ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

粪便移植! – 译学馆
未登陆,请登陆后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

粪便移植!

Poop Transplants!

这个生态学实验演示了富物种生态要比
This ecology experiment is one of many that have demonstrated how ecosystems with many
贫物种生态系统更有弹性 我们倾向于这个
species tend to be more resilient than those with few species. We’re biased towards this
特别的草场实验 是因为实验者是我们的作者之一 然而数量的重要性
particular grassland experiment because it’s run by one of our writers, but strength in
物种数量的 同样也是生态系统健康的关键 无论是从
numbers – species numbers! – is also key to the health of ecosystems ranging from potato
土豆田地到河流 或者到你的肠胃环境
fields to rivers to the inside of your gut.
反之 当单一物种占了主导地位时问题就会发生
In contrast, when a single species is dominant, it can cause problems. Take the case of Clostridium
以梭状芽孢杆菌为例 如果在你的肠道组织内存在过多就会导致
difficile, a natural part of your gut community that causes a severe inflammation of the colon
严重的肠胃炎症 这种细菌通常被称为“C diff”
when it becomes too abundant. This bacteria, often referred to as “C diff”, was named difficile
之所以这样被命名是因为它很难在实验室内培养 而并非是因为很难治疗
because it was difficult to grow in a lab – not because it’s difficult to treat. But
C diff感染会较易发展 因为这种细菌比其它
it is. C. diff infections often develop because these bacteria persist better and regenerate
细菌繁殖更快 会由此引发一系列不相关联的健康问题
faster than other gut bacteria following an antibiotic treatment for some unrelated health
讽刺的是 我们用来治疗C diff的标准方法仍然是抗生素
problem. Ironically, the standard treatment for C diff is yet more antibiotics – which
这有时确实有效 但在许多情况下 C diff对抗生素的抗药性来自于在它的领地
sometimes works, but in many cases the antibiotic resistance of C diff means the playing field
其竞争者可以轻松清理 从而让C diff变得更猖獗
is simply cleared of its competitors and its population can grow even more vigorously.
实际上,我们粗略估计每年美国大约有500,000人被感染。
So vigorously, in fact, that of the roughly 500,000 people infected each year in the US,
即使经过了后续的药物治疗和手术换肠,
more than 15,000 die as a result, even after further drug treatments or surgery to remove
也有超过15,000的人因此而死亡
parts of the colon.
在这种绝境下,出现了完全补充肠道微生物组的想法,并不是使用益生菌,
Out of desperation came the idea to entirely replenish the gut microbiome – not with probiotics,
它仅仅为一种活着的有机体提供10,000中细菌细胞,
which only supply something like 1 living organism for every 10,000 bacterial cells
且它们已经存在于你的肠道中,没有足够的能力发挥作用了
already in your gut and just aren’t powerful enough to make a difference – but rather,
相反,类似于微生物均等的输血情况
with something more like the microbial equivalent of a blood transfusion. And just like a blood
或者真的就是输血,请不要在家自己尝试
transfusion, don’t try this at home.
在粪菌移植或者粪便移植时,
In a "fecal microbiota transplantation," or "poop transplant," someone with a healthy,
一个健康并拥有多种肠道细菌的人,为一名C diff的患者捐赠了样本
diverse community of gut bacteria donates a sample to be ‘administered’ to a patient
在411或者473种被记录的情况下,被移植的细菌组织迅速占领了主导地位
with a C diff infection. And in 411 of 473 documented cases, the transplanted bacterial
使得病人的消化系统恢复健康,
community quickly became dominant, causing the patient’s digestive system to recover
并且稳定了下来(尽管现在科学家们仍旧不明白这是怎么一回事
and stabilize (though scientists still don’t know exactly how that happens).
人类的肠道并不是唯一供细菌发展的生态系统,也不是发展的根源
The human gut isn’t the only ecosystem where this germ of an idea is taking hold, either.
例如从健康的田地中移植土壤和植物到不健康的田地里
For example, transplanting soil and plants from healthy fields to unhealthy ones helps
能够减少农作物的疾病,并使得土壤更加富饶,水的运输也是一样,
knock back crop diseases and make soils more fertile; and transplanting water, snails & duckweed
水源中的蜗牛和浮萍能够帮助稳定鱼缸中鱼类的数量
from the pond to the aquarium helps maintain a well-balanced fishtank.
与此同时,微生物移植作为一种治疗手段帮助控制了处于边缘的
At the moment, microbial transplant therapy for disease control resides at the fringes
制药,农业和养鱼业。对于制药而言,
of medicine, agriculture, and home fishtank husbandry. For medicine, this may in part
这是因为人们对于他人或自己的排泄物过分严肃了,
be due to people being squeamish about their own and other’s fecal matter, and insurance
保险公司也对能完成整个程序所需的成本疑虑过多。
companies being squeamish about covering the cost of the procedure.
但是钱在这里也起到一个更为广泛的作用,
But money also plays a broader role: new practices – even really good ones – have difficulty
要是没有一个积极的推动力,再好的想法操作起来也是困难的
spreading without active promotion. And that promotion often comes from places like the
而且这些推动力大多来源于制药业,农用化学品和水产养殖业这些只生产,对应产品才能从中获利的产业,
pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and home aquarium industries – industries which promote only
像药,化肥,养鱼的补充剂
those things from which they can make a profit, like drugs, fertilizers, aquarium supplements,
和其它重工业的化学鸡尾酒。但是谁又会对此提出一个简单的解决方案呢?
and other heavily engineered chemical cocktails. But who will promote the simple solutions?
我们会啊!我们会回收你的C diff,然后选择其它人的粪便!
We will! From your C. diff to recoup, choose someone else’s poop!

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述
听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

收集自网络

审核员

自动通过审核

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dim7YXYlRm0

相关推荐