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恐龙化石之旅—从挖掘到展出 – 译学馆
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恐龙化石之旅—从挖掘到展出

PROOF...Dinosaurs had FEATHERS!

如果你能给我找到一个猫科骨骼化石 你就是我永远的好朋友
If you find me a cat skeleton, you’ll be my best friend forever.
哇哦 你们听到了吗?
Oh, you hear that?
我们也许能用它换到霸王龙的牙齿?
Maybe we could trade that for T. rex tooth?
– 呃 这个不行 哈哈哈哈- 啊!
– Uh, no. [laughs]- Ah!
但是大家看到了吗?
You see what I did there, though?
如果他说“看情况” 我就可以顺理成章地说
Man, if he was like, “We’ll see” I’d be like,
“那我将给你找到史上最大的猫科骨架”
“Oh, I’m gonna find the biggest cat skeleton ever.”
【蛋壳碎裂声】
[egg cracks]
【不详的音乐】
[ominous music]
在6500万年前 恐龙从地球上消失
Dinosaurs disappeared from the planet 65 million years ago,
所以当首个史前生物遗骸
and when the first fossilized remains of these prehistoric creatures
于19世纪被发现时
were discovered in the 1800s,
它们激起了全人类无止境的幻想和追捧
they sparked an endless world of fascination for all of mankind.
对于皮特·拉森来说 化石挖掘这门手艺
For Pete Larson, the art of digging up fossils
自他四岁就开始了
began when he was four years old,
并且逐渐成为伴随他一生的追求
and transcended into what became a lifetime
要让史前巨兽重见天日
dedicated to unearthing these ancient behemoths.
1974年 他创立了黑山地质研究所
In 1974, he founded the Black Hills Institute of Geological Research.
专门从事化石的发现 挖掘及保存
Specializing in the discovery, excavation and preservation of fossils,
这个地方完美地向全世界分享着皮特对恐龙的热爱
this has become the perfect vehicle for Pete to share his love of dinosaurs with the world.
像我一样 他最喜欢的恐龙是最富盛名的暴龙
Like me, his favorite dinosaur is the iconic Tyrannosaurus rex.
目前为止 他挖出的暴龙骨架应该比世上任何人都多
And to date, he has probably dug up more T. rex skeletons than any one person in the world.
在这些不可思议的发现中有世界闻名的暴龙苏
These incredible finds include the world-famous Sue,
它被保存在芝加哥菲尔德博物馆
who resides at the Chicago Field Museum,
还有高耸于黑山自然历史博物馆的镇馆之宝 斯坦
and Stan, who towers as the centerpiece of the Black Hills Museum of Natural History.
今天 我们和皮特一起
Today we are teaming up with Pete
带你走过大多数化石将要经历的历程
to bring you the journey that most fossils travel
从旷野把它们挖掘出来到最终呈现的状态
once they have been discovered and safely extracted from the field.
-嘿 皮特!-嘿 考尤提
– Hey, Pete!- Hey, Coyote.
-你怎么样?-我很好 你呢?
– How are ya?- I’m fine, how are you?
-我很好 很高兴见到你 喔
I’m doing good, good to see you.
这个 呃 看起来像一堆白色的灰尘
Wow, this, uh, looks like a mound of white dirt.
它布满灰尘
Well, it’s covered with dust,
但如果你靠近点看 就在胶水瓶的位置 那个凹处其实是眼窝
but if you look closely, right over by where the glue bottles are that depression is actually the orbit.
在6600万年前 那里是一个眼球
There was an eyeball that was in there 66 million years ago.
哦 所以我们在看一个头盖骨?
Oh, so we’re looking at a skull?
我们在看头盖骨
We’re looking at a skull.
实际上这里是鼻子 仔细看 这有个喙
This is in fact this is the nose and if you look carefully, you can see that you have a beak here.
好的 我们可以看到鼻孔上方有一个鼻骨
Okay, we have a nasal horn right up the naris.
-我听懂了-这是眼睛
– I’m following you.- There’s the eye.
那本来有个角 我们把角取下来 然后把另一边的也取下来
There’s a horn, we took the horn off there and we took the horn off on the other side too.
所以你觉得它是什么?
But so, what do you think it is?
我猜这是三角龙的头骨
I’m guessing we are looking at a Triceratops skull.
你答对了
And you would be correct.
其实你是这样子的看它的
So you’re actually you’re looking at it like this.
嗯嗯
Okay.
这是实际方向 但如果你这样转一下 它就变得很明显了
That’s the actual orientation, but if you turn it like this, it becomes pretty obvious.
这就我刚才解释过的那个喙
Here’s the beak I was explaining.
这个鼻角告诉我们这属于优美三角龙
This nasal horn here tells us that it’s Triceratops prorsus
懂了 就是最典型的那种三角龙
Okay, like the quintessential, classic Triceratops.
-对吗?-对 对
– Correct?- Right, right.
优美三角龙 恐怖三角龙
Triceratops prorsus, Triceratops chorus.
当提到三角龙时 我们所想到的基本就是这两种
Those are the two that we think of when we think of Triceratops.
-懂了-在北美只发现这两种三角龙
-Okay.-So they’re only North American animals.
当你们把这些化石从实地搬到这里时
When you guys bring these in from the field,
外面的这层石膏叫做保护套 对吗
this plaster on the outside is called a jacket, right?
对 对 它叫做实地护套
Right, right, it’s called field jacket.
还有所有这些在头颅骨外面的
Field jacket and all of this stone
大小不一的岩石被称为岩系基质
or all this rock that’s around the outside of the skull is called the matrix.
对 是的
Right, correct.
所以当你把它从地里挖出来时
So when you bring it in from the field,
会连同周围的岩系基质一起用石膏包裹起来
it’s wrapped in the plaster, it’s still encased in the matrix,
这使得它整个看上去就像一块大岩石
and for the most part, it looks like a giant rock
直到你们专家把它清理出来
until you guys begin to get in there.
我知道你有一些化石已经清理的比较好了
All right, so you do have some fossils that are more exposed to this point,
可以让我们看你是怎么处理的吗
projects you’ve been working on that we can look at,
我们就用摄像机拍下一点点进程
get the cameras up close and see a little bit further along the process.
我们现在要去看一个已经部分准备好的骨骼化石
So we’re gonna look at a skeleton now that has been partially prepared.
其中一个护套已经翻掉了 还有一个护套还在
One of the jackets has been turned over, and one of them has not.
-好的-但这样做 你能看到它在地里的样子
– Okay.- But you can see, so you can see kind of the way it was in the ground
它实际上是两个骨骼化石 而且是在同一处沉积湖中发现的 它们太棒了
and these are actually two skeletons that were found in a lake deposit and they’re awesome.
-那太好了 让我们去看看那些化石吧-好的
– Okay, great. Well, let’s go take a look at those.- Alright.
当一块化石从实地送到这儿时
When a fossil arrives from the field,
看上去和一块裹着石膏的基质并无差别
it appears to be nothing more than matrix wrapped in a plaster jacket.
但是一旦图解描绘 真正的挖掘也就开始了
Yet once it’s mapped, the real excavation begins.
好的 众位 我们现在将看到的是化石被运到这个房间后的下一个步骤
All right, guys, so now we’re gonna look at the next step once these fossils come into this room.
酷 看看这个
Cool, check this out.
基层逐渐被剥离
The matrix is much more peeled back, if you will,
骨头开始显露
and the bone is starting to be exposed.
我可以站到这边吗?
What if I kinda swing around this side here?
当然
Sure.
所以我们在这里可以看到两具保存很好的化石骨架
So what we have here is preserved two very nice skeletons.
嗯 其中一个还没有完成
Um, one is not very complete.
这儿有2节腿骨 1块胫骨和1对胸骨架 属于一只安朱瓦里耶恐龙
We have two femurs and a tibia, a couple of sternal plates from a dinosaur called Anzu villia,
-三年前我曾描述过它-喔
– I just recently described about three years ago.- Okay.
但是这儿还有另一只来自同一种属的恐龙
But what we also have is another dinosaur of the same group.
这个属称为新颌龙属或艾里克龙属
The group called caenagnathids or oviraptorids.
喔 我知道艾里克属
Oh, okay, yeah, I know oviraptorids.
它们很奇特 被称为兽脚亚目恐龙
So they have, they’re weird, called theropods,
是一种无牙的肉食恐龙 更接近现代鸟类
meat-eating dinosaurs without teeth, so they’re more like modern birds.
同古老恐龙相比
This is as much like a modern bird
它们与现代鸟类相似性更多
as any of these ancient dinosaurs were,
这些化石我们通常认为是非鸟兽脚类恐龙
those things we normally thinkof as non-avian theropods.
-好的 -这里全是头骨
– Okay.- This is all skull right in here.
我们认为这是一个颅底
This we think is a brain case,
这里起码是一部分颅底
at least part of the brain case right here.
这是肩胛骨 起码是肩胛骨的一部分
This right here is the scapula, so part of the shoulder blade.
这个我想是犁骨 其中一个是上颚骨
This I think is a vomer, which one the palate bones.
这个很明显是后下颌
It’s the back of the lower jaw, very clearly.
还有在这儿下面很可能藏着更多的头盖骨
And there’s probably a bunch more skull bones underneath all of this.
-这个已经显现得很清楚了-是的
-This is pretty well exposed to this point.-Right.
显然还远没到可以展出的样子
Obviously pretty far away from presentation,
但是 把这些骨头从岩石里挖掘出来的工具又是什么呢?
but what are some of the tools to get these bones out of the rock?
因为最终这些骨头都要清理出来
Because eventually, all of this bone comes out of there.
而且 这些骨头都是很脆弱
So here, because these are really fragile bones and stuff,
所以 我会用 一个可以看的更清楚的东西
so I’ll wanna use, you know, basically something that enhances my version.
当我把这个戴上 我就能把一切看得很清楚
And if I put this on, I can see really closely what’s going on.
这些小凿子 你可以看到它们
And these little picks here, you’ll see they’re actually have two different tips.
一个很尖 还有一个就像一把磨圆的螺丝刀
There’s one very pointed and this one is kind of like a screwdriver that has been rounded.
-我明白了 -所以实际上我们并不是戳骨头
– I see that. – So we don’t actually poke the bone.
我们是把骨头里面的基质弄出来
We actually pull the matrix from the bone.
所以如果我们要清理这些骨头的话
So if I’m gonna clean bone here,
我必须要十分小心
I’ll actually work very carefully here.
哇哦
Wow.
而且这个实际上是清理这种头骨唯一的办法
And this is really the only way to clean a skull like this.
这里有很多胶水 很多聚氨甲酸酯
So there’s a lot of glue on here, and a lot of Polyurethane
它们是用来保护和黏合骨头的
which helps protect the bone and keep it together.
我必须在胶水里面施工
And I gotta work through that glue.
你会注意到我们在骨头上写了一些数字
You’ll notice we wrote numbers on the bones,
因为这样做 我们可以把它们描绘出来 就像那只三角龙一样
because as we’re doing this, we also map them like we did that Triceratops.
还有 当我们把骨头拿下来时
And so, when we take these off,
通过记录就能知道它们的位置
we’ll still have a record of where they were,
这对于想要弄清发生了什么事件
and that’s really super important
导致它们变成现在这个状态
in trying to understand the series of events
是非常重要的
that led this to be preserved in this manner.
皮特 就我所知
What I’ve learned, Pete,
古生物学绝对是一个需要耐心的职业
is that paleontology truly is a profession of patience,
不仅实地样本发掘
not only to find the specimens in the field,
你看这样细致的活
but when you look at something like this,
把基质剥到现在呈现的这个地步
how many man-hours have gone into peeling back the matrix
你们总共花费了多少人工时?
to reveal even where you’re at right now?
实际上要花几百小时
So there’s actually a couple of hundred hours,
两百或者三百个小时 才能有这样
two or three hundred hours, in it so far.
还不包括采集
Not counting collecting.
但是你要知道
Um, um, but it’s gonna have, you know,
这整块基质要用的时间肯定会超过一千
probably well over a thousand hours yet, and just in this block.
那里还有另一个恐龙化石 你也可以去看
There’s another block of the of the dinosaur that you can look at as well,
但在此之前 我想让你仔细看看这里
but before you shift your attention to that, I want you to look very closely right here.
嗯 它看起来像石头上的一个黑块
Mm-hmm, it looks like a dark mass in the rock.
是皮肤吗?
Is that maybe skin?
好吧 你很接近了
Well, you’re very close.
-好吧-这个看上去是羽干
Okay, this looks to be a rachis
这边也有一个 还有那边
and another rakus here and another rachis here
是羽毛的一部分?
As in pieces of feathers?
是的 是羽毛
Yes, as in feathers.
哇 好吧
Wow, okay.
这都是潜在的重要证据
So that has to be incredibly important then,
可能可以证明这只肉食龙有羽毛
finding what may be evidence of feathers on this raptor.
这是一件十分稀少的北美恐龙羽毛样本
It’s one of the very few examples of dinosaur feathers from North America.
哇塞 能看到这种裸露级别的化石太酷了
Wow, now, this is cool to see this level of exposure,
但是也许我们可以去黑山研究所的地库
but can we head down into the catacombs
看一些你已经完全
of the Black Hills Institute and see some of these
从基质层清理挖掘出来的化石?
fossils that you have fully pulled from the matrix?
哦 当然可以
Oh, absolutely, yeah.
-好的-没问题 我们可以去恐龙肚子里看看
– Okay. – No problem, we can go back into the belly of the beast.
听起来不错
All right, sounds good.
好的各位 化石从基质中被移出后下一步
All right, guys, the next step in the journey of a fossil is once it is removed from the matrix,
就是为最终展示做准备
it gets ready for its ultimate presentation state,
马上我们将带大家近距离观察那些化石
and we’re gonna get you guys up close with those fossils in just a minute.
就像皮特所说 把骨骼从基质中完全剥离出来
Like Pete said, it can literally take hundreds of man-hours
要花费上百小时的人力时间绝不夸张
to fully extract bones from their entrapped state in the matrix.
所以尽管我们很乐意帮忙这块猛禽化石的开发工作
And while we would’ve loved to help bring this raptor skeleton to presentation status,
我们认为观赏一些已经处理好的标本会更有趣
we decided it would be more fun to see some of the already-processed specimens.
所以皮特给我们带路
So with Pete leading the way, we followed along
来到了黑山研究所的未公开化石档案馆
into the Black Hills off-display archive of fossils.
这属于一些常见化石
This is one of the more common fossils,
实际上 它是我们在实地最常看到的哺乳动物
in fact, the most common mammal that we see out there.
-哇哦-看 这些部分 还有那边 几乎一点儿都没修过
– Oh, wow. – That’s these guys. So they’re, and this, there’s, you know, virtually no restoration at all.
这些牙齿都是原始的样子
These teeth are original and stuff.
你看到的是一些真正漂亮的头骨
So you can get some really beautiful, beautiful skulls.
这是岳齿兽吗?
And this is an oreodont?
对 是岳齿兽 骆驼的远亲
That’s an oreodont. There’s a distant relative of the camel.
如今已经没这样的动物了
There’s really nothing like them living today.
它整个科都已经灭绝了
That whole family has been extinct.
嗯 它很有趣
Yeah, so it’s interesting.
还有这儿 你发现的时候嘴就是这么张着的吧
And this, just, you found this like this, with the mouth open.
对 就只清理了一些覆盖在骨头上的东西
Right, right, right, and just kinda cleaned away the stuff that was covering the bone,
但是保留了头骨里的基质
but left the matrix in the skull
这样有助于固定并且以自然状态保留下来
to hold everything together and keep it in its natural state.
真酷啊
That’s cool.
这是一个被保存了3500万年的呐喊
And that is a 35-million-year-oldpreserved scream.
我还要奥利奥!啊啊啊!
[Pete laughs]More Oreos! [screetches]
真酷
Very cool.
还有一种常见化石 你刚刚看过的岳齿兽挺常见
One of the more common things, you’ll find oreodonts, like you just saw.
是的
Yeah.
但是比它更加常见的是乌龟化石
But one of the more common things we’ll find will be turtles.
是的 他说了“T”打头的词 我的最爱
Yes, he said the T-word! My favorite.
这儿有一些爬行动物的化石 你将会惊讶于它们的完好
So here we have some reptiles, and you’ll be surprised how nice some of these are.
是的 它们被保存得很完美
Yeah, these are just perfectly preserved.
看那个
Look at that.
有时候你甚至能从乌龟化石里发现它们的头骨
And sometimes, with the turtles you can find their skulls even.
哇哦
Whoa!
有时只需用一些小技巧
Sometimes just comingout of the little skill.
-我可以看一下这个吗?-我们在实地发现了很多乌龟
– Can I see that? – We found a number of them from there.
-这个头骨来自于一只这么大的乌龟-哇
– So that’s it, that’s from a turtle that’s about this big.- Wow.
大约有24英寸
So it’s about a 24-inch turtle.
真是难以置信
That’s incredible.
-是真的-太酷了
– It’s true. – Very cool.
所以当你把它从场地里取出
So when you take him out of blocks,
又或许你正在收集像这样零碎的小骨头
or perhaps you’re collecting like, little pieces of bone.
就像这个 它挖出来就是这样的裸露程度
Like so, so this was exposed like this.
发现时就是你看到的这个样子
You could see this when it was found.
是的
Yeah.
我们从地上挑选许多零碎的化石 再把它们全部倒出来
And there were lots of little pieces that we picked up on the ground, and then we dumped this out in a balk,
-之后清理 观察它像什么-哇哦
and cleaned it, and look what it turns out to be. – Wow!
没错 这是一只剑齿虎
So it’s a little saber-toothed cat.
是的 大家可以看到架子的这层标着“猫科”
That’s right, you guys can see on the on the shelves here, it says “cats.”
这是头骨的背面 至少一部分是
And so this is the back of the skull, part of the back of the skull.
虽然它不完整 但是因为长牙保存完好 它仍然很酷
And unfortunately, it’s not complete, but it’s still cool, because it’s got a really, really nice saber.
太神奇了
That’s amazing.
所以和楼上那件有基质化石相比
So as compared to the matrix upstairs,
这些化石更接近于待展状态
these things are getting closerto being presentation-ready,
要去除微小细节上最后的那点基质
where now you’re really into the fine details of removing that last bit of matrix.
-对 实际上这里有一个漂亮的猫科动物骨架 在上面这层-哦 是的!
Right and in fact here’s here’s a nice cat skeleton that you can see up here. – Oh yeah!
这些放在一起的都已经清理过了
And there it’s all been cleaned, being put together.
对哦 我看到了肩胛骨 对吧?
Oh yeah, I see the shoulder blade, right?
对 肩胛骨 这是另外一只
Shoulder blade, right and here’s the other one,
那只更完整 但是还是缺失了一小部分
which is much more complete, but still missing a little bit.
-那是脚吗-是的 是脚
– And that’s a foot.- That’s a foot, yep.
准确地说是手腕或者是手掌
In fact, a wrist or a hand.
对了 有件重要的事要注意
Now, here’s something important to note, guys.
我们在楼上看的是恐龙化石
Upstairs we were looking at dinosaur fossils.
这些是猫科动物 属于哺乳动物的时代
These are cats, this is the age of mammals.
这可比恐龙时代要早得多
This is well beyond the time of the dinosaurs.
为什么我们现在在看猫科动物化石而不是恐龙化石呢?
Why are we looking at cat fossils as compared to dinosaur fossils, right now?
呃 因为明天我们有一个小型探险
Well, because tomorrow we’re gonna go on a little expedition,
要是你能给我找一个猫科动物骨架 你将会是我永远的好朋友
and if you find me a cat skeleton, you’ll be my best friend forever.
哦 大家听见了吗?
Oh, you hear that?
或许我们可以拿它来换一颗暴龙的牙齿?
Maybe we could trade that for T. rex tooth?
-呃 这不行 (笑声)-啊!
– Uh, no. (laughs)- Ah!
但是大家刚才看到了吗?
You see what I did there, though?
如果他说“到时候再说” 我就可以顺理成章地说
Man, if he was like, “We’ll see,” I’d be like,
“那我将给你找到有史以来最大的猫科骨骼化石”
“Oh, I’m gonna find the biggest cat skeleton ever.”
太兴奋了 观众朋友们 我知道大家一直在等
Well, this is really exciting, guys, because I know you’ve been waiting for us
等着我们亲自去实地现场寻找化石
to get out there in the field to search for some fossils ourselves.
明天我们将向着野外出发
And tomorrow we’re gonna head out into the wild,
去一个由你们选出 能让我们找到像这种化石的最佳地点
to a spot you picked out that you think is perfect for us to find some fossils like this.
还有如果你真能找到一件猫科骨骼化石 我会给你照着暴龙斯坦最好那颗牙做的铸型
And if you do find a cat skeleton, I will give you a cast of Stan’s best tooth.
嘿 听见了吗
Hey, there you go.
一言为定
I will take that.
好的 请继续关注 观众们
All right, stay tuned, guys.
我们寻找恐龙化石的冒险将在下集继续
Our epic dinosaur adventure continues on the next episode.
我是考尤缇·比得森
I’m Coyote Peterson.
一路狂野 勇敢前行
Be brave, stay wild.
我们会在接下来的史无前例的冒险中继续见面
We’ll see you on the next prehistoric adventure.
古生物学是一种和其他学科完全不同的艺术
Paleontology is an art form unlike any other,
不仅仅需要足够的耐心去发掘
and the patience it requires to not only find
还要把化石从时间的掌控中解救出来 这是非常值得敬佩的
but also release these fossils from the hold of time is truly something to admire.
对于像皮特一样把自己的一生贡献给发掘恐龙的人来说
For someone like Pete, who has dedicated his life to unearthing dinosaurs,
没有什么比向全世界教导和分享这个过程 更令人愉悦的了
nothing is more enjoyable than teaching and sharing with the world this fascinating process.
我从未停止对史前生物的热爱
I have always loved prehistoric creatures,
当我和团队人员当日结束后离开黑山研究所时
and as the crew and I left the Black Hills Institute for the day,
我们的内心充斥着像孩子一样的激动
our inner childlike spirits were filled with excitement,
因为距离我们第一次化石挖掘之旅 只剩一个晚上了
because we were just a night’s rest away from going on our very first fossil dig.
请继续关注我们史诗级的冒险
Stay tuned for an epic adventure,
我们将跟随皮特·拉森进入不毛之地寻找古代动物遗骸
as we follow Pete Larson into the badlands to search for the remains of ancient animals.
嘿 狼崽子们 假如你们错过了
Hey, Coyote Pack, in case you missed it,
记得要回去收看第一集恐龙灭绝后
make sure to go back and watch the first episode of Beyond Dinosaurs,
在里面我和团队们找到了一个巨大的暴龙牙齿
where the crew and I got to hold a gigantic tooth of a Tyrannosaurus rex.
不要忘记订阅我们的频道 在下一次史前冒险中加入我和我的团队
And don’t forget, subscribe, so you can join me and the crew on our next prehistoric adventure.
[树叶沙沙声]
[leaves rustling][birds chirping]

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译制信息
视频概述

野性勇者-史前动物的冒险之旅-第二集

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

sky 1_0

审核员

审核员_BZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JPMGjObNQwk

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