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政治理论:尼科洛·马基雅维利 – 译学馆
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政治理论:尼科洛·马基雅维利

POLITICAL THEORY - Niccolò Machiavelli

We’re often appalled by how sly and dishonest many politicians are,
我们常惊诧于许多政客的狡猾和虚伪
but we shouldn’t be. In moods like this,
但我们不应如此 如果有这样的感受
we need to remember and read the works of Niccolo Machiavelli,
我们需要阅读并回忆尼科洛•马基雅维利的著作
a late 15th century political advisor and political theorist
马基雅维利是15世纪晚期的政治顾问 理论家
who argued that we shouldn’t think that politicians are immoral
他认为 我们不该因为政客撒谎 遮掩或耍手段
and simply bad for lying and dissembling and maneuvering.
就认为他们不道德或者邪恶
A good politician, in Machiavelli’s remarkable view,
在马基雅维利的独特观点中 好的政治家
isn’t one who’s friendly and honest and kind.
并不是友好 诚实而善良的人
It’s someone, however occasionally dark and underhand they might be,
而是尽管有时狡诈阴暗
who knows how to defend, enrich and bring honor to the state,
却懂得如何卫国 富国并为国家争得荣誉的人
which is also an extremely important goal.
这些也是政治家们非常重要的目标
Being nice may well be a virtue in general,
从广义上说 友善是一种美德
but what citizens most need from their rulers is effectiveness,
但公民最需要的是高效的统治者
which may well call upon some darker arts.
但高效统治很可能催生邪恶行为
Once we understand this basic requirement,
一旦我们明白对政治家的这种基本要求
we stand to be less disappointed
可能就不会太失望
and clearer about what we want from our politicians.
并且更清楚我们希望政治家是什么样子
Niccolo Machiavelli was born in Florence in 1469.
1469年 尼科洛·马基雅维利生于佛罗伦萨
His father was a lawyer
他的父亲是一名律师
and so Machiavelli received an extensive formal education
马基雅维利因而接受了多样的正规教育
and got his first job as secretary for the city of Florence.
他的第一份职业是佛罗伦萨共和国的秘书
But, soon after his appointment, Florence exploded politically
但获职后不久 佛罗伦萨共和国发生政治变革
and expelled the Medici family who’d ruled it for 60 years
驱逐了统治共和国60年的美第奇家族
and suffered decades of political instability and turmoil.
并经历了几十年的政治动乱
As a consequence, Machiavelli experienced a series of career reversals.
因而 马基雅维利的政坛生涯历经波折
Over just a few decades, he went from being an important diplomat
就在数十年内 他从一位重要的外交官
to a semi-successful general, to an enemy of the state
到拥有一定声望的将军 当美第奇家族再次掌权时
tortured and then exiled when he Medici returned to power.
他成为国家的敌人 受到酷刑并被流放
Although Machiavelli was rather a failed politician,
尽管马基雅维利不算是成功的政治家
he can be remembered as a truly great man because of the two works he wrote
但他的两部著作让人们视他为伟大人物
THE PRINCE, and THE DISCOURSES.
《君主论》和《论李维罗马史》
In them he attends to a central problem of politics then as now
他的作品聚焦跨时代的政治核心议题:
that it is almost impossible to be both a good politician
要同时成为一个好的政治家
and a good person in a traditional Christian sense.
和传统基督教意义中的好人 几乎是不可能的
Machiavelli proposed that the overwhelming responsibility of a good prince
马基雅维利提出 君主最重要的责任
is to defend the state from external and internal threats to stable governance.
是抵御内外威胁 稳固国家统治
This means, he must know how to fight
这意味着 君主要懂得如何作战
but more importantly, he must know about reputation
更重要的是 他必须了解
and the management of those around him.
臣子们的声誉并有效管理他们
People should neither think he is soft and easy to disobey,
人们应感觉 他既不温和到能使人轻易反对
nor should they find him so cruel that he disgusts his society.
又不残忍到引起臣民憎恨
He should seem unapproachably strict but reasonable.
他应当给人自然的冷峻之感
When Machiavelli turned to the question
当马基雅维利思索这个问题:
of whether it was better for a Prince to be loved or feared,
对君主来说 选择受人敬爱还是令人畏惧
He wrote that while it’ll theoretically be wonderful
他写道 尽管理论上来说
for a leader to be both loved and obeyed,
人们爱戴并臣服于君主是理想的状态
a Prince should always err on the side of inspiring terror.
但君主应更多给人威严畏惧之感
For this is ultimately what keeps people in check.
因为畏惧之感才能真正掌控臣民
Machiavelli Christian contemporaries had suggested that
马基雅维利同时代的基督徒们认为
princes should be merciful, peaceful, generous, and tolerant.
君主应当平和仁慈 慷慨大度
They thought that being a good politician was
他们认为一个好的政治家
in short, the same as being a good christian.
简言之 就是一个好的基督徒
But Machiavelli argued differently.
但马基雅维利不这样认为
He asked his readers to dwell on the incompatibility
他希望读者们思考基督教道德
between Christian ethics and good governance,
和好的统治的冲突之处
and particularly referred to the case of Girolamo Savonorola.
他也特别提到吉罗拉默·萨伏那洛拉
Savonorola was a dominican friar, a fervent idealistic christian,
萨伏那洛拉是多明我会修士 狂热的理想主义基督徒
who’d briefly come to be the ruler of Florence in 1494.
1494年他曾短暂地统治佛罗伦萨共和国
He’d come to power promising to build the city of God on earth in Florence.
掌权时 他决心在佛罗伦萨建造上帝之城
He preached against the excesses and tyranny of Medici government.
他痛斥美第奇政府荒淫无道的暴政
and even managed for a few months to leave Florence
甚至设法在几个月内将佛罗伦萨
as a peaceful, democratic, and relatively honest state.
变为和平民主并相对坦诚的国家
However, Savonorola’s success could not last
然而 萨伏那洛拉的大业并未持续
because, in Machiavelli’s view, it was based on the weakness
因为在马基雅维利看来 这样的大业以软弱为基
that always attends being good in a Christian sense.
这种软弱是基督教意义上的好
It was not long before his regime became threat to the corrupt Pope Alexander.
没过多久 他的国家就成为了腐败的亚历山大教皇的威胁
whose henchman captured and tortured Savonarola.
教皇的心腹抓捕萨伏那洛拉并施以酷刑
Hung him in the center of Florence
在佛罗伦萨中心将他绞死
and burnt the body before the eyes of all vengeful citizenry.
并在所有怀有报复心的市民面前焚尸
This, in Machiavelli eyes, is what tends to happen to the nice guys in politics.
在马基雅维利眼中 这就是官场好人的下场
Rather than follow this unfortunate Christian example,
他不希望后人重蹈这位不幸的基督教徒的覆辙
Machiavelli suggested that a leader would do well
他认为要当一位好君主
to make judicious use of what he called virtu (VIRTUE).
就要审慎地利用他所称的 德行
Machiavelli’s concept of virtu for politicians involves
马基雅维利所谓政治家们的德行包括
wisdom, strategy, strength, bravery, and when necessary, ruthlessness.
明智 计谋 实力 勇敢以及必要情况下的无情
In fact at one point Machiavelli uses the deliciously paradoxical phrase ‘Criminal Virtue’
实际上他一度用十分矛盾的表达:不道德的德行
to describe the necessary ability of leaders
来描述君主必备的能力
to be cruel in the name of the state,
以便以国家名义实施残忍举措
and yet, still good as leaders.
但仍保持好君主的形象
Machiavelli provided some criteria
马基雅维利给出了一些标准
for what constitutes the right occasion for bit of criminal virtue.
衡量使用 不道德的德行 的时机
Any violence must be strictly necessary for the security of the state.
任何暴力行动必须严格针对国家安全
It must be done swiftly, often at night – counsel Machiavelli,
马基雅维利建议 这些行动要在夜里迅速进行
and it shouldn’t be repeated too often
并且不能频繁使用
lest the reputation for mindless brutality builds up.
以免落下盲目残暴的口实
Machiavelli gave the example of his contemporary, Cesare Borgia,
马基雅维利以同辈人切萨雷·博尔吉亚为例
whom he admired as someone who knew how to be tough,
他赞赏博尔吉亚懂得使用强硬手段
but not too tough that we might question the criteria Machiavelli used.
但又未强硬到我们质疑马基雅维利的标准
When Cesare conquered the city of Cesena,
当切萨雷征服切塞纳时
he ordered one of his mercenary, Ramirida Okow,
他命手下的雇佣兵Ramirida Okow
to bring order to the region which Ramiro did through swift and brutal ways
恢复被拉米罗以快速而残暴的方式征服地区的秩序
Men were beheaded in front of their wives and children;
男人们在他们的妻儿面前被斩首
property was seized; traitors were castrated.
财产被剥夺 叛徒被阉割
Cesare then turned onto Okow himself
接着 切萨雷将矛头对准Okow
and had him sliced in half and placed in public square
在公共广场将他斩为两半并示众
just to remind the town’s people who the true boss was.
只为提醒镇上的人们真正的掌权者是谁
but then, as Machiavelli approvingly noted, that was enough blood shed.
但正如马基雅维利赞赏地指出 这些血流得值得
Cesare removed on to cut taxes, imported some cheap grain,
接下来 切萨雷实行减税 低价进口粮食
build a theater, and organized a series of beautiful festivals
修建剧院 组织一系列庆典
to keep people from dwelling on unfortunate memories.
以免人们沉浸于糟糕的记忆中
The Catholic church banned Machiavelli’s works for 200 years
天主教会对马基雅维利的著作实行了200年的禁令
because of the force with which he yet argued that
因其具有强大力量的观点:
being a good Christian was was incompatible with being a good leader.
人不可能既是好的基督徒 又是好的君主
But even for atheist and those of us who are not politicians,
但即使对无神论者和政坛以外的人来说
Machiavelli’s insights are important.
马基雅维利的视角仍然很重要
He writes that we can’t be good at (or for) all things,
他写道 我们无法顾全所有事务
not only because of our limited ability and resources,
不仅因为我们的能力和资源有限
but also because of conflicts within moral codes.
而且因为道德准则间会产生冲突
Some of the fields we choose,
在一些我们所处的领域
if not politics then perhaps business or family life
不管是政治 商业或是家庭生活
may require what we evasively called ‘difficult decisions’.
可能都有我们含糊托辞的 艰难决定
by which we really mean ‘ethical trade-offs’.
实际上就是 道德准则间的权衡
We may have to sacrifice neo-Christian visions of kindness
或许我们必须舍弃新基督教对仁慈的解释
for the sake of practical effectiveness.
才能换得实际的高效
We may have to lie in order to keep or relationship afloat.
必须撒谎以维系关系
We may have to ignore the feeling of certain employees to keep a business going.
必须忽视某些雇员的感受以保证生意进行
And that, insists Machiavelli, is the price of dealing with the world as it is,
马基雅维利坚称 这些是对抗自然世界的代价
and not as we feel it should be.
而非我们所认为的世界
The world has continued to love and hate Machiavelli in equal measure
世人对马基雅维利的评价仍会毁誉参半
for insisting on focusing our attention on the uncomfortable tension
因为他坚持聚焦于令人不适的冲突:
between two things we love and always want to have together
效率和友善 我们喜爱并渴望同时拥有二者
but perhaps can’t – effectiveness and niceness.
但或许我们永远无法做到

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视频概述

介绍马基雅维利的政治生涯及其作品的焦点,以及世人的评价。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

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审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AOXl0Ll_t9s

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