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北极熊:北方之王 – 译学馆
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北极熊:北方之王

Polar Bear: The King in the North

北极熊是北极地区的顶级掠食者
Polar Bears are Arctic apex predators that make home
生活在地球上最荒凉的栖息地之一
to one of the most inhospitable habitats on the planet.
[音乐播放中]
[Music playing]
而且该栖息地一年比一年更不宜居住
And every year, that habitat gets even more unforgiving.
大家好 我是丹妮尔•迪福 你正在观看动物逻辑
Hi, I’m Danielle Dufault and you’re watching Animalogic.
撇开人类 北极熊是陆生顶级掠食者中的主宰
Humans aside, polar bears reign supreme among land-dwelling apex predators.
[音乐播放中]
[Music playing]
它们是世界上最大的陆地食肉动物
They’re the largest land carnivore in the world.
成年的雄性北极熊很容易重达800公斤
Adult male polar bears can easily weigh 800 kilograms,
直立起来高达约3米
standing at almost 3 meters tall.
是灰熊体重的两倍
That’s twice as heavy as a grizzly bear.
雌性要苗条得多 仅重达400公斤
Females are a lot slimmer, weighing only 400 kilos.
北极熊的体重在一年四季中
And their body weight fluctuates throughout the year,
随着它们能吃多少食物而波动
depending on how much food they’re able to eat.
在北极圈里的生活是艰难的
Living in the Arctic ring of life is difficult.
为了在统治栖息地上占据优势
And to give them an edge over their habitat,
北极熊已经做出了一系列适应改变
polar bears have developed a series of adaptations.
首先 是它们的皮毛
First of all, their fur.
它们毛发的颜色能让它们
Their coloration helps them camouflage
在北极的白色背景下伪装
against the white backdrop of the Arctic.
可是不像它们自身看起来的白色
Though they aren’t themselves actually white,
它们的毛发实际上是透明的
their fur is actually transparent.
由中空的小管子组成
It’s made of small hollow tubes and
并且可以反射周围环境的颜色
they can reflect the colors of its surroundings,
雪 还有天空
the snow and the sky.
这就是为什么它们在夏季看起来是淡黄色
This is why they can appear yellow in summertime.
北极熊有一层厚厚的脂肪
Polar bears have a thick layer of fat
和油性防水的皮毛
as well as oily water-resistant fur
以抵抗北极的恶劣天气
that protects them against the elements.
在北极地区生活的最危险之处
The most treacherous part about living in the Arctic
在于其栖息地正在融化
is that their habitat is melting.
而且随着全球气温持续上升
And it gets worse every year
每年融化情况都越来越严重
as temperatures around the world continue to rise.
为了在这么恶劣和不断变化的地区生活
To live in such a harsh and changing territory,
北极熊已变成了游泳健将
polar bears have become experts in the water.
北极熊的身体比其他熊类更长
Compared to others bears, their bodies are very long,
这使得它们的身体相当流线型
which makes them quite hydrodynamic.
北极熊的巨大前掌约有30厘米宽
Their front paws are massive about 30 centimeters wide.
因此它们用前脚掌当桨
And they use them as paddles.
美国地质调查局发现
The U.S. Geological Survey found that
北极熊可以连续游泳长达十天
polar bears can swim for up to ten days straight.
在此期间 它们可以游过600公里
In that time, they can cover over 600 kilometers.
但因此带来的代价是
But it comes at a cost for polar bears
游泳会比走路多消耗五倍能量
swimming as five times more energy-intensive than walking.
而且在再次进食前 北极熊游的越久
And the longer they have to spend swimming between meals,
它们饿死的可能性越高
the higher the chances that they’ll starve.
因为全球变暖正导致北极的夏季时间延长
As global warming is causing summers to last longer in the Arctic,
所以北极熊极度依赖的冰道的
the frozen walkways on which they so desperately rely
冻结状态不够持久到让它们穿过
don’t stay frozen long enough for the bear to cross.
在空腹的时候 它们游的越远
The further they have to swim on empty stomachs,
越有可能饿死和淹死
the more likely they’re to starve and drown.
北极熊需要进食脂肪
Their diet consists of fat.
它们无法只靠陆地食物生存
They’re unable to survive on a terrestrial diet
因为它们的新陈代谢系统为脂肪优化过
as their metabolism is optimized for fat,
而陆地哺乳动物的脂肪含量却不高
which land mammals don’t have in high quantities.
因此它们必须以高脂肪的海洋哺乳动物为目标 比如海豹
Instead, they have to target fatty marine mammals, primarily seals.
它们凭借惊人的嗅觉追踪到海豹
They track these seals down with their incredible sense of smell.
北极熊鼻子里的嗅觉受体数
Their noses contain as many as a hundred times
是我们人类的一百多倍
more scent receptors than our noses.
而且它们大脑里的嗅球
And olfactory bulb in their brains
比我们人类的要大约五倍
is about five times bigger than ours.
这使得它们可以在很远的距离外就找到海豹洞穴
This allows them to find seal holes at a great distance.
当它们找到海豹时
And when they find them,
它们会用长长的爪子和巨大的体重
they use their long claws and immense body weight
来砸开冰层
to break open the layers.
当一只海豹浮出水面来呼吸时
When a seal surfaces to breathe,
它们会咬住海豹的脖子
they grab hold of the seal’s neck with their jaw,
把海豹拖到冰面上然后吃掉
they drag it onto the ice and eat it.
即使当周围没有什么食物
Though when there isn’t anything else around,
因长途跋涉而精疲力尽 饿坏了的北极熊
starved polar bears exhausted by their long journeys
也会为了喂养幼崽去冒很大的风险
will take a big risk to feed their young.
去狩猎更加危险致命的猎物:海象
Targeting a much deadlier class of prey, the walrus.
海象常成群出现 以致命的獠牙作武器
Coming in large packs, walruses are armed with deadly tusks,
能够刺穿北极熊厚实的黑色皮肤
capable of piercing a polar bears thick black skin.
北极熊幸运的话 能抓走一只海象幼崽
A lucky bear is able to snatch a walrus cub
并安全脱身
and make it out alive.
但有些时候并没有这么幸运
But others aren’t so lucky.
关于雌性交配权的竞争很激烈
Competition for mating rights with females is intense
可以看到两只800公斤的巨兽针锋相对
and can see two 800 kilo behemoths duke it out.
虽然北极熊交配期在春天
Mating occurs in the spring,
但是直到十月母熊进入洞穴后
but polar bears delay their embryo implantation until October
胚胎才会着床
when the female enters her den.
母熊每三年会生一两只幼崽
She will give birth to one or two cubs every three years.
幼崽刚出生时体型很小
The cubs are very small when they’re born.
但在四月时 它们已经长大到可以离开洞穴
But by April, they’re big enough to leave the den
跟随母亲一起捕食了
and join mom on the hunt for food.
在十月初进入洞穴后
Entering their den in early October,
很多母熊会多达八个月
a lot of females will spend up to
没有进食
eight months with no food.
当它们准备离开洞穴时 已经饥肠辘辘
But when they’re ready to emerge, they’re ravenous.
它们的洞穴建在陆地上
Their dens are made on land.
所以为了找到可以吃的东西
And in order to find something to eat,
它们必须长途跋涉到北极的冰面上
they have to make the trek out onto the Arctic ice.
由于全球变暖导致每年冰层形成时间更晚些
As global warming causes ice to form later in the year
在夏季又融化得更早些
and the break up earlier in the summer,
北极熊不得不消耗更多的能量
polar bears have to expend a lot more energy swimming
游到最近的浮冰上以期抓到一只海豹
to the nearest ice in hopes of catching a seal.
母熊和幼崽在水中会游的很慢
Moms and their cubs travel very slowly in the water
而且它们必须经常休息
and they have to take frequent breaks
因为幼崽还没有形成保暖用的脂肪层
as the cubs don’t yet have their insulating layer of fat
很容易被冻死
and can easily freeze to death.
如果跋涉太久了 母熊会饿死
If it takes them too long, mama bear will starve.
如果母熊饿死 幼崽会和她一起饿死
And if mama bear starves, the babies starve alongside her.
由于冰面缩小
As the ice shrinks, polar bears have
北极熊会转变觅食的方式
turned to other means of finding food.
通常情况下那意味着和人类发生冲突
And oftentimes that means clashing with humans.
2019年2月 在俄罗斯Novaya Zemlya地区
In February of 2019, a remote Russian town
一个偏远小镇
in the Novaya Zemlya region
发现当地的垃圾堆被几十只北极熊入侵了
found its garbage dumps invaded by dozens of polar bears.
今年至少有52只北极熊
At least 52 polar bears have visited
出现在Volusia Guba村庄
the village of Volusia Guba this year.
它们甚至闯入居民家中
And they’ve even broken into homes,
公寓还有办公楼中寻找食物
apartments and office buildings in search of food.
北极熊正受到威胁
Polar bears are vulnerable,
而且从2018年11月起加拿大
and since November of 2018 they’ve been considered
已将北极熊列为需要特别关注的物种
a species of special concern here in Canada
全球已发现的北极熊有三分之二在加拿大
where two-thirds of the world polar bear population is found.
因此 大量保护北极熊的责任落到了我们身上
As such, a lot of the burden to protect polar bears falls to us.
我们在过去两年已经取得了一些进展
Well, we have made some strides over the last two years.
监控北极熊数量
Monitoring our polar bear population,
完善法规以打击非法猎杀北极熊的行为
developing regulations to combat illegal polar bear hunting
和因纽特人合作以更好地了解北极熊
and working with the Inuit to better understand polar bears.
我们离需要做到的还差的远
We are still far from where we need to be.
需要一项大规模的措施来对抗全球变暖
A massive initiative is needed to combat global warming
来让北极熊的寒冷家园
and to keep the Arctic ice that polar bears
避免被破坏
cold home from destruction.
有大量北极熊住在哈德逊湾
Hudson’s Bay is home to a large population of polar bear.
如果你想亲自近距离接触它们
And if you want to get up close and personal with them,
那你应该去看《野生动物:在冰雪王国中生存》
then you should watch Wildlife: Survival in the Ice Kingdom,
这是九部纪录片系列中的一集
an episode of a nine part documentary series
正在CuriosityStream视频网站上播放
that is streaming right now on CuriosityStream.
这集关注的是一只北极熊母亲
This episode follows a mother polar bear
她在长达数月的冬眠后出现
as she emerges from her months long hibernation
带领她可爱的幼崽在地球上最恶劣的
and guides her adorable cub through his first year of life
环境之一中度过刚出生的第一年
in one of the harshest environments on the earth.
这集真实地展示了北极熊母亲强大的力量
This episode really demonstrates the formidable strength of mother polar bears
以及它们悲惨的生存之旅
and their harrowing journey for survival.
而且还重点介绍了很可能是我见过的
Also, it features quite possibly the cutest polar bear
最可爱的北极熊
I’ve ever seen.
这九部纪录片系列涵盖了各种各样神奇的动物
This nine part documentary series covers a wide variety of amazing animals
从北海道红狐狸到鸡冠水稚
from the Hokkaido red fox to comb-crested jacanas
再到环尾狐猴等等
to ring-tailed lemurs and many more.
CuriosityStream是一个订阅收费的流媒体服务
CuriosityStream is a subscription streaming service
有超过2000部纪录片的超大视频库
with a huge library of over 2000 documentaries
包括纪实类作品和独家原创
non-fiction titles and exclusive originals.
他们有很多赏心悦目的自然纪录片
They have a lot of really beautiful nature documentaries
如果你喜欢动物逻辑的话 我认为你也会喜欢这些
which if you like Animalogic I think you’ll love.
观看《野生动物:在冰雪王国中生存》并支持动物逻辑
To watch Wildlife: Survival in the Ice Kingdom and support Animalogic,
搜索网站curiositystream.com/animalogic
go to curiositystream.com/animalogic
并用促销代码“动物逻辑”来索要30天免费试用
and claim your 30-day free trial with the promo code animalogic.
所以我下一次该讲什么动物呢
So what animal should I talk about next?
请在评论中告诉我
Please let me know in the comments
一定要订阅动物逻辑收看每周更新
and be sure to subscribe for new episodes of Animalogic every week.
感谢观看
Thanks for watching.

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译制信息
视频概述

北极熊是北极的顶级掠食者,视频介绍了它的生活习性以及面临的危机

听录译者

dysania_y

翻译译者

dysania_y

审核员

审核员_GS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=drKYw5wGg8c

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