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精神变态与反社会人格的区别 – 译学馆
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精神变态与反社会人格的区别

Psychopath vs. Sociopath: What’s The Difference?

Psychopath or sociopath,
精神病患者 还是反社会人格
both can be cold but manipulatively charming
两者都很冷漠 控制欲很强又有魅力
and kind of emotionless.
且有些无情
But what is the difference between the two terms?
那么这两个术语之间又有什么不同呢?
Hey guys, Julia here for DNews
大家好 我是DNews的Julia
Until very recently “psychopath” and “sociopath”
直到不久前 “精神变态”和“反社会人格”
could be used interchangeably.
都是可以替换使用的
The terms described somebody
这两个词描述的是那种
who was maybe aloof, manipulative,
可能很冷漠 擅长操控他人
and just couldn’t empathize with other people.
完全无法与他人产生共鸣的人
But lately even Sherlock Holmes debates the difference,
可不久前连夏洛克·福尔摩斯都讨论了两者的区别
he tells his pesky coworker,
他对他那令人厌烦的同事说
“ I’m not a psychopath, Anderson.
Anderson 我不是精神病
I’m a high-functioning sociopath.”
我只是一个高智商的反社会人士
And scientists are also quick to draw a distinction.
而科学家们也很快加以区分
Jack Pemment, a biology graduate student at the University of Mississippi,
密西西比大学生物学研究生Jack Pemment
he wrote in the journal Aggression and Violent Behavior,
发表在《攻击性与暴力行为》杂志上的研究称
that “psychopathy is a developmental disorder
精神病是一种与特定行为有关的
that is associated with specific kinds of behavior”.
发育障碍
Psychopathy is mostly biological.
很大程度上是一个生物问题
Psychopaths have abnormalities in the brain.
精神病患者的大脑存在发育异常的问题
Although childhood upbringing might have some effect,
虽然童年的教育可能会有一些影响
a traumatic home life might reshape the growing brain.
但创伤性的家庭生活可能会重塑发育中的大脑
One study published in the journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience found
一项发表在《人类神经科学前沿》杂志上的研究发现
that many areas of the brain associated with empathy
精神病患者大脑中许多与同理心有关的区域
fail to respond to emotional situations.
都无法对很多情绪状况做出反应
The researchers used FMRI on 121 inmates in a medium security prison.
该研究的研究人员对121名中等安全监狱的囚犯 进行了FMRI扫描
They were shown situations where someone else is getting hurt
研究人员向他们展示了其他人受伤的情景
like getting their fingers slammed in a car door.
比如手指被车门夹到
If you just winced when I said that,
如果我说这话时你抽搐了一下
you are probably not a psychopath.
那你大概就不是精神病患者
The researchers looked at brain regions
研究人员观察了大脑中
associated with empathy for pain,
与疼痛感共鸣相关的区域
regions like the anterior insula,
如前岛叶
the anterior midcingulate cortex, somatosensory cortex,
前扣带皮层 体感皮层
and the right amygdala.
和右杏仁核
These areas activate
囚犯们想到令他们痛苦的事情时
when the inmates thought about themselves in pain.
这些区域就会活跃起来
But these area failed to activate
但当他们看到其他人陷入疼痛时
when they saw someone else in pain.
这些区域却没有激活
But another area did light up,
而另外一个区域
the ventral striatum, an area that might be associated with pleasure.
腹侧纹状体却亮了起来 而这个区域可能与快乐有关
So yeah psychopathic brains kind of like
也就是说 嗯 可以说精神病患者
when other people are in pain.
乐见他人痛苦
Psychopaths also respond to rewards more strongly than most people,
发表在《自然神经科学》杂志上的一篇研究表示
According to research published in the journal Nature Neuroscience,
精神变态者对奖励的反应也比大多数人更激烈
their brains release four times more dopamine
服用安他非命等药物后 他们的大脑
in response to drugs like amphetamine.
释放的多巴胺是普通人的四倍
So they seek a reward, like drugs
所以他们会不计代价地寻求毒品
or maybe that CEO position, no matter what the cost.
或者CEO职位之类的奖励
Sociopaths on the other hand,
另一方面
still exhibit many of the same personality traits like manipulation
尽管反社会人士也会表现出许多相同的人格特征
and disregard of others’feelings,
比如控制欲和缺乏同理心
but not because they don’t have any sense of morality like psychopaths,
但这并不是因为他们和精神病一样缺乏道德感
it’s that their moral compass might be a little off the mark.
而是因为他们的道德罗盘可能跑偏了
This could be because of upbringing or a belief system.
更深层次的原因则可能是他们的成长经历或者信仰出了问题
Pemment used the example of Anders Breivik, who murdered 77 people in Norway.
Pemment举Anders Breivik的例子 此人曾在挪威杀害了77个人
He did it not because he felt like it
他这么做并不是因为他喜欢杀人
and didn’t care about those people which
对哪些人毫不在意
I mean he probably didn’t care about them.
我的意思是他可能对他们毫不在意
but that wasn’t his reason for it.
但这并不是他杀人的原因
His reason was tied to his belief system.
真正的原因和他的信仰体系有关
He saw himself as a martyr for his cause.
他把自己看作信仰的殉道者
And Pemment wonders if these beliefs might change the brain
Pemment想知道这些信念是否会改变一个人的大脑
or if the sociopathic brain might be inherently wired differently.
亦或是反社会者的大脑天生就和常人不同
He suggests that more research is needed.
他表示 这个问题还需要进一步研究
Sherlock Holmes, while not a mass murder,
夏洛克·福尔摩斯虽然不是杀人狂魔
tries to do what he thinks is right,
但他在按照自己的判断行事时
but he goes about it by lying and manipulating
为了达到目的 他会不惜撒谎或控制他人
because he really struggles to empathize with anyone.
因为他真的很难对他人产生同理心
So basically, the both psychopaths and sociopaths
所以 大体而言 精神病和反社会人格的
have brains wired a bit differently from the rest of us.
大脑构造和其他人都有一点不同
but psychopaths don’t have a sense of right and wrong
区别是精神病患者没有对与错的感知
and don’t feel fear.
也不会感到恐惧
While sociopaths do understand right from wrong,
而反社会人士是能够明辨是非的
but their right might just look a little wrong to the rest of us.
但他们眼里的对错或许和我们其他人有些许不同
So maybe Sherlock is right
所以 夏洛克或许是对的
Maybe he really is a high-functioning sociopath.
可能他真的是一个高智商反社会人士
Now that you’ve watched this video,
现在 看完这个视频
do you understand the difference a little better?
你对两者的区别有更清楚的了解了吗?
By the way, if you love DNews as much as I love making it
对了 如果你像我喜欢制作栏目视频一样喜欢DNews的话
then take just a second and click the link in the description to
那就花点时间 点击详情里的链接
nominate us for a Streamy Award.
助力我们拿下Streamy奖吧
We bring you science every day,
我们会每天为大家带来科学视频
and we do it because we love it,
一切都是因为爱
but together we can spread the love of science around!
但你可以和我们一起传播对科学的爱啊
Thanks for watching DNews
感谢大家的收看
Don’t forget to hit those like and subscribe buttons
别忘了点赞订阅回来看我们的更新哦
and keep coming back here
每天都有新内容在等你哦
We’ve got new episodes every day of the week
我们每周都有新剧集

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视频概述

这个视频较为学术性地介绍了我们日常认为的精神病患者和反社会人格之间的差异

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

YXG-d36b9

审核员

审核员Y

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wv91IVpLyBk

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