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心理学家揭穿25 个心理健康误区

Psychologists Debunk 25 Mental-Health Myths

Laura Goorin: So, the myth that all neat freaks
Laura Goorin:有一个常见的误区认为
have OCD is a common one.
所有爱干净的怪咖都有强迫症
Most people who are clean
大多数爱干净的人
just actually care about being clean,
只是注意卫生而已
and that’s totally different than having OCD.
这和强迫症是完全不同的
Also, there are no five stages of loss,
而且 没有所谓的“悲伤的五个阶段”
it’s just a myth.
这种说法很荒诞
Narrator: That’s Laura Goorin,
旁白:这是Laura Goorin
one of three psychologists we brought into our studios
是我们工作室请来的三位心理学家之一
to debunk some of the most common mental-health myths.
他们将要揭露一些最常见的心理健康误区
Goorin: So, the myth that most people with schizophrenia have multiple personalities,
Goorin:误区之一认为大多数精神分裂症患者具有多重人格
that was a very old way that it was understood,
这是一种理解精神分裂的陈旧方式
and it’s been proven to not be true.
且已经被证实是错误的
So, with schizophrenia, it’s not another personality,
患有精神分裂症并不是具有另一种人格
what it is, though, is a break with reality and a part of ourselves,
而是一种与现实和部分自我的割裂
maybe for instance, that believes that someone is out to get them.
比如有些患者可能觉得有人想要抓住他们
OK, so that’s a really common one with schizophrenia.
这确实是精神分裂症一种很普遍的症状
So the myth that all “neat freaks” have OCD is a common one.
一个常见的误区是 所有“洁癖”都有强迫症
It seems like it’s almost a popular cultural thing
比如 当人们在整理背包的时候
that people say to each other, “You have OCD,”
互相对彼此说“你有强迫症”
when somebody is, like, organizing their bag.
这几乎成了一种流行文化
And, in reality, OCD itself, the illness has different components.
实际上 强迫症本身有不同的表现形式
And one of the subsets is the keeping things organized and clean.
其中一种就是保持东西规整和干净
but it has to be at an obsessive level,
但必须是达到一种极度痴迷的程度
where people are thinking about it all the time,
人们会一直想着这件事
and so that itself is really uncommon.
如果是这样的话就确实不寻常了
Most people who are clean just actually care about being clean,
大多数爱干净的人 实际上只关心是否干净
and that’s totally different than having OCD.
这和强迫症是完全不同的
Jillian Stile: Bipolar disorder is not simply mood swings.
Jillian Stile:躁郁症不仅是有情绪波动
It’s a very high elevation of maybe a positive mood
躁郁症的情绪波动很大 可能情绪高涨
and a very low, negative mood.
可能情绪低落
Everybody has mood swings,
每个人都有情绪起伏
but with bipolar disorder, it’s not just that.
但躁郁症却远不止如此
It’s, you know, severe forms of elevated mood or depressed mood,
而是异常的情绪高涨或情绪低落
and they cycle through that.
并在两者间切换
And so sometimes it could be shown
有时它可能表现为
as symptoms of, like, a manic episode,
一种狂躁发作的症状
might be somebody, like, hypersexuality or not sleeping at all and things like that.
也许有人表现为性欲旺盛或完全睡不着等
It’s not simply feeling good.
它不是简单的感觉良好
Goorin: This is a common myth,
Goorin:这是一种常见的误区
and I hear people throw this one around a lot too.
我经常听人们说起这个
Anxiety itself is thinking, thinking, thinking.
焦虑症就是不停的胡思乱想
And just imagine yourself going into the worry thoughts of “what if.”
想象一下你陷入了“如果”的担忧中
What if, what if this happens, what if that happens. And it’s unremitting,
不停地想着如果这样或那样的事发生会怎么样
and it goes on for hours for some people,
有些人会持续几个小时
sometimes it’s more passing for others.
而有时候另一些人只会持续较短的时间
But being stressed out about something,
我们会对某事感到有压力
as humans, we’re wired to be to handle stressors,
但作为人类 我们生来就会应对这种压力
and we’ve been dealing with an onslaught of stressors since the beginning of time.
从古至今 我们一直在抵抗各种压力冲击
You know, going to work, taking the subway,
例如上班 坐地铁
coming in contact with other people.
与他人交流
Look, you know, that can be stressful. That can be stress-inducing.
你知道的 这些都让人感到紧张 都会引起压力
Unless you have an actual, like, panic attack
除非当你搭乘地铁时
while you’re taking the subway,
真的惊恐发作
that would be more of an anxiety reaction,
那才更像是一种焦虑反应
whereas the stress of taking the subway is more stress-based.
而乘坐地铁本身的紧张感更像是一种压力
Stile: You know, everybody feels anxious, let’s say,
Stile:每个人都会感觉到焦虑
before a presentation or before an exam.
比如说在作报告或考试之前
But an anxiety disorder is the extreme form of that
但是焦虑性障碍
where it becomes, you know,
是焦虑的一种极端状态
it interferes with somebody’s daily functioning.
它会干扰人们的日常生活
Goorin: This is actually a really important myth.
Goorin:这其实是个非常重大的误区
Sadness is an ephemeral reaction to something.
悲伤是对某个事情短暂的反应
It’s an emotion and, by definition, lasts a few seconds.
根据定义 它是一种只持续几秒钟的情绪
It can’t last, like, 10 minutes,
它不会持续10分钟那么长
but on average,
但一般来讲
we have an emotion, it passes,
我们的情绪一闪而过
and then we have another emotion.
然后我们会有另一种情绪
The thing that tends to bring us from sadness to depression is rumination,
反刍思考会让情绪从悲伤发展为抑郁
which means thinking and thinking and thinking about the thing over and over and over again.
它意味着反复思考同一件事 永无休止
And that’s how we then go from sadness to depression,
我们就是这样从悲伤发展到抑郁的
but it’s not an immediate thing.
但这个过程不是瞬间形成的
We all have moments of sadness,
我们都有悲伤的时候
and we just allow them and let them pass,we tend to be OK.
我们只需要接受它 让它过去 就会好起来
But if we get caught up in getting ruminating
但如果我们开始钻牛角尖
and thinking about all the reasons why we’re sad,
总是想着使我们悲伤的原因
that’s when we tend to go into depression.
那么就会变得抑郁
So, to the myth that depression is not a real illness,
因此 抑郁不是疾病是一个误区
it is a real illness,
它确实是一种疾病
and, in fact, it can be incredibly debilitating.
而且实际上它对人的伤耗非常大
In order to classify as having depression,
真正患有抑郁症的患者
we have to have some kind of a lethargic kind of behavior
会出现一种嗜睡行为
where we have trouble getting out of bed.
他们会觉得起床很困难
I mean, there are different ways of depression,
我是说 抑郁有不同的临床表现
but one of the primary ones has this,
其中一种主要症状被称为
what they’re called neurovegetative symptoms,
植物神经功能紊乱
like, where we can’t sleep, where we can’t eat.
例如睡不着 吃不下
There’s also a kind of depression which is dysthymia,
也有一种抑郁是精神抑郁
which has an anhedonia component into it,
其中一种表现是快感缺乏
which means less pleasure in things that we used to enjoy,
即我们对以往喜欢做的事毫无兴趣
which is another kind of depression.
这是另一种抑郁症表现
And a lot of people will describe, like, “Oh, I used to love pottery,
很多人会说 “噢 我以前很爱陶艺
and now I can’t even look at pots.”
而现在我连陶壶都不想看见”
You know? Like, something just totally changes for them
好像当他们深陷抑郁中时
when they’re deeply in this state of depression.
有些事情变得跟以前完全不一样了
Neil Altman: Talking about painful things that you’ve learned how to sort of cover over
Neil Altman:谈论那些你已经学会掩藏的痛苦
can initially be more painful,
最初会让自己更痛苦
but in the interest of working out things
但为了消除痛苦 谈论痛苦是值得的
that if not dealt with straightforwardly
如果开始时不直接消除痛苦
are gonna come back to bite them.
痛苦还是会继续折磨他们
I’ll say another thing about that is that sometimes patients wonder,
我要说的另一件事是 有时候患者想知道
“What’s the therapist gonna feel if I say thus and so?”
“如果我这么说出来 医生会是什么感受?”
Like, “Can the therapist handle the level of despair that I sometimes feel?”
比如 “医生能否感受到我的绝望有多深?”
And on those occasions, when the patient has the strength to put it out there
在这种情况下 如果患者有勇气说出来
and see how the therapist responds,
并看到医生的回应
the fact that the therapist can handle it
患者看到实际上医生有能力解决它
is a big step toward the patient then being able to handle it.
这对其解决问题有很大的帮助
There are reasons, and they may change over time.
原因很多 而且可能会随时间变化
But I think the thing that I would want to debunk
但是从这个方面看 我想要揭露的误区是
in that respect is the idea that there’s a single reason,
有观点认为原因是单一的
so that if you handle that, then you’re gonna be freed of that.
如果你能处理好那一个原因 你就能从中解脱
And there’s not.
但事情不是这样的
In most cases, there’s not.
大多数情况下 事情都不尽如此
You’ve got to discover the reasons,
你会发现
in the plural that you’re depressed
抑郁的诱因是多元的
and what you can do something about and what you can’t.
有些你能改变 有些不能
Stile: The myth that only women get depressed couldn’t be further from the truth.
Stile:只有女性会抑郁的误区简直错得离谱
However, women are twice as likely to experience depression.
然而 女性患抑郁的可能性是男性的两倍
So, the reason why oftentimes people think
大家通常认为
women have a higher rate of depression than men
女性抑郁的概率比男性高的原因
is because of maybe hormonal changes, life circumstances, and stress.
可能是激素水平的变化 生活环境和压力
The other thing that I like to think about
我认为另一个原因是
is that women might express their feelings in a different way than men do.
女性表达情绪的方式可能与男性有所不同
So, sometimes men might, you know, act out behaviorally,
有时男性可能更倾向于行动上的表现
whereas women might focus on their internal experience.
而女性可能更注重内心感受
And so they might be more likely to see a therapist if that’s the case.
如果是这样 她们或许更有可能去看心理医生
Goorin: When people have gone down the road
Goorin:当人们最终到了
of eventually deciding to go on medications for antidepressants
决定依靠药物来抗抑郁的程度
they don’t change your personality, they change the symptoms of depression.
药物并不会改变你的性格 它们改变的是抑郁的症状
They can also work for anxiety.
同时也可以治疗焦虑
So, typically, if you have just typical symptoms of depression and anxiety,
因此 通常来讲 如果你有抑郁和焦虑的典型症状
we’ll be given an antidepressant is what it’s called, an SSRI.
就会服用抗抑郁的药 也就是SSRI
And that will help us regulate the symptoms of our, just, up and down of moods.
这将有助于我们调节情绪波动
And the way I describe it to people is
我常对人们这样描述
it’s like going back to your baseline you when it’s the right medication.
当用药正确时 你会像是回归基线
But it doesn’t change your personality. Your personality, you’re you.
但它不会改变你的人格 你就是你本来的样子
So, in terms of the myth that we’ll always be cured from depression by antidepressants,
就抗抑郁药物总能治好抑郁症这一误区来讲
the research shows that the most effective thing
研究表明目前治疗抑郁最有效的方法
right now for depression is actually therapy.
实际上是心理治疗
And then for people who need antidepressants,
对于需要抗抑郁药物的患者
therapy and antidepressants together are another effective form.
心理治疗和抗抑郁药相结合是另一种有效的治疗方式
And not everybody has to take it.
不是每个人都需要吃药
So even with people who are taking antidepressants,
所以就算对于那些在服药的人来说
it’s important to still be in therapy.
心理治疗仍然重要
Altman: The myth that bad parenting causes mental illness
Altman:糟糕的养育方式导致精神疾病是个误区
I think is a trap.
我认为这是个思想怪圈
Because parents are all too ready to take responsibility and to feel guilty
因为父母总是准备好对他们孩子的各种问题
about all sorts of problems that their children have.
承担责任并感到内疚
So there’s no point in reinforcing that
所以没有必要再雪上加霜
and harming and damaging the mental health of parents.
去伤害家长们的心理健康
If you think that your parents caused your mental illness,
若你觉得精神疾病是由你的父母造成的
you’re gonna end up endlessly complaining about your parent.
你将会无止尽地抱怨他们
What can you do about the way you were raised?
对过去的成长经历你能做些什么呢?
You can do something about what is left you with in the present.
你可以为现在的自己做些事情
Goorin: Around LGBT adults and youth,
Goorin:性少数群体中的成人和青少年
there’s so many myths associated with mental health.
承受了太多他人对于精神健康的误解
And a big part of it I think is,
我认为其中一大部分是因为
unfortunately, because the profession that I’m in
很不幸的是 我所在的行业
had a really dirty history along these lines
在这方面有一段臭名昭著的历史
that in the DSM, which is our Diagnostic and Statistic Manual,
在我们的DSM 也就是诊断和统计手册中
until 1973, homosexuality was actually listed as a disorder.
事实上直到1973年 同性恋一直被列为疾病
And after a lot of pushback and studies
经过大量的抵制和研究
and LGBTQ rights being integrated into theory,
保护LGBTQ群体的权利逐渐形成理念
we realized that that was really outdated.
我们才意识到旧时的观念已经过时了
And since then, in DSM-3,
从那以后 在DSM-3中
it stopped being,
同性恋不再被列成精神疾病
unless somebody has specific anxiety related to being gay,
除非他们对作为同性恋者有特定的焦虑症状
then they’re not diagnosed ever
他们也不会再被诊断为
with a mental-health-related disorder associated with it.
患有与此相关的心理健康方面的疾病
The same is true for being trans, actually.
事实上 对跨性别者来说也是一样
That umm, it’s only if somebody has what’s called like dysphoria,
只有当人们烦躁不安
where they don’t like their body,
即不喜欢自己的身体时
that they then have a diagnosis.
他们才会被确诊为焦虑症
But just being trans in and of itself isn’t a disorder anymore.
但跨性别行为本身不再被定义为一种失调症
You know, to the question about what role mental health plays
关于心理健康在持枪暴力袭击中
in the attacks of gun violence,
起到多大影响这个问题
unfortunately, that’s been a mischaracterization
不幸的是 一直有种错误描述是
of people who have severe mental illness,
已经患严重心理疾病的人
is that they’re more likely to commit crimes and with guns.
更可能携带枪支犯罪
It’s not that people with mental illness are more likely to be aggressive.
并不是患精神疾病的人更可能具有攻击性
It’s the people who commit these crimes have access to guns,
而是犯罪的这些人持有枪支
and they tend to be really self-loathing,
他们常常自我厌恶
Like, that’s kind of the primary thing that makes people have a lack of empathy.
而自我厌恶是人们缺乏同理心的主要原因
That seems to be the things that make them be more violent and aggressive.
这似乎是让他们更暴力并且更具攻击性的原因
Those are better predictors than any type of a mental health disorder.
和其他心理失调症相比 这些是更好的预测指标
People talk about a whole town, like, on the news,
比如 新闻上描述整个镇发生的事情
“A whole town was traumatized by the shooting,” for instance. Right?
“整个镇上的人都受到了枪击事件的创伤”
And it doesn’t work that way, and that’s actually
但事实并非如此 事实上
one of the most common mental-health disorders
这是我所知的最常被误解的心理失调症
that I’ve seen mischaracterized in that particular way, is PTSD.
也就是创伤后应激障碍
People seem to think that by virtue of having the experience to a potentially traumatic event,
人们似乎以为 经历过可能遗留创伤的事件
that you’ll have these particular realm of symptoms
就会表现出这些特定的症状反应
that include hypervigilance, there’s impulsivity.
包括高度警觉 容易冲动
There’s so many different realms of what comes up for people after trauma,
人们经历创伤后 会出现很多不同的反应
and I’ve heard people say, you know,
比如 我听人说过
“Because I was traumatized,
“因为我受过创伤
because I was there at 9/11,” for instance.
因为我经历过911事件”
Well, a whole city was there,
嗯 整个城市的人当时都在场
and we have really good numbers about
而且人群数量很庞大
the number of people who ended up having PTSD,
而最终患有创伤后应激障碍的人
and they’re actually really small.
其实真的很少
When something like this happens, a major tragedy like a gun shooting or a 9/11
诸如枪击案或者911这样的大型悲剧
or any other type of tragedy like that,
或者其他悲剧发生时
people tend to be resilient.
人们往往会表现得坚韧
There’s a big myth, actually, even within the mental-health field
实际上 甚至心理学界也存在一个严重误区
saying that there are prototypical ways to respond to grief and loss.
即认为有典型方法能够法应对悲伤和失去
And that’s in pop culture as well,
在大众文化里也是如此
that people have these ideas that there’s one way to grieve
人们认为有某种特定的方法可以消除痛苦
and if we’re not devastated and deeply traumatized
如果没有经历过巨大的悲痛和严重的创伤
that somehow we’re in denial or unfeeling.
我们就会拒绝承认或者没法感知痛苦
And that’s not true.
这种想法并不正确
In fact, since the beginning of time, we’ve been dealing with death.
事实上 从生命伊始 我们就在学会面对死亡
We have different ways of dealing with it.
我们有不同的方式来应对死亡
And sometimes we’re relieved that the person dies
有时候对逝去的人感到释然
because we didn’t have a very good relationship with them.
是因为我们和他们的关系并不亲近
Or even if the person, if we love them
或者即使是我们爱着的人
and we feel really connected to them but they were sick,
我们感觉与他们紧紧相依 但是他们生病了
we’re relieved that they’re dead
我们也能对其离世感到释怀
because we don’t want them to suffer anymore.
因为我们不希望他们再遭受痛苦的折磨
People tend to feel really guilty about being relieved after a death,
对待死亡的这种释然感 人们总是发自内心地愧疚
which is a very common reaction to death.
这是对待死亡非常普遍的反应
There are no five stages of loss; it’s just a myth.
并不存在“悲伤的五个阶段”一说 这只是一个误区
And it’s one of the most popular myths out there.
这是大众最熟悉的误区之一
And it’s one of those things where
原因之一在于
people who aren’t very psychologically minded will come in and say,
不具备心理学思维的人会说
“Oh, my gosh, I must be in the denial phase of loss,”
“噢 天呐 我一定处在否认失去的阶段”
or, “I must be in this phase
或者 “我一定身处这个阶段 ”
because I’m not dealing with it yet.”
“因为我还没有处理好情绪”
In reality, I just think it’s one of those things that makes us feel safe.
我认为这只是在现实中会带来安全感的一种方式
Like, if we can imagine these stages are ahead of us,
就像如果我们能够想象将要经历某些阶段
then we can feel better about where we are,
对于目前的处境 我们会感觉好很多
and so I think that’s why it’s so popular.
所以我想这也是它如此受到追捧的原因
However, I’ve seen the flip side,
然而 我也见过反面的情况
which is why it can be damaging,
即这种想法也可能造成伤害
when people have losses and they’re judging themselves
人们在经历了失去后会进行自我评价
for not having this prototypical series of stages,
发现并没有处在这样的典型阶段中
and they’re not based on reality or evidence or anything.
他们不会基于事实或证据等去分析
OK, so, people are gonna hate me for saying this, but,
好吧 大家可能会讨厌我这么说 但是
and this is so common in the dating world.
这在约会中很常见
Like, if you ever look on people’s profiles on dating profiles,
比如 如果你在约会档案中查看某人的信息
they always say, like, “I am an NYFB,”
他们总会说 “我是一个’NYFB’”
or, I don’t even know what they say.
我甚至不知道他们在说什么
But it’s always about how they’re this certain, you know, Myers-Briggs score.
但他们总是对MBTI性格测试的分数如此确信
And it’s really popular these days, Myers-Briggs.
这个测试最近真的很流行
And, in fact, a lot of organizations use it
事实上很多机构都在使用
and really base a lot of their testing on it.
并且真的以MBTI为依据进行测试
Again, there’s no validation around any of these studies,
再次重申 尽管这可能会引起人们的共鸣
and so while it might resonate for people,
但任何这样的研究都无效
and that is something that, you know, just like when we talk about,
你懂的 这就像我们在聊天的时候说
“you know, I’m a Gemini because I do this,”
“我这样做是因为我是一个双子座”
you know, it resonates for you, the idea of being a Gemini,
双子座的性格特点让你产生共鸣
and you might act in ways that remind you of this description of what it is to be a Gemini,
你可能会以符合双子座描述的方式去表现
but there are no empirical tests to say that you are such this thing.
但这并没有实证表明你就是这样的人
There are personality tests, but Myers-Briggs isn’t one of them.
确实存在一些性格测试 但MBTI并不包含在内
Altman: The myth that therapy is gonna be exclusively about the past
Altman:另一个误区是治疗仅对过去的经历有效
or predominantly about the past
或者主要对过去的经历有效
and not help you in your current life
并不会在当下的生活里给予你帮助
or not give you a form for talking about what’s happening today and yesterday,
也没法解释今天和昨天发生的一切
there’s a reason why people hold on to that myth.
人们坚持这样的误区是有原因的
And the reason is that there was an early version of psychoanalysis
理由就是心理分析早期的观点
that held to the idea that people’s personalities were formed in their first five years
坚持认为人的个性形成于五岁前
and that the past was strongly formative of the present.
过去对现在的行为养成有极大的影响
It sometimes can be helpful to say
有时候说与过去接触的人
that there was a pattern that was established in relation to people in the past.
建立了某种模式是有帮助的
And that can give you some perspective on what’s happening in the present.
这可以让你对正在发生的事情有一些看法
So making reference to the past is not necessarily a bad thing,
因此参照过去的经历不一定是坏事
but it should never be because this happened,
但不应该是因为这曾经发生过
therefore you’re having this problem now.
所以你现在遇到了这样的问题
It’s not an explanation. It’s only a way of getting perspective on the present.
这不是一种解释 只是认识现在的一种方式
Stile: I think oftentimes people might say,
Stile:我想人们通常可能会说
“Oh, why not go speak with a friend who’s a good friend,
“噢 为什么不找个
and they can keep things confidential?”
能保守秘密的好朋友聊聊?”
But therapists are trained to work in a particular way to
但是心理治疗师接受了特定的训练
help people deal with specific problems they’re facing.
能帮助人们处理他们面对的具体问题
Therapists are different than friends
治疗师和朋友的身份是不同的
because even though your friends might be willing to, for example, hold a secret,
因为尽管你的朋友可能愿意为你保密(打个比方)
therapists really treat things in a very confidential manner,
心理治疗师也会非常尊重你的隐私
and they’re willing to explore things that
并且他们愿意探究你所经历的事
maybe a friend would be uncomfortable exploring.
而朋友们可能对此感到不悦
Altman: Actually, the fact is that most people
Altman:事实上 真相是大多数
who come to therapy are among the stronger people.
内心强大的人才会接受治疗
And the reason is because they have the courage
因为他们拥有自我审视的
and the strength to look at themselves,
勇气和能力
which is not an easy thing to do in various ways.
不管哪一点都不太容易
I think it’s because the people who come to me
我觉得这是因为来找我的人
are people who’ve already decided to work on themselves.
已经做出了自我疗愈的决定
Good therapists don’t force their patients
优秀的心理医生不会强迫病人
to talk about something they don’t want to talk about.
诉说他们不想分享的事
To the contrary, I think that even encouraging a person to talk about something
相反地 我认为在病人没准备好的情况下
that they’re not ready to talk about is counterproductive.
即便是鼓励其倾诉也达不到预期效果
The problem with hitting pain points right on the head is privacy, for one thing.
直击痛点的关键问题一方面是隐私权
People are entitled to their privacy.
人们有权保护自己的隐私
Therapy isn’t just an opportunity to spill.
心理治疗也不仅仅是找个机会吐露心声
So I think having people’s privacy, when their privacy is respected,
因此我认为人们在隐私受到尊重时
that makes them more confident to open up, actually.
才会真正更自信地敞开心扉
But the other problem for that is that the therapist needs to be thinking
但另一方面的问题是心理医生需要思考
that there’s a limit to the tolerance of everybody, including the therapist,
包括自己在内的每个人的容忍限度在哪里
for how much pain they can tolerate at any given time.
在所给时间内来访者能忍受多少痛苦情绪
And so respect for people’s anxiety about
因此尊重人们因回顾
getting into some of the more difficult things in their lives
生命中困难的事而产生的焦虑感
is also part of the process.
也是治疗的一部分
Goorin: Psychiatrists are the only ones
Goorin:心理咨询师是我们国家唯一
who are able in this country to prescribe medication.
能够开处方药的人
They do what’s called a psychopharmacological consult,
有一种疗法叫作精神药理咨询
where they will go through all of your history.
他们会带你回忆整个过去
And that’s something they do if you want that,
前提是这是你想要的
and I say if you want that because it’s really important.
我是说前提是这是你想要的 因为这真的很重要
As a psychologist, for instance,
比如 作为心理学家
we always try therapy first.
我们总会先尝试心理治疗
It’s the treatment of preference for all clinicians.
这是所有临床医生都偏好的心理咨询方式
In fact, they’ve done all these studies that have shown that
事实上 他们做过的所有这些研究都表明
therapy first for several months before you then even think about a medication
在考虑用药之前 先接受几个月的心理治疗
is the best course of treatment for people.
是对患者来说最好的治疗方式
Because that way you can really see what is what.
因为这样你能看清事情的本质
And if you then still want to do medications, it’s certainly something you can talk about.
如果在那之后你仍然想用药 你当然可以明确说出来
but you don’t have to do medications.
但你不是非用药不可
It’s up to you and your therapist
如果你觉得药物有效果
if it feels like that would be beneficial to you.
由你和心理医生决定是否使用药物
Altman: I would not say that most therapists
Altman:我不认为大多数心理医生
consider that therapy has to go on forever.
都将心理治疗视作终身的事
But I think when you’re interviewing somebody
但我想 当你在为自己选择心理咨询师时
and considering them to be your therapist,
在交谈的过程中
that’s one thing to ask about.
你需要问这个问题
” How do you think about how long this should go on
“你认为我们的心理咨询需要持续多久
and when do you start to think that maybe it’s time to end it ?”
什么时候你会开始认为治疗或许能结束了?”
How do you break up with your therapist?
你要如何终止与心理师的咨询呢?
Do not break up with your therapist in an email or a text or a phone message.
不要通过邮件或手机短信的形式
You’ve got to be direct. You’ve got to say,
你应该直接说
“I’ve been thinking that maybe it’s time for us to stop.”
“我一直在想也许咨询应该到此为止了”
But then that can’t be the end of it.
但是这并不意味着治疗结束
If you haven’t already said it, hopefully you have already said it
如果你还没说 希望你在治疗过程中
in one way or another in the preceding sessions.
已经通过这样或那样的方式表达过
“What I’ve been looking for is this,
“这是我一直在寻求的
and I see how it’s been happening in my life.”
我知道这在我的人生中是怎样发生的”
And maybe give an example or two.
或许再举一两个例子
But it’s not like you feel
但是你并不需要
you have to convince the therapist.
说服治疗师
I want to be sure to let people know that there are lots of ways
我想确保让人们知道 有很多低成本
of getting good psychotherapy at a reduced fee.
接受高质量心理治疗的方法
So, there are institutes where people get advanced training beyond their doctorate.
有些机构为人们提供博士学位以外的高级培训
And all those institutes have training clinics
所有这些机构都有培训诊所
where people are treated at a low fee.
在这里人们治疗的费用并不高
And some people might think that the higher the fee,
有些人可能会认为费用越高
the more skilled the practitioner,
治疗师的技能更高超
which is not necessarily the case.
事实不尽如此
But certainly in that case it’s not true.
但在这种情况下 这肯定不是真的

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视频概述

我们每个人都需要关注自己的心理健康,但一直或多或少存在对心理学的误解,我们来看看哪些和我们认为的不太一样吧。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

olina

审核员

审核员GEGE

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ii5m8Ta1iBY

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