ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

柏拉图的洞穴寓言 – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

柏拉图的洞穴寓言

Plato’s Allegory of the Cave - Alex Gendler

现实 知识以及生活的意义是什么?
What is reality, knowledge, the meaning of life?
你能以象征性地方式处理宏大的举动
Big topics you might tackle figuratively
解释诸如沿路旅行 或穿过海洋
explaining existence as a journey down a road or across an ocean,
一次攀爬 一场战争 一本书 线团 一场游戏
a climb, a war, a book, a thread a game
机会之窗的存在
a window of opportunity,
抑或是转瞬即灭的闪烁火焰
or an all-too-short-lived flicker of flame.
2400年前
2,400 years ago,
历史上一位著名的思想家说过
one of history’s famous thinkers said
生命就像被束缚于洞中
life is like being chained up in a cave,
被迫注视着投射在石墙上的光影
forced to watch shadows flitting across a stone wall.
那些光影很生动 不是吗?
Pretty cheery, right?
这就是柏拉图提及的洞穴寓言
That’s actually what Plato suggestedin his Allegory of the Cave,
出于《理想国》第七卷
found in Book VII of”The Republic,”
这位希腊哲学家在书中通过检验司法 真理以及美丽 这样一些概念
in which the Greek philosopher envisioned the ideal society
以此展望了一个理想化的社会
by examining concepts like justice, truth and beauty.
在寓言中 一群人从生下来就被囚禁在洞穴中
In the allegory, a group of prisoners have been confined in a cavern since birth,
他们对外面的世界一无所知
with no knowledge of the outside world.
他们被链条锁住 面朝墙壁 不能转头
They are chained, facing a wall, unable to turn their heads,
身后的火苗给他们带来一些微弱的光亮
while a fire behind them gives off a faint light.
偶尔会有人从火堆旁经过
Occasionally people pass by the fire,
投射动物和其他东西的影子在墙上
carrying figures of animals and other objects that cast shadows on the wall.
囚犯们命名并给这些虚幻的东西分类
The prisoners name and classify these illusions,
相信自己正在感知真实的物体
believing they’re perceiving actual entities.
突然有一天 一个囚犯被释放了
Suddenly one prisoner is freed
并第一次被带到洞外
and brought outside for the first time.
阳光刺痛了他的眼睛 他发现新的环境让他感到迷惑
The sunlight hurts his eyes and he finds the new environment disorienting.
当告诉他周围这些东西是真实存在的
When told that the things around him are real,
影子只是一种反射的时候
while the shadows were mere reflections.
他仍难以相信
He cannot believe it.
面前的“影子”居然如此清晰
The shadows appeared much clearer to him.
但是渐渐地 他的眼睛适应了
But gradually, his eyes adjust
他可以看到水中的映像
until he can look at reflections in the water,
可以直接看到物体
at objects directly,
最后看到太阳
and finally at the Sun,
它的光芒是他所见一切的根源
whose light is the ultimate sourceof everything he has seen.
囚犯返回洞中分享他的发现
The prisoner returns to the cave to share his discovery,
但是他不再适应黑暗
but he is no longer used to the darkness,
他用了好长一段时间才看到墙上的影子
and has a hard time seeing the shadows on the wall.
其他囚犯觉得这次出行让他变傻了 瞎了
The other prisoners think the journey has made him stupid and blind,
并激烈的抵抗任何企图让他们自由的行为
and violently resist any attempts to free them.
柏拉图引用这篇文章作一个类比
Plato introduces this passage as an analogy
这就好比一位哲学家尝试教化公众
of what it’s like to be a philosopher trying to educate the public.
大多数人对他们的愚昧不仅不在意
Most people are not just comfortablein their ignorance
而且对那些指出他们愚昧的人还充满敌意
but hostile to anyone who points it out.
事实上 现实生活就是 苏格拉底被雅典政府
In fact, the real life Socrates was sentenced to death
以扰乱社会秩序为罪名 判处死刑
by the Athenian government for disrupting the social order,
他的学生柏拉图花费大量时间在《理想国》上
and his student Plato spends much of”The Republic”
对雅典民主表示蔑视
disparaging Athenian democracy,
并用哲学完善了规则
while promoting rule by philosopher kings.
借用洞穴寓言
With the cave parable,
柏拉图可能想讨论的是
Plato may be arguing that
一大群固执傲慢的人是无法管理他们自己的
the masses are too stubborn and ignorant to govern themselves.
但是这个寓言已经流传了2400年
But the allegory has captured imaginations for 2,400 years
因为它可以用多种方式解读
because it can be read in far more ways.
重要的是 寓言是理论的表现方式
Importantly the allegory is connectedto the theory of forms,
并在柏拉图其他对话中得到发展
developed in Plato’s other dialogues,
它认为就像墙上的影子
which holds that like the shadows on the wall,
物质世界的东西就是理想形式的不完美的展现
things in the physical world are flawedreflections of ideal forms,
比如圆或是美丽
such as roundness, or beauty.
用这种方法阐释 洞穴寓言可能会产生一些基础性问题
In this way, the cave leads to manyfundamental questions,
包括知识的起源
including the origin of knowledge,
代表性问题
the problem of representation,
以及现实自身的实质
and the nature of reality itself.
对神学者来说 理想的形式只存在于创造者的心里
For theologians, the ideal forms exist in the mind of a creator.
研究语言的哲学家 将这些形式当作语言学的概念
For philosophers of languageviewing the forms as linguistic concepts,
这个理论说明了抽象事物的具体化问题
the theory illustrates the problemof grouping concrete things under abstract terms.
其他人仍旧很好奇 我们是否可以真正理解
And others still wonder whether we can really know
洞穴外面的世界要比影子更加真实
that the things outside the cave are any more real than the shadows.
当我们开始生活的时候
As we go about our lives,
我们能对自己认为的事情充满信心吗
can we be confident in what we think we know?
或许某一天
Perhaps one day,
一束微弱的光可能就会打破你大部分基础性设想
a glimmer of light may punch a hole in your most basic assumptions.
那么你会打破自由向着光亮的方向前进
Will you break free to struggle towards the light,
即使你自己 你的朋友 你的家人
even if it costs you, your friends and family,
都坚持那些熟悉令人感到舒服的假象?
or stick with comfortable and familiar illusions?
真实还是习惯?光明还是阴暗?
Truth or habit? Light or shadow?
艰难的选择
Hard choices.
如果说有什么值得安慰的 那便是 你不是一个人
But if it’s any consolation, you’re not alone.
还有很多人跟你一样
There are lots of us down here.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

选择真理还是选择愚昧,取决于自己能否打破自由。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

喋喋

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1RWOpQXTltA

相关推荐