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积极心态面对贫穷和儿童死亡率

Positive Outliers

今年 我和梅琳达一起给沃伦·巴菲特写了封信
The annual letter that Melinda and I wrote this year
信中向他解释到:
is to Warren Buffett and we’re explaining to him
怎样才算是进步
how we measure our progress.
早在1990年 就有超过1200万名儿童死亡 他们才不到5岁
Back in 1990, over 12 million children under the age of 5 died.
现在 我们成功地把数量削减了一半
And today we’ve cut that in half.
死亡数量不超过600万
So we’re below 6 million.
在这些死亡案例中 有将近一半的儿童才一个月大
Of these deaths, nearly half are taking place in the first month.
大部分一个月大的儿童死亡事件 发在较贫穷的国家
Most of these first month deaths are taking place in poorer countries.
在Gapminder(软件公司)工作的朋友 给我们展示了这张图
My friends at Gapminder show us the picture here.
x轴表示人均年收入
We’ve got the income per person per year on the x axis.
每一千个新生儿中第一个月的儿童死亡数
And we’ve got the number of kids per thousand births
显示在y轴
who die in that first month shown on the y axis.
你会发现富裕的国家
And you can see that the countries that are wealthy,
人均年收入超过1万的国家 它们的儿童死亡数很低
over 10,000 of income per person, they’re doing quite well.
收入水平和儿童死亡率紧密相关
There is a very strong relationship here between the income level and child deaths.
那么问题来了
And so that raises the question,
有没有一些行之有效 能够指导我们改善贫穷国家现状的方法呢?
Are there best practices that may show us what we should be doing in all of these poor countries
即使这些国家经济上还未得到发展
even before they develop economically?
我们发现 实际上存在很多不按规则出牌的国家
We see that in fact there are positive outliers.
存在经济水平很低 却在儿童死亡率方面控制的很好的国家
Countries who at a very low level of wealth achieve incredible improvements.
卢旺达就很一个很好案例
Rwanda’s a fantastic example of this.
不难看出 它和马里一样贫穷 儿童死亡率却是马里的一半
We can see that their death rate is just about half of Mali who has the same level of wealth.
很明显 卢旺达在某些方面做得很好
So clearly Rwanda’s doing some things right.
卢旺达设有社区 一些帮助解决健康问题的志愿者在那工作
Rwanda has community groups including people who volunteer to help out with health
所以这些社区知道 什么时候哪些人病了
and so they know when people are sick.
也知道有哪些妇女怀孕了从而给她们提供正确的信息
They know when women are pregnant. They get the right information to them.
社区拥有完善的基础医疗系统 配有训练有素的工作人员
They have a great primary health care system with workers who are trained.
社区能保证药品和疫苗的安全
They make sure that the drugs and vaccines are there.
并且通过检测确保 药物失效的情况下
And it’s measured to make sure that if anything’s falling down
能及时发现它们并提高其质量
they find it and they drive the quality.
最后一点 捐款和众酬双管齐下
And finally, both with donor money and getting citizens to contribute to an overall fund,
如果你有注意卢旺达政府的财政预算 你会发现它很重视这两项
If you look at their government budget, Rwanda is making this a priority
也因此受益匪浅
and they are seeing incredible benefits from it.
所以 我们通过采用这些最恰当的方法 在其他国家传播它们
And so we have the potential by taking those best practices, spread them to other countries
来增加实现奇迹的可能性—拯救百万条生命
to perform a miracle and literally save millions of more lives.

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视频概述

儿童死亡率是当今世界不可忽视的一个重要问题。越是贫穷的国家,儿童死亡率越高。让我们一起学习卢旺达的政府政策……

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Goahead

审核员

vicky

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kd7g_BttuW4

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