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贫穷不是缺乏性格,而是缺钱

Poverty isn't a lack of character; it's a lack of cash | Rutger Bregman

I’d like to start with a simple question:
我想用一个简单的问题开始今天的话题:
Why do the poor make so many poor decisions?
为什么穷人会做出很多差劲的决定呢
I know it’s a harsh question,
我知道这是个尖锐的问题
but take a look at the data.
先来看一下数据
The poor borrow more, save less,
穷人借钱更多 储蓄更少
smoke more, exercise less, drink more
抽烟更多 锻炼更少 饮酒更多
and eat less healthfully.
而且饮食更为不健康
Why?
为什么呢
Well, the standard explanation
英国前首相撒切尔夫人曾经总结过
was once summed up by the British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher.
一个标准的解释
And she called poverty “a personality defect.”
她把贫穷称之为“个性缺陷”
(Laughter)
(笑声)
A lack of character, basically.
就是缺乏某种个性
Now, I’m sure not many of you would be so blunt.
我相信在座的各位可能不会这么直白
But the idea that there’s something wrong with the poor themselves
但是穷人自身有问题 持有这个想法的
is not restricted to Mrs. Thatcher.
撒切尔夫人不是唯一一个
Some of you may believe that the poor should be held responsible
有人可能会认为穷人应该对
for their own mistakes.
自己犯的错负责
And others may argue that we should help them to make better decisions.
另一些人可能认为我们应该帮他们做出更好的决定
But the underlying assumption is the same:
但是这两种观点背后的假设都是一样的:
there’s something wrong with them.
就是穷人是有问题的
If we could just change them,
如果我们可以改造他们
if we could just teach them how to live their lives,
如果我们可以教会他们如何生活
if they would only listen.
如果他们愿意听的话
And to be honest,
老实说
this was what I thought for a long time.
有很长一段时间 我也是这么想的
It was only a few years ago that I discovered
几年前 我才发现
that everything I thought I knew about poverty was wrong.
我之前自以为是的想法都是错的
It all started when I accidentally stumbled upon a paper
有一次 我无意中看到几个美国心理学家的
by a few American psychologists.
论文 我才恍然大悟
They had traveled 8,000 miles, all the way to India,
为了一项有趣的研究
for a fascinating study.
他们不远万里去到印度
And it was an experiment with sugarcane farmers.
让糖农们参与了一个实验
You should know that these farmers collect about 60 percent
要知道在收割季后 这些农民
of their annual income all at once,
一次就可以赚到
right after the harvest.
年收入的百分之六十
This means that they’re relatively poor one part of the year
也就是说在一年中的一段时间里
and rich the other.
他们会比较贫困
The researchers asked them to do an IQ test before and after the harvest.
研究人员请他们在收割前后分别做一次智商测试
What they subsequently discovered completely blew my mind.
他们的发现完全颠覆了我的三观
The farmers scored much worse on the test before the harvest.
在收割前农民们的智商测试得分要低得多
The effects of living in poverty, it turns out,
结果显示 生活贫困的影响
correspond to losing 14 points of IQ.
会反映在智商测试得分中低了14分
Now, to give you an idea,
为了让大家明白
that’s comparable to losing a night’s sleep
这就相当于失眠一整夜
or the effects of alcoholism.
或酗酒
A few months later, I heard that Eldar Shafir,
几个月后 我听说普林斯顿大学教授
a professor at Princeton University and one of the authors of this study,
以及该研究的作者之一艾尔达·夏菲尔
was coming over to Holland, where I live.
要来荷兰 我家就在那儿
So we met up in Amsterdam
于是我们在阿姆斯特丹见了面
to talk about his revolutionary new theory of poverty.
讨论了他关于贫穷的革命性的新理论
And I can sum it up in just two words:
我可以用五个字总结:
scarcity mentality.
稀缺性心态
It turns out that people behave differently
结果显示 当人们认为某个东西稀缺的话
when they perceive a thing to be scarce.
行为方式就会有所不同
And what that thing is doesn’t much matter —
这个东西是什么并不重要
whether it’s not enough time, money or food.
有可能是缺乏时间 金钱或食物
You all know this feeling,
大家都知道这种感觉
when you’ve got too much to do,
如果你手上有太多事情要做
or when you’ve put off breaking for lunch
或是你吃午餐时间推迟了
and your blood sugar takes a dive.
血糖水平急剧下降
This narrows your focus to your immediate lack —
这会让你把注意力集中在最紧缺的事物上——
to the sandwich you’ve got to have now,
马上要吃到的三明治
the meeting that’s starting in five minutes
五分钟后就要开的会
or the bills that have to be paid tomorrow.
或是明天必须付清的账单
So the long-term perspective goes out the window.
深思熟虑此刻早已在九霄云外了
You could compare it to a new computer
可以把这种情况比作一台新电脑
that’s running 10 heavy programs at once.
同时运行十个繁重的程序
It gets slower and slower, making errors.
电脑就会变得越来越慢 会出错
Eventually, it freezes —
最终会死机
not because it’s a bad computer,
不是因为这台电脑不好
but because it has too much to do at once.
而是因为它一次性要处理太多内容了
The poor have the same problem.
穷人的问题也如此
They’re not making dumb decisions because they are dumb,
他们不是因为笨 做出了愚蠢的决定
but because they’re living in a context
而是因为在他们生活的那种环境
in which anyone would make dumb decisions.
任何人都有可能做出愚蠢的决定
So suddenly I understood
因此我突然明白
why so many of our anti-poverty programs don’t work.
为什么现在很多扶贫项目都没有用
Investments in education, for example, are often completely ineffective.
例如 很多教育投入都是完全没效果的
Poverty is not a lack of knowledge.
贫穷并不是缺少知识
A recent analysis of 201 studies
最近一个关于财富管理培训有效性的
on the effectiveness of money-management training
201项研究的分析
came to the conclusion that it has almost no effect at all.
得出结论 即训练几乎完全无效
Now, don’t get me wrong —
请不要误会
this is not to say the poor don’t learn anything —
不是说穷人什么也学不到
they can come out wiser for sure.
当然 培训后 他们会更明智
But it’s not enough.
但这样还不够
Or as Professor Shafir told me,
或者就像夏菲尔教授跟我说的
“It’s like teaching someone to swim
“这就像教会人游泳
and then throwing them in a stormy sea.”
然后就把他们扔进惊涛骇浪的大海里”
I still remember sitting there,
我还记得当时坐在那里
perplexed.
十分困惑
And it struck me
让我备受打击的是
that we could have figured this all out decades ago.
我们原本在几十年前就该想明白这件事
I mean, these psychologists didn’t need any complicated brain scans;
心理学家不需要那些复杂的脑部扫描
they only had to measure the farmer’s IQ,
只需要测评农夫的智商
and IQ tests were invented more that 100 years ago.
而智商测评早在一百多年前就有了
Actually, I realized I had read about the psychology of poverty before.
实际上 我发现以前就看过关于贫穷的心理学了
George Orwell, one of the greatest writers who ever lived,
乔治·奥威尔是在世的最伟大的作家之一
experienced poverty firsthand in the 1920s.
他在上世纪二十年代曾亲身经历过贫穷
“The essence of poverty,” he wrote back then,
当时他写到“贫穷的本质”
is that it “annihilates the future.”
在于它“消灭了未来”
And he marveled at, quote,
他很惊讶地写到
“How people take it for granted they have the right to preach at you
“一旦你的收入降到某个水平以下
and pray over you
人们就非常理所当然地认为
as soon as your income falls below a certain level.”
他们有权向你说教 为你祈祷”
Now, those words are every bit as resonant today.
直到今天 这段话仍能引起共鸣
The big question is, of course:
当然了 主要问题在于:
What can be done?
怎么办呢
Modern economists have a few solutions up their sleeves.
现代经济学家们已经有了一些解决方案
We could help the poor with their paperwork
我们可以帮穷人做文件工作
or send them a text message to remind them to pay their bills.
或者给他们发短信提醒他们付账单
This type of solution is hugely popular with modern politicians,
现在政治家很喜欢用这类方案
mostly because,
主要是因为
well, they cost next to nothing.
它们几乎不用任何成本
These solutions are, I think, a symbol of this era
我认为这些方案就是我们这个时代的标志
in which we so often treat the symptoms,
也就是我们常常只管治标
but ignore the underlying cause.
却忽略了治本
So I wonder:
所以我不禁想
Why don’t we just change the context in which the poor live?
为什么我们不去改变穷人的生活环境呢
Or, going back to our computer analogy:
或者 再说回刚才电脑类比理论
Why keep tinkering around with the software
既然是增加内存就能简单解决的问题
when we can easily solve the problem by installing some extra memory instead?
何必非要不停地修改软件呢
At that point, Professor Shafir responded with a blank look.
在那时候 夏菲尔教授一脸茫然
And after a few seconds, he said,
过了几秒钟 他说
“Oh, I get it.
“我懂了
You mean you want to just hand out more money to the poor
你是说你想直接给穷人钱
to eradicate poverty.
来根除贫穷
Uh, sure, that’d be great.
当然了 这样倒是挺好
But I’m afraid that brand of left-wing politics
但我恐怕阿姆斯特丹的
you’ve got in Amsterdam —
这种左翼政治思想
it doesn’t exist in the States.”
在美国不存在呢”
But is this really an old-fashioned, leftist idea?
可这真的是过时的左翼想法吗
I remembered reading about an old plan —
我记得曾经看过一个老计划
something that has been proposed by some of history’s leading thinkers.
是历史上顶尖的思想家提出来的
The philosopher Thomas More first hinted at it in his book, “Utopia,”
早在五百年前 哲学家托马斯·莫尔
more than 500 years ago.
就率先在其著作《乌托邦》中提出了
And its proponents have spanned the spectrum from the left to the right,
左翼和右翼都有人支持这种理论
from the civil rights campaigner, Martin Luther King,
从民权运动家马丁·路德·金
to the economist Milton Friedman.
到经济学家米尔顿·弗里德曼
And it’s an incredibly simple idea:
这是一个极其简单的理论:
basic income guarantee.
基本所得保障
What it is?
这是什么呢
Well, that’s easy.
很简单
It’s a monthly grant, enough to pay for your basic needs:
就是每个月能保证你基本需求的收入:
food, shelter, education.
食物 住所 教育
It’s completely unconditional,
完全是无条件的
so no one’s going to tell you what you have to do for it,
因此没人会跟你说必须做什么才有收入
and no one’s going to tell you what you have to do with it.
没人会跟你说你必须用这个来做什么
The basic income is not a favor, but a right.
基本收入不是恩惠而是权力
There’s absolutely no stigma attached.
绝对没有任何附加条件
So as I learned about the true nature of poverty,
在我了解了贫穷的真相以后
I couldn’t stop wondering:
我不禁想知道:
Is this the idea we’ve all been waiting for?
这是我们所有人一直在等待的理论吗
Could it really be that simple?
真的会这么简单吗
And in the three years that followed,
随后三年
I read everything I could find about basic income.
我把所有能找到的关于基本所得的资料都看了
I researched the dozens of experiments
研究了全球范围内
that have been conducted all over the globe,
所做的数十个实验
and it didn’t take long before I stumbled upon a story of a town
没过多久 我就发现了一个小镇的故事
that had done it — had actually eradicated poverty.
这个小镇做到了真正地根除贫穷
But then …
可是
nearly everyone forgot about it.
几乎所有人都忘了这个故事
This story starts in Dauphin, Canada.
这个故事发生在加拿大多芬
In 1974, everybody in this small town was guaranteed a basic income,
1974年小镇里的每个人都得到了基本所得保障
ensuring that no one fell below the poverty line.
确保了所有人都不会掉到贫困线以下
At the start of the experiment,
在这个实验的最初
an army of researchers descended on the town.
一队研究人员来到小镇
For four years, all went well.
四年里一切顺利
But then a new government was voted into power,
可是后来选出了一个新政府执政
and the new Canadian cabinet saw little point to the expensive experiment.
加拿大内阁认为这个昂贵的实验毫无意义
So when it became clear there was no money left to analyze the results,
因此最后竟然没有资金来分析实验结果
the researchers decided to pack their files away in some 2,000 boxes.
于是研究人员两千个箱子把档案收起来
Twenty-five years went by,
二十五年后
and then Evelyn Forget, a Canadian professor,
加拿大一位教授伊芙琳·法尔热
found the records.
发现了这些记录
For three years, she subjected the data to all manner of statistical analysis,
她花了三年时间把这些数据进行了各类的统计分析
and no matter what she tried,
无论她怎么试
the results were the same every time:
每一次的结果都是一样的:
the experiment had been a resounding success.
这个实验十分成功
Evelyn Forget discovered
伊芙琳·法尔热发现
that the people in Dauphin had not only become richer
多芬的人民不仅变得更为富有
but also smarter and healthier.
还更加聪明和健康
The school performance of kids improved substantially.
孩子在学校的成绩大幅提高
The hospitalization rate decreased by as much as 8.5 percent.
住院率下降了百分之八点五
Domestic violence incidents were down,
家庭暴力事件减少
as were mental health complaints.
心理健康投诉也减少了
And people didn’t quit their jobs.
而且人们也没有辞掉工作
The only ones who worked a little less were new mothers and students —
唯一稍微减少了劳动的是初为人母的女性
who stayed in school longer.
以及学生们 在学校待的更久了
Similar results have since been found
之后全球范围内
in countless other experiments around the globe,
无数的实验都得到了类似的结果
from the US to India.
从美国到印度
So …
所以
here’s what I’ve learned.
我了解到
When it comes to poverty,
当说到贫穷问题时
we, the rich, should stop pretending we know best.
我们这些富人不应该假装自己最懂
We should stop sending shoes and teddy bears to the poor,
我们应该停止给那些
to people we have never met.
我们从没见过的穷人送鞋子和玩具
And we should get rid of the vast industry of paternalistic bureaucrats
我们应该消除惯有的家长式官僚主义作风
when we could simply hand over their salaries
我们可以直接把他们的薪水
to the poor they’re supposed to help.
转发给他们本该帮助的穷人
(Applause)
(掌声)
Because, I mean, the great thing about money
因为金钱最大的好处
is that people can use it to buy things they need
就是让人们能买自己需要的东西
instead of things that self-appointed experts think they need.
而不是那些自以为是的专家认为他们需要的东西
Just imagine how many brilliant scientists and entrepreneurs and writers,
想想看 有多少杰出的科学家企业家以及
like George Orwell,
像乔治·奥威尔那样的作家
are now withering away in scarcity.
现在正因稀缺而消失
Imagine how much energy and talent we would unleash
想想看 如果我们能一次性永久根除贫穷
if we got rid of poverty once and for all.
那么我们能释放出多少能量和才智啊
I believe that a basic income would work like venture capital for the people.
我认为 基本所得对人们的作用就像风险投资
And we can’t afford not to do it,
而我们承受不起不这样做的后果
because poverty is hugely expensive.
因为贫穷非常昂贵
Just look at the cost of child poverty in the US, for example.
就比如说美国因为贫困儿童所产生的费用吧
It’s estimated at 500 billion dollars each year,
由于不断增加的医疗费用 辍学率以及犯罪率
in terms of higher health care spending, higher dropout rates,
每年预计要在这上面
and more crime.
花费五千亿美金
Now, this is an incredible waste of human potential.
这是对人类潜能惊人的浪费
But let’s talk about the elephant in the room.
再来说说那个显而易见的问题吧
How could we ever afford a basic income guarantee?
我们如何负担基本所得保障呢
Well, it’s actually a lot cheaper than you may think.
其实费用可能比大家想象的要低得多
What they did in Dauphin is finance it with a negative income tax.
多芬采取的措施是实行负所得税
This means that your income is topped up
也就是说一旦你掉到贫困线以下
as soon as you fall below the poverty line.
就补充你的收入
And in that scenario,
如果实行这样的措施
according to our economists’ best estimates,
根据我们的经济学家“最好的预估”
for a net cost of 175 billion —
净成本为一千七百五十亿美元
a quarter of US military spending, one percent of GDP —
仅为美国军费支出的四分之一 GDP的百分之一
you could lift all impoverished Americans above the poverty line.
就能把所有贫困的美国人拉到贫困线以上
You could actually eradicate poverty.
可以真正地根除贫穷
Now, that should be our goal.
这应该是我们的目标
(Applause)
(掌声)
The time for small thoughts and little nudges is past.
小想法和微推动的时代已经过去了
I really believe that the time has come for radical new ideas,
我坚信这个时代能有彻底的新思路
and basic income is so much more than just another policy.
基本所得不仅仅是一项政策
It is also a complete rethink of what work actually is.
更是对劳动真正意义的全新思考
And in that sense,
从这个意义上来说
it will not only free the poor,
它不仅能解放穷人
but also the rest of us.
还能解放其他人
Nowadays, millions of people feel
如今数百万人觉得
that their jobs have little meaning or significance.
自己的工作毫无意义
A recent poll among 230,000 employees
最近有一项对142个国家
in 142 countries
二十三万名雇员的调研
found that only 13 percent of workers actually like their job.
显示仅有百分之十三的员工真心喜欢自己的工作
And another poll found that as much as 37 percent of British workers
另一项调研发现有百分之三十七的英国工人
have a job that they think doesn’t even need to exist.
认为他们所做的工作毫无存在的必要
It’s like Brad Pitt says in “Fight Club,”
就像布拉德·皮特在《搏击俱乐部》里说的
“Too often we’re working jobs we hate so we can buy shit we don’t need.”
“我们常做讨厌的工作 然后赚钱买不需要的东西”
(Laughter)
(笑声)
Now, don’t get me wrong —
请不要误会
I’m not talking about the teachers and the garbagemen
我在这里说的不是教师 清洁工
and the care workers here.
还有护工
If they stopped working,
如果他们不再工作
we’d be in trouble.
我们就麻烦了
I’m talking about all those well-paid professionals with excellent résumés
我说的是那些简历很好看
who earn their money doing …
从事着高收入职业的人群
strategic transactor peer-to-peer meetings
他们赚钱是靠在网络社会中集思广益
while brainstorming the value add-on of disruptive co-creation
讨论破坏性共创的附件价值
in the network society.
举办策略性交易点对点会议
(Laughter)
(笑声)
(Applause)
(掌声)
Or something like that.
类似于这样的事情
Just imagine again how much talent we’re wasting,
再次想想看我们浪费了多少才能
simply because we tell our kids they’ll have to “earn a living.”
仅仅因为我们跟孩子们说他们必须“讨生活”
Or think of what a math whiz working at Facebook lamented a few years ago:
或是想想几年前一个在脸书工作的数学天才的哀叹
“The best minds of my generation
“我这一代最优秀的头脑
are thinking about how to make people click ads.”
都在考虑让人们如何点击广告”
I’m a historian.
我是个历史学家
And if history teaches us anything,
如果说历史教会了我们什么
it is that things could be different.
那就是事情是可以改变的
There is nothing inevitable
如今我们构建社会和经济的方式
about the way we structured our society and economy right now.
没有什么是必然的
Ideas can and do change the world.
思想可以而且真的能改变世界
And I think that especially in the past few years,
我认为特别是在过去几年
it has become abundantly clear
情况已经十分清楚了
that we cannot stick to the status quo —
我们不能在现状里固步自封
that we need new ideas.
我们需要新思想
I know that many of you may feel pessimistic
我们知道很多人可能会感到悲观
about a future of rising inequality,
认为未来会出现不平等
xenophobia
排外
and climate change.
和气候变化
But it’s not enough to know what we’re against.
但只是了解我们面临的困难是不够的
We also need to be for something.
我们还需要做好准备
Martin Luther King didn’t say, “I have a nightmare.”
马丁·路德·金说的可不是“我有个噩梦”
(Laughter)
(笑声)
He had a dream.
他有个梦想
(Applause)
(掌声)
So …
所以
here’s my dream:
这是我的梦想:
I believe in a future
我相信在未来
where the value of your work is not determined
你的工作价值不再
by the size of your paycheck,
由你的薪水决定
but by the amount of happiness you spread
而是由你传播出去的快乐
and the amount of meaning you give.
和你所赋予的意义所决定
I believe in a future
我相信在未来
where the point of education is not to prepare you for another useless job
教育的意义不再是培养你去做无用的工作
but for a life well-lived.
而是培养你度过美好的人生
I believe in a future
我相信在未来
where an existence without poverty is not a privilege
没有贫困的生活不再是一种特权
but a right we all deserve.
而是所有人应有的权利
So here we are.
在这里
Here we are.
在这里
We’ve got the research, we’ve got the evidence
我们有了研究有了证据
and we’ve got the means.
我们还有了方法
Now, more than 500 years after Thomas More first wrote about a basic income,
在托马斯·莫尔第一次写了基本所得的五百多年后
and 100 years after George Orwell discovered the true nature of poverty,
在乔治·奥威尔发现了贫穷真相的一百多年后
we all need to change our worldview,
我们都需要改变自己的世界观
because poverty is not a lack of character.
贫穷不是缺少性格
Poverty is a lack of cash.
贫穷是缺钱
Thank you.
谢谢
(Applause)
(掌声)

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视频概述

贫穷不是缺乏性格,而是缺钱

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李门牙😄

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审核员AH

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ydKcaIE6O1k

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