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政治理论:托马斯•霍布斯 – 译学馆
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政治理论:托马斯•霍布斯

POLITICAL THEORY - Thomas Hobbes

托马斯·霍布斯是一位17世纪的英国哲学家
Thomas Hobbes was a 17th century English Philosopher.
他亲手带领我们解决了一项政治学上最为棘手的问题
Who is on hand to guide us through one of the thorniest issues of politics.
那就是我们应该在多大程度上忍耐着去服从统治者 特别是当这些统治者并不英明的时候
To what extent should we patiently obey rulers, especially those who are not very good
以及在什么程度上我们应该开始革命并摧毁政府的统治以建立一个新世界
and to what extent should we start revolutions and depose governments, in search of a better world.
霍布斯的思想与他64岁时发生的一个重大事件分不开
Hobbes’s thinking is inseparable from one major event that began when he was 64 years old
这件事影响他如此之深以至于他日后一系列的思想都染上了相应的色彩
and was to mark him so deeply, it colored all his subsequent thinking.
别忘了 他在91岁那年就死去了
Remarkably he died when he was 91
所以 他被如今的人们铭记的都是他六十岁以后的著作
and so everything he’s remembered for today he wrote after the age of 60.
这件重大的事情就是英国内战
This event was the English civil war.
这是一次恶性的分裂 不仅花费巨大而且造成了席卷英格兰近十年残酷的战争
A vicious, divisive, costly and murderous conflict that raged across England for almost a decade
这场冲突埋葬了国王反对议会的力量 双方一共导致了二十万人左右的死亡
and pitted the forces of king against parliament, leading to the death of some 200 000 people on both sides.
而霍布斯天生平和并且谨慎
Hobbes, was by nature a deeply peaceful and cautious man.
他憎恨任何形式的暴力
He hated violence of all kinds.
这在他四岁时就体现了这种倾向
A disposition that had begun at the age of 4
在他的牧师父亲因为在威尔特郡里的村庄 一个他教区内的教堂的楼梯上 与另一名牧师发生了冲突而遭到贬谪
when his own father, a clergyman was disgraced and abandoned his wife and family
毅然决然的就离开了他的妻子和家庭后
after he got into a fight with another vicar on the steps of his parish church in a village in Wiltshire.
于是 霍布斯最为人所知的作品——利维坦
The work for which we chiefly remember Hobbes – “Leviathan”
在1651年 诞生了
was published in 1651.
这是一部有始以来最具有说服力并且充满雄辩的陈述
It is the most definitive, persuasive and eloquent statement ever produced
关于个人为什么应该服从政府的权威
as thy why one should obey government authority.
即使这是一种非常不完善的去避免混乱与杀戮的风险的方式
Even of a very imperfect kind in order to avoid the risk of chaos and bloodshed.
为了理解霍布斯保守主义的背景
To understand the background of Hobbes’s conservatism.
我们有必要了解在十七世纪的西欧的状况
It helps to realize that across the western Europe in the 17th century,
当时的政治理论家正开始在新的方向上探索 以解释臣民应在怎样的基础上服从他们的君主
political theorists were beginning to ask with a new directness, on what basis subjects should obey their rulers.
几个世纪以来 中世纪的政论家对此有一个标准答案
For centuries, way back into the Middle Ages there’d been a standard answer to this:
它被一个称作“君权神授”的理论所囊括
contained in a theory called: “the divine right of kings.”
君权神授理论简单粗暴但却十分有效 它陈述正是因为神
This was a blunt, simple but highly effective theory, stating that it was none other than god
任命了所有的国王因此每一个人都有一个明确的理由去服从这些国王
who had pointed all kings and that one should obey these monarchs for one clear reason.
这个理由就是神意如此如果你不服从那么神就会送你下地狱
Because god said so and he would send you to hell if you didn’t agree.
但是君权神授理论对一些有思想的人们已经不再有说服力了
But this was no longer proving quite so persuasive to many thoughtful people
他们争论权力最终不归于国王而是来源于普通大众 是他们给予了国王权力
who argued that the rule ultimately lay not with kings but with ordinary people who gave kings power
因此只有在事情对人民有益时 他们才会接受国王下达的命令
and therefore should only expect to take orders from kings so long as ,but only so long, as things were working out quite well for them.
这就是著名的关于政府的社会契约论
This was known as “the social contract” theory of government.
霍布斯看到君权神授理论
Hobbes could see that the divine right of kings theory
是无稽之谈 而且伴随着宗教惯例的衰落这些理论就更加没有说服力了
was nonsense and what more was going to be increasingly unpersuasive as religious observance declined.
他自己私下里也是一名无神论者
He himself was privately an atheist.
同时霍布斯也深深担忧着社会契约理论可能会造成的后果
At the same time Hobbes was deeply scared of the possible consequences of “the social contract theory.”
它鼓励人们在对自己的命运哪怕仅仅感到一点点不满意的时候 就去反抗统治
Which could encourage people to depose rules whenever they felt a little unhappy with their lot.
霍布斯曾收到关于将在1649年白宫宫殿的宴会厅前的脚手架上
Hobbes had received a firsthand of the beheading of the King Charles I
斩首查理一世国王的第一手消息
on the scaffold in front of the banqueting house of the palace of Whitehall in 1649
他的作品是为了确保这样可怕的原始景象永远不再重复
And his intellectual labors were directed at making sure that such ghastly primitive scenes would never be repeated.
所以 在利维坦中霍布斯提出
So, in “Leviathan” Hobbes puts forward
一种独创性的观点那就是试图将社会契约理论与
an ingenious argument that tries to marry up social contract theory
对完全服从理论的辩护和服从传统权威理论相结合
with the defence of total obedience and submission to traditional authority.
他采取的方式是带领他的读者回到一个被他自己称为自然状态的时期
The way he did this was to take his readers back in time to a period he called “the state of nature”.
在任何类型的国王出现之前
Before there were kings of any kind
让他们去思索政府是如何
and to get them to think about how governments,
最初兴起的
would have arisen, in the first place.
霍布斯论据的关键在于自然状态并非一个完美之所
Key to Hobbes’s argument was, that the state of nature would not have been a pretty place
因为在人们没有一个令人敬畏的中央集权时
because humans left to own devices
就去各自做自己想做的事的话
without the central authority to keep them in awe
很快将会陷入
would quickly have descended into
争吵 混乱与难以忍受的争论
squabbling, infighting and intolerable bickering
这种情况将会与英国内战有点像
It would be a little like the English civil War
只不过是自然状态下披着熊皮的人用石制工具互相攻击
but with people in bearskin bashing each other around with flint tools.
在霍布斯的著名构想中 生命在自然状态下的生存是险恶的 野兽般并且短暂的
In Hobbes’s famous formulation, life in a state of nature would have been nasty, brutish and short.
出于对这种生存状态的恐惧 导致人们一起组建了政府
As a result out of fear and dread of chaos, people were led to form a governments.
他们欣然的去做了社会契约论理论家所主张的事
They had done this willingly as social contract theorists maintained.
但是也仍然受到相当大的强迫:
But also under considerable compulsion:
逃进权威的臂膀
fleeing into the arms of strong authority,
并因此 霍布斯争论道 他们有系列的义务去保持服从
which they therefore, Hobbes argued, had a subsequent duty to keep obeying.
但当他们不喜欢的时候却只有很少的权利去抱怨
With only a few rights to complain if they didn’t like it.
人们唯一拥有的权利可能就是去抗议那些直接威胁要杀掉他们的
The only right the people might have to protest about absolute ruler or Leviathan as Hobbes called him
那些独裁者或是霍布斯口中的利维坦
was if he directly threatened to kill them.
然而 如果统治者仅仅是压制反对派 征收重税 损害经济以及毫无缘由的关押持不同政见者
However, if the ruler merely stifled opposition, imposed onerous taxes, crippled the economy and locked up dissidents willy-nilly
那么人们也绝对没有理由走上街头呼吁需要政府的改变
this was absolutely no reason to take to the streets and demand a change of government.
正如霍布斯所写
As Hobbes wrote:
尽管权利如此巨大 人们还是可能想到许多邪恶的结果
Though of so unlimited a power, men may fancy many evil consequences.
而想要它的后果更加糟糕
Yet the consequences of the want of it,
所有人都会陷入持续不断的战争中
which is perpetual warre of every man against his neighbour, are much worse
他承认统治者可能会带有邪恶行为的倾向
He admitted that a ruler might come along with an inclination to do wicked deeds.
但民众仍然有义务服从这个人 因为人类事物的处理不可能全然一帆风顺
But the people would still have a duty to obey this person as humane affairs cannot be without some inconvenience
但这些不顺无论如何都是民众的过错而不是国王的过错 因为
But these inconvenience is anyway the fault of the people, not the sovereign because
正如霍布斯所补充
as Hobbes adds
如果人能够管好他们自己的话 公共强制力就没有存在的必要了
if men could rule themselves their would be no need at all of common coercive power.
他继续指出
As he went on:
因此 抱怨主权者进行侵害的人就是抱怨自己所授权的事情
He that complaineth of injury from his Sovereign, complaineth of that thereof he is the author himself
于是便不能控告别人而只能控告自己
and therefore ought not to accuse any man but himself
霍布斯的理论是阴暗谨慎并且对政府没有充满希望的
Hobbes’s theory was dark, cautious and not especially hopeful about government.
在大部分乐观情况下我们希望他是错的
In a more optimistic moments we want him to be wrong.
但目前看起来 霍布斯的名字将一直反复相关和活跃
But it seems, Hobbes’s name will always be relevant and fresh again.
在被追寻自由所鼓舞的革命结出了可怕的果实之时
When revolutions, motivated by a search for liberty go horribly awry
霍布斯在利维坦的序言中指出 他写这本书
Hobbes maintained in the preface to Leviathan that he had written the book
不偏不倚 不忮不求 除开向人们阐明
without partiality, without application and without other design than to set before men’s eyes
保护与服从之间的相互关系以外别无其他用心
the mutual relation between protection and obedience

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君主的权利从何而来,政府的存在是否有必要

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