When advertising began in a significant way in the early 19th century,
it was a relatively straightforward business.
它向你展示产品 告诉你它是干嘛用的 如何购买 以及产品价格
It showed you products, told you what it did, where you could get it and what it cost.
后来 20世纪60年代 一种卓越的新兴广告方式出现于美国
Then, in 1960s’ America, a remarkable new way of advertising emerged,
led by luminaries in Madison Avenue like William Bernbach, David Ogilvy, and Mary Wells Lawrence.
In their work for brands like Esso, Avis and Life Cereal,
adverts ceased to be, in a narrow sense, about the things that they were selling.
The focus of an ad might ostensibly be on a car,
but our attention was also being directed at the harmonious, handsome couple holding hands beside it.
It might on the surface being an advert about soap,
but the true emphasis was on the state of calm that companied the washing.
It might be whiskey one was being invited to drink,
but with the attitude of resoluteness and resilience on display,
that provided the compelling focal point.
Madison Avenue had made an extraordinary discovery:
however appealing a product might be, there were many other things
that were likely to be even more appealing to customers.
And by twining their products with these ingredients, sales could be transformed.
Patek Philippe is one of the giants of the global watch making industry.
Since 1996, they’ve been running a very distinctive series of adverts featuring parents and children.
It’s almost impossible not to have glimpsed one somewhere.
In one example, a father and son are hanging out together,
in scenes which tenderly evoke filial loyalty and love.
We can imagine the boy would grow up confident and independent. It’s also respectful and warm.
The advert understands our deepest hope around our children.
It’s moving because what it depicts is so hard to find in real life.
We’re often brought to tears not so much by what we have,
as by what we long for but cannot reach.
Father-son relationships are dependably problematic,
but in the world of Petak Phillipe, we glimpse a kind of psychological paradise.
We can turn to Calvin Klein: the couple seemed like they might being together a while.
They may have a couple of children, and they are in it for the long term.
The perfume is called Eternity, but their passion is still so intense.
他们做爱 可能一天好几次 还总在不寻常的地方
They have sex, maybe a couple of times a day, often in unusual locations.
Calvin Klein knows all about what we really want in relationships.
It’s brilliantly latched onto our deepest, and at the same time, our most elusive inner loneliness .
Adverts wouldn’t work if they didn’t operate with the very good understanding of what our real needs are,
what we truly require to be happy.
Their emotional pull is based on knowing us eerily well.
As they recognize, we are creatures who hunger for good family relationships,
人际关系 自由 快乐 自我发展的前途
connections with others, a sense of freedom and joy, a promise of self development,
尊严 沉着 和被尊重的感觉
dignity, calm, and the feeling that we are respected.
Yet armed with this knowledge, they and corporations who bankroll them
are unwittingly somewhat cruel to us.
For while they excite us with reminders of our buried longings,
they cannot do anything wholehearted about quenching them.
Adverts may want to sell us things, but incommensurate things in relation to the hopes they’ve aroused.
Calvin Klein makes lovely cologne,
Petak Phillipe’s watches are extremely reliable and beautiful agents of time keeping.
But these items cannot by themselves help us secure the goods our conscience believed were on offer.
The real crisis of capitalism is the product development
lags so far behind the best insights of advertising.
Since the 1960s, advertising’s worked out just how much we need help with true challenges of life.
它彻底了解我们多么渴望更好的职业 更稳固的人际关系 和更大的信心
It’s fathomed how deeply we want better careers, stronger relationships, greater confidence.
In most adverts the pain and hope of our lives has been superbly identified.
But the products are almost comically at odds with the problems at hand.
Advertisers are hardly to blame.
They are in fact the victims of an extraordinary problem of modern capitalism.
尽管我们有那么多复杂的需求 面对眼前的问题 我们却不能提供给自己
While we have so many complex needs, we have nothing better to offer ourselves in the face of our troubles
than perhaps a slightly more accurate chronometer or a more subtly blended perfume.
Business needs to get more ambitious in the creation of new kinds of products
找到适合它们的方式 现在听起来或许很奇怪 就像一个腕表会让1500年的人们震撼一般
in their own ways, strange sounding today, as a wrist watch would have struck observers in 1500.
We need the drive of commerce to get behind filling the world and our lives with the goods that really
can help us to thrive, flourish, find contentment and manage our relationships well.
To trace the future shape of capitalism,
we only have to think of all the needs we have that currently lie outside of commerce.
We need help in forming cohesive, interesting, benevolent communities.
We need help in bringing up children. We need help in calming down in key moments.
We require immense assistance to discover a real talent in a workplace.
A higher needs, a not trivial or minor wants
insignificant things we can easily suivive without.
They are, in many ways, central to our lives.
We’ve simply accepted, without adequate protest, that there is nothing business could sell us to address them.
We don’t know today quite what the business of the future will look like. Just as half a century ago,
no one could describe the corporate essence of current large technology companies.
But we can know the direction we need to head to.
One whether drive an inventiveness of capitalism tackles the higher, deeper problems of life.
Advertising has at least done us a great service at hinting on the future shape of economy.
It already trades on all the right ingredients.
The challenge now is to narrow the gap between the fantasies being offered
and what businesses should be able to sell us.