it.’
如果他人逼着我们面对问题 我们会恶劣回应
If other people try to get us to face up to the problem, we tend to react very badly. The
即时的生存机制, 短时的本能地自我感觉良好
immediate survival mechanism, the short term instinct to feel alright about oneself,
意味着拒绝我们改变的必要性
means refusing to recognise our need for change.
投射
Projection
通过投射 你将你的坏情绪归于别人身上 比如说
In projection, you attribute a bad feeling you have in someone else. For example, you
也许你会产生出这样一种印象是 如果你今年没有去年赚得多 你的另一半会
might develop the impression that your partner is going to be extremely critical if you don’t
很挑剔你 但实际上他们或许会非常善解人意
make more money this year than last. But in reality they may be quite understanding and
有同情心 这种苛责尖刻的思想其实不在你另一半身上 而在于你——
sympathetic. The harsh, bitter thoughts are not in your partner. They are in you – and
这么说吧 它们来自你母亲 但是你把你不想承认的原因在自己的负面情绪
they came from, let’s say, your mother. But you have given the negative feelings,
又不想承认问题在自己给了别人 这就是投射
which you don’t want to recognise in yourself, to someone else. That’s projection.
自我约束
Turning against the self
我们有时把自己想得很坏只是为了逃避更坏的想法:
This is when we think badly of ourselves as a way of escaping from an even worse thought:
希望爱我的那个人其实并不爱我
that someone we hope loves us doesn’t actually.
安娜·弗洛伊德知道儿童经常使用这种防御机制 一个被父母虐待的孩子通常
Anna Freud learnt that children do this a lot. A child abused by a parent will typically
都会觉得其他选择或许更差 以此想法作为逃避 尽管很残忍
seek refuge in a thought which, though grim, is less awful than the alternatives. He or
她会想: 一定是我太差太没用 所以我父母才如此对待我
she will think: I must be bad and worthless – that’s why my parent is behaving this
她继续想: 所以 我父母依旧是很好的
way towards me. So, really – the thought goes – I still have a good parent.
当然 自我认为差劲或者毫无用处是件痛苦的事 但尤其对于一个孩子来说
It’s painful to think we’re bad and worthless, of course – but for a fragile child especially,
它比其他可能的想法显得不那么具有毁灭性 这种想法就是: 我们被掌控在
it can feel less catastrophic than the alternative: thinking we’re in the hands of a parent
根本不在意我们的父母手里
who doesn’t care.
升华
Sublimation.
当我们改变不可接受的思想或感情时——通常是有关“性”或
We sublimate when we redirect unacceptable thoughts or emotions – often about sex or
暴力时 我们升华至更高更好的通道 许多艺术家和音乐节
violence – into ‘higher’ and finer channels. Many artists and especially musicians have
都运用升华将负面的生活经历——像毒瘾、社交障碍、家庭问题等等——转化
used sublimation to turn negative life experiences like – drug addiction, social ills, family problems, and
成流行的有共鸣性的艺术作品 升华仍然属于一种防御机制
so on—into popular and resonant works of art. Sublimation is still a defence mechanism,
但是最好的一种
but it’s one of the very best.
退行
Regression
安娜·弗洛伊德相信 当处境变得艰难时 我们常常会退行到
Anna Freud believed that when things become tough, we often regress to a way of behaving
我们年少时的行为方式 尤其是 我们会像孩子一样处事
that we practiced when we were a younger. In particular, we do what children typically
那就是推卸责任 因为只有对孩子来说才常常觉得是别人的错
do, which is evade responsibility. It is – for the child – always someone else’s fault,
通常都是父母——而他们应该负责纠正
usually the parents – and they should put it right.
在退行机制中 我们采取了一种对我们纯洁与清白的婴儿般的认知:
IN regression, we adopt an infantile sense of our own purity and innocence: the rest
其他人才应该被责难 别人才应该负责解决问题 对于安娜来说
of the world is to blame. They should sort it out. For Anna Freud, it’s normal for
对于许多异常理性的成年人来说 在重压之下出现退行现象也是正常的
many otherwise perfectly sane adults to go through regressive moments when under pressure.
如果持续时间太久才会变成问题
It only becomes a problem when it goes on too long.
理性化
Rationalisation.
合理化是对我们的行为(发生在我们身上的事)一种巧妙的借口
Rationalisation is a smart sounding excuse
但是它经我们调整以得出我们所想要的结论:
for our actions (or what happens to us). But it’s carefully tailored to get the conclusion
我们天真、善良、有价值 比如当我们申请工作被拒时
we feel we need: that we are innocent, nice, worthy. After being rejected for a job, for
防御型合理化自我的人会说: “这个公司真没劲” 或
example, the defensive rationaliser will say: “it was a boring company” or “I never
“我本来就不想要这个工作” 他们也许非常渴望得到这份工作
wanted the job anyway”. They may have very much desired the job,
但要自我承认这一点会让人非常烦躁非常丢脸
but it can be agonising and deeply humiliating to admit this to the ego.
理智化
Intellectualisation
理智化与合理化相似
Intellectualisation is similar. The scarring
跟伴侣分手后的失落感、内疚感、背叛感及愤怒感或许可以通过
sense of loss, guilt, betrayal and anger on breaking up with a partner might be neutralised
思考罗马帝国史或政府增息计划来中和掉
by thinking about the history of the late Roman Empire or the government’s plan to
许多知识分子并不仅仅是思考很多 他们对这种
raise interest rates. Many intellectuals are not merely thinking a lot. They are also guilty
理智化也感到内疚 这意味着他们的研究
of ‘intellectualisation’; which means making sure their researches
牵制了一系列相关问题
keep a range of more pertinent issues at bay.
反向形成
Reaction formation
反向形成是指做与我们最初不被接受的情绪相反的事
Reaction formation involves doing the opposite of our initial, unacceptable feelings. Someone
比如一个对未成年性交有强烈兴趣的人会加入一个
who has a strong interest in the sexuality of teenagers may, for instance, join a religion
特别强调年轻人禁欲的宗教
with a particular emphasis on abstinence among the young.
我们在童年常常会对反向形成感到愧疚 当我们因为
We are often guilty of reaction formation in childhood. When we are embarrassed about
被一个同学吸引而感到尴尬时 我们或许会变得对他们有攻击性 而不是
being attracted to a classmate, we might be mean or aggressive towards them, instead of
坦然承认我们喜欢对方
admitting that we like them.
转移
Displacement
转移是指对某一对象的情感(通常是攻击性的)转移到其他对象身上
Displacement is the redirection of a (usually aggressive) desire to a substitute recipient,
而这个人通常不具威胁性或更容易被归咎 一个经典的案例是
usually someone who is less threatening or easier to blame. So a classic case is someone
有人觉得被老板威胁了 回家后开始对着伴侣吼叫
who may feel threatened by their boss, comes home and starts shouting at their partner.
幻想
Fantasy
幻想是通过想象自己远离现实而逃避问题
Fantasy avoids problems by imagining them
——白日梦、阅读文学或看黄片
away or disassociating oneself from reality—from daydreaming to reading literature to looking
我们利用这些方式将自己从危险的世界转移出来
at porn. We use these moments to transport ourselves from the threatening world to find
并在其他地方找到慰藉
comfort elsewhere. ***
安娜弗洛伊德在写到防御机制时的语调是柔软的、大方的
Anna Freud’s tone when writing about defence mechanisms is tender and generous.
她知道这些心理防御是天生的 但她也注意到它们
She knows these defences are quite natural, but she also observes how many difficulties they
给我们带来的困难 它们阻碍了我们的事业 让别人觉得无聊 以及伤害那些爱我们的人
bring in their wake. They hold back our careers, are boring for others and hurt those who love us.
弗洛伊德认为我们大多数人每天至少会运用
Freud argued that most of us employ at least
5-10种防御机制——还是在我们完全没有注意的情况下
5 of her 10 defence mechanisms every day – without being in any way aware of it.
她通过写这本书来帮助我们更加看清我们所做的事
She wrote her great book as a way of helping us see a little better what we’re doing,
并希望我们将来会变得更成熟一点 而对周围的人少一点防御心
in the hope that we would, in future, be a little more mature and a little less – as
而我们因此而向她致以无声的敬意!
we still say in unknowing tribute to her —defensive towards those around us.

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视频概述

安娜弗洛伊德对我们最大的贡献是,她关于防御机制的理论是为了帮助我们以后变得更成熟一点而对周围的人少一些防备。

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v80Nd8w1uts

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