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约翰·洛克的政治理论

POLITICAL THEORY - John Locke

政治理论
Political Theory
约翰·洛克
John Locke
17世纪英国哲学家约翰·洛克
The seventeenth century English philosopher, John Locke,
以其充满智慧而杰出的贡献而为人们所铭记
is to be remembered for his wise and brilliant contributions
他所做出贡献的三个伟大问题至今仍与我们息息相关
to three great issues that continue to concern us to this day:
我们应该如何教育孩子
how we should educate our children,
谁应该统治我们
who should rule over us,
以及我们应该如何对待
and what we should do about people
与我们持不同宗教信仰观点的人
who have different religious ideas to us.
1632年 洛克出生于萨默塞特郡一个宁静的村庄里
Locke was born into a quiet Somerset village in 1632.
洛克十岁时 英国内战爆发
He was ten years old when the English Civil War broke out,
他的父亲成为议会军中的一名上尉
and his father became a captain in the parlimentary army.
1649年 国王查尔斯一世被公开处决
King Charles Ⅰ was publicly executed in 1649,
处决地点离当时洛克就读的威斯敏斯特学校仅有几英尺之遥
just a few feet away from where Locke was studying at Westminster School.
在图书馆听到的人群尖叫声给洛克留下了深刻的印象
The screams of the crowds heard in the library marked him deeply.
之后洛克在牛津大学深造 学习医学
Locke went on to study Medicine at Oxford
打算成为一名医生
and planned to be a doctor,
但是他的人生之后发生了重大变化 当时他偶然
but his life changed significantly when by chance
结实了风头正盛 野心勃勃的辉格党政治家
he became acquainted with the dashing and highly ambitious Whig politician,
安东尼·阿希理·库珀 著名的沙夫茨伯里伯爵一世
Anthony Ashley Cooper, known as the First Earl of Shaftesbury
当时他前往牛津大学
who’d come to Oxford to look for a cure
想要治疗肝病
for a liver disease he had.
库珀提议洛克搬到伦敦
Cooper suggested that Locke move to London
住到他家
to become part of his household.
这个提议让洛克难以拒绝
The offer was hard to resist
一成为库珀的随员
and once a part of Cooper’s entourage,
洛克就开始参与进了当时重大的科学 教育 宗教
Locke began to participate in the great scientific, educational, religious,
和政治辩论之中
and political debates of the day.
期间 他还帮助沙夫茨伯里伯爵治愈了
Along the way, he also helped to cure Shaftesbury
肝病
of his liver complaint,
获得了他的终生感激
earning his lifelong gratitude.
第一个使洛克深深着迷的问题
The first question Locke grew fascinated by
是如何对待与你宗教观点相左的人
was what to do with people who don’t agree with your religious views.
16世纪 在脱离天主教会和亨利八世的过程中
In breaking away from the Catholic church and Henry VIII in the 16th century,
英国新教开始激烈质疑宗教
English Protestantism has started a process of a noisy questioning of religion
而这次质疑不会轻易罢休
that couldn’t now easily be stopped.
因为事态如果失去控制 会产生很大威胁
because this was threatening to get out of hand,
有人认为政府应全面掌控宗教
there were arguments that there should be total government control over religion
对反对者进行严厉打击
and a hard crackdown on dissenters.
但洛克成为信仰自由的最重要支持者之一
But Locke became one of the foremost advocates of freedom of belief.
他在1667年写了一篇精彩的文章论述宗教宽容
In this beautiful essay concerning toleration written in 1667,
在文中洛克以三点为基础支持宽容
here he advocated toleration on the basis of three points:
第一点 因为一般对于普罗大众 尤其对于俗世法官和政府来说
firstly, because Earthly judges, the state in particular, and human beings in general,
当假说未被经验证实 而其中的宗教观点却又互相对立时 是难以做出可靠判断的
cannot dependably evaluate the truth-claims of competing religious standpoints;
第二点 即使可以 强制施行单一的“真正宗教”不会有用
secondly, even if they could, enforcing a single “true religion” would never work,
因为人是无法被暴力强迫信仰的
because you can’t be compelled into belief through violence;
第三点 强制宗教单一化
and thirdly, coercing religious uniformity
较之允许宗教多元化 会造成更多社会混乱
leads to far more social disorder than allowing diversity.
洛克认为国家的最终目标
Locke argued that the ultimate aim of the state
是维持人们在社会中安定舒适地生活
was just to preserve the quiet and comfortable living of men in society,
而不是左右人的灵魂
but that it have nothing to do with the good of men’s souls.
宗教信仰是个人选择 教堂是自愿组织
Religion was a personal choice and churches were voluntary organizations
可以自定规则 不受约束
which could set theirs own rules and be left to it.
正是由于洛克的影响
It was thanks to Locke’s influence
限制人们宗教信仰的想法
that the idea of locking up people for their beliefs
完全丧失了人们的支持
fell entirely out of favor.
到18世纪 其它欧洲国家十分羡慕英国
By the 18th century, other European nations looked with envy at England,
在英国人们认为你的信仰
a place where what you happen to believe
与你的地位前途毫不相干
was simply deemed irrelevant to your status or prospects.
刚刚起步的洛克一人用一本书造就了这些 的确是了不起的成就
This was a truly remarkable achievement for one book by one man to have set in train.
但洛克并未止步于此
But Locke didn’t stop there.
1689年 他出版了第二本非凡的著作
In 1689 he published the second extraordinary book:
《政府论》
the Two Treatises of Government.
这本书试图回答谁应该统治国家
This tried to answer the question of who should rule the country
以及以何为正当基础的问题
and on what legitimate basis.
那时有一个普遍但越来越脱离现实的观点
One common yet increasingly fanciful notion at the time
认为政权直接来源于神
was that political authority derived directly from God.
但根据托马斯·霍布斯一个新近的解释
But a more recent explanation from Thomas Hobbes
称君主的极权
had asserted that the totalitarian power of kings
是由他们维持秩序
was justified by their ability to keep order
防止混乱再次出现的能力决定
and prevent repetitions of the chaos that had reigned.
霍布斯认为
Hobbes had insisted,
在强权政府出现之前
in the time before powerful governments,
即被他称为“自然状态”的时期
and that he had called “the state of nature”
通过将自然状态描绘地极为黑暗
by painting the state of nature in the darkest colors
霍布斯要求自己的读者降低
Hobbes had asked his readers to set themselves low expectations
对称职统治者的期望
for what a decent ruler was meant to be.
任何比野蛮的石器时代好的统治都是合理的
Anything better than the savagery of the Stone Age was legitimate.
统治者没有责任
And rulers had no responsibility
保障宗教自由和人权
to guarantee religious freedom or human rights.
但洛克在第一篇论文中就推翻了圣经中
But now in the first treatise, Locke thoroughly demolished the scriptural claim
神创造君主的说法
that God had created kings,
而在第二篇论文中 他采用了霍布斯关于自然状态的观点
and in the second treatise he took on Hobbes’ ideas about the state of nature.
洛克认同在政府出现之前即没有政府的时期
Locke agreed with Hobbes that before and without government
或许存在自然状态
there would have been a state of nature.
但关于自然状态是什么样的 他与霍布斯观点不同
but he disagreed what this place would actually have been like.
他认为自然状态大体上是平静的
He argued that it would have been broadly peaceful
人们自愿听从于政府
and that in agreeing to submit to governments
因此不会出于恐惧而交出他们的所有权利
people had therefore not fearfully agreed to surrender all their rights.
实际上 他们拥有一连串的不可剥夺的或者说是天赋的权利
In fact, they possessed a range of inalienable
没有统治者可以将这些权利夺走
or natural rights that no ruler could ever take away.
洛克认为人们不会自愿
Locke insisted that people had voluntarily consented
放弃一部分个人自由
to cede some of their personal freedoms
除非他们的权利能得到更好的保障
but only insofar as it better preserved their rights.
他们不会放弃所有权利
They couldn’t be expected to give up these rights entirely
因为那样就丧失了参与社会的意义
as that would just defeat the point of joining society in the first place.
如果统治者施行暴政
If a ruler started to act like a tyrant,
不正当地夺走国民的自由和财产
and unfairly deprived their subjects of their freedom or property,
那国民完全有权
the subjects were then entirely within their rights
收回约定 推翻统治者 建立新政府
to withdraw their consent, overthrow their ruler and set up a new government.
洛克的著作对西方社会发展影响巨大
Locke’s work hugely influenced the development of western societies,
特别是美国的独立宣言
and in particular the American Declaration of Independence.
例如它对政教分离的坚持
For example, in its insistence on the separation of church and state,
以及第二修正案中持有武器的权利
and in the Second Amendments rights to bear arms,
明显继承了洛克的观点 “人民应始终保有
a clear descendant of Locke’s view that people should always retain
推翻政府的权利和手段”
both right and means to overthrow government.
洛克在另一领域也做出了重大革新
Locke made one other great innovation.
这次是在教育领域
This time in education.
在他1693年的著作《教育漫话》中
In his book some thoughts concerning education of 1693
这或许是有史以来最有影响力的教育著作
this was possibly the most influential book on education ever written.
1684年一位名叫 爱德华·克拉克的贵族
In 1684, an aristocrat called Edward Clark
就培养他的儿子和继承人的问题向洛克寻求意见
asked Locke for advice on raising his son and heir.
虽然洛克未婚 也没有自己的孩子
Though he was unmarried and never had children of his own,
而且人们都说洛克实际上并不那么享受他们的陪伴
and by all accounts didn’t actually enjoy their company that much,
洛克写了很多信回复克拉克 这些信后来被汇编成书
Locke responded with a series of letters that eventually turned into a book.
洛克在书的开头说道:每个人出生时大脑都是空白一片
Locke began by saying that all of us start off a life with minds that are blank.
他称之为“白板”
“Tabula rasa” he called them.
在他的另一本写于1689年的名作《人类理解论》中提到的
In another famous work his essay concerning human understanding of 1689,
观点与主流观点完全相反
idea ran contrary to prevailing views
主流观点认为我们的大脑在出生时就装满了
that our minds are fitted at birth
关于宗教 伦理 道德和政府的各种观念
with all sorts of ideas about religion, ethics, morality and government.
洛克认为我们认为 相信 了解 以及推测的任何事情
Locke argued that everything we think, believe, know or conjecture
实际上都是源于经历
is actually derived from experience,
来源于我们感知外界而形成的简单概念
from the simple ideas we receive from sensations in the outside world,
或是在自我了解过程中的内省
or internal reflections on the processes of our own understandings,
这使洛克相信 教育在塑造人方面起着至为关键的作用
led Locke to the belief that education was absolutely crucial to how people turn out.
“我觉得我可以说 我见过的所有人
I think I may say that of all the men we meet with
无论善恶 有用无用 十之有九都是
nine parts of ten are what they are, good or evil, useful or not,
所受教育的结果”
because of education.
洛克认为 我们很容易受童年时期所接受思想的影响
Locke believed that we are very vulnerable to the ideas that people place in our minds when we are children.
他写到:在婴儿时期留下的细微的难以感知到的印象
He wrote: the little and almost insensible impressions on our tender infancies
都会有重大而深远的影响
have very important and lasting consequences.
他认为年轻时产生的观念的结合
He argued that the association of ideas that one makes when young
比之后产生的更为重要
are more important than those made later
因为那是我们自身的根基
because they are the foundations of ourselves.
所以他严重警告人们不要让愚蠢的侍女
So he warned famously against letting a foolish maid
告诉孩子妖怪和精灵
convince a child that goblins and spirits
会在夜间出现
are associated with the night
因为如果这样 黑暗会一直给孩子带来恐惧
for darkness shall ever afterwards bring with it those frightful ideas.
洛克是我们现在采用的教育方法的先驱
Locke is the forerunner of our own parenting techniques
这种教育方法认为孩子所经历的一切
in which we proceed under the assumption that everything that happens to a child,
无论是在动物园与父母玩的是否尽兴 还是在四岁时是否得到足够的拥抱
whether they have a nice time at the zoo with us or get enough cuddles at the age of four,
都对孩子之后的人生产生重大影响
plays an enormous role in later life.
这些观点并不是凭空出现在我们脑中的
These ideas didn’t pop into our heads just like that.
我们可能并不知晓
Without us necessarily knowing it
这是17世纪一位瘦削的 睿智的英国哲学家的成果
they are the work of a gaunt, wise philosopher of 17th century England.
关于教育课程的设置 洛克也有一些有趣的见解
Locke also had some fascinating thoughts about what should be on the educational curriculum.
他反感让孩子学习
He hated the idea of children learning what he called
拉丁语 希腊语 音乐 诗歌这些学科 这些被他称之为“无用的学科”
useless subjects like Latin, Greek, music or poetry,
应该只学实用的 对他们之后生活有帮助的学科
only to study what would be of practical assistance to them later in life,
也就是科学 伦理学 商科 和我们现在所说的心理学
which meant science, ethics, business and what we nowadays call psychology.
这门学科指引我们尽量冷静
Instructions on how we can best calm ourselves,
善待他人 理解他人
be kind and understand others.
他“要求” 虽然他没有直接用这个词
He wanted, though he didn’t directly use the phrase,
我们应该在”生活的学校”中学习
that we should study at schools of life.
洛克于1704年10月逝世 他是欧洲最为享有盛名的人之一
Locke died in October, 1704. He was one of the most famous men in Europe
直至今日依然对我们产生巨大影响
and continues to influence us hugely to this day.
正是洛克 使我们相信宗教宽容
It is because of him that we believe in religious toleration,
使我们认识到政府不应施暴政于民
that we believe that govenments should not tyrannize their subjects,
使我们竭力给我们的孩子美好的童年
and that we try so hard to give our own children good childhoods.

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视频概述

约翰·洛克,启蒙时代最具影响力的思想家和自由主义,他的宗教宽容思想、社会契约论和教育观点影响深远

听录译者

霜霜

翻译译者

杜若

审核员

Ah~Qiu

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bZiWZJgJT7I

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