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柏拉图:相

PLATO ON: The Forms

~428BC – 347BC
公元前428年-公元前347年
PLATO ON: THE FORMS
柏拉图:相
Asking one’s self and others what the perfect version of something is
问问自己和别人 什么是事物的完美状态
the ideal version might sound like a strange idea
理想状态听上去是个奇怪的概念
What is the perfect marriage?
什么是完美的婚姻?
or career? or system of government? or school?
或完美的职业?或完美的政府体系?或完美的学校?
It can feel immature and naïve to bother much with such questions
为这种问题烦恼 让人觉得不成熟 很天真
they’re just daydreams.
他们只是在做白日梦
After all: who cares about ideal versions?
毕竟 谁会关心理想状态呢?
we might as well deal with what we’ve got.
不关心它 我们依然可以过得不错
But the great ancient Greek philosopher Plato
但伟大的古希腊哲学家柏拉图
strenuously disagrees with this.
竭力反对这一点
Throughout his work, he argues
他通过他的作品 提出
that focusing on the ideal version of something
关注事物的理想状态
is one of the most useful kinds of thought excercises we can generate
是我们能做的 最有用的思维方式之一
It’s by knowing how something should be like
通过了解事物应该是什么样的
that we can more clearly start to define what might be wrong
我们才能更清楚地定义什么可能是错
and focus on what we need to do to make the world slightly better
和关注我们要点做什么让世界变得更好一点
When he was talking about ideals,
当他谈到理想状态的时候
Plato used a slightly strange but ultimately useful word:
柏拉图使用了一个有点奇怪但非常有用的名词
THE FORMS

So he asks not what is the *ideal* friendship or the *ideal* kind of parental love
所以他问的不是 什么是理想的友谊或者理想的父母的爱
He asks what is the form of friendship, or the form of parental love.
他问的是 什么是友谊的相或者父母的爱的相
It does sound strange
的确 听上去很奇怪
But what he had in mind was something very practical:
但是他脑袋里想的是很实际的事情
When a Greek stonemason was carving an ornament,
当希腊石匠在雕刻装饰品的时候
they wouldn’t just make it up themselves.
他们不会自己创作出来
They’d make use of a wooden template, or form,
他们用一个木头的模板或相
to check if they were getting it right.
来检查他们做的对不对
The form itself was made by the master
相是由大师创作的
But if the mason possessed the form,
但如果石匠有了相
they could more reliably do perfect work.
他们更能做出完美的作品
This is Plato’s basic picture of what an ideal is:
这是柏拉图对理想状态的基本描述
It’s the guide you need that shows you how to do something well yourself.
它是一个向你展示怎么把事情做好的指南
If you’ve got posession of the form, you can be guided towards a true goal.
如果你拥有了相 你就能够被引导到正确的目标
A form, as Plato sees it, is a blueprint
在柏拉图看来 相是一个蓝图
a set of instructions for making a very good version of something.
一套指导你制作好状态的事物的说明
That’s why we all need a very well thought-through set of forms
这就是为什么我们都需要一套经过深思熟虑的相
to guide us in life.
来指导我们的生活
And, unsurprisingly, it is philosophy that can guide us to these forms.
毋庸置疑 哲学能指导我们找到这些相
So, for example, the form of friendship is a mental model
所以 例如 友谊的相
of what a really good friendship actually involves.
是指真正好的友谊包含哪些内容的精神模型
And if you grasp this model,
如果你掌握了这个模型
if this idea is active in your mind,
如果这个想法在你脑海里活跃
you will know how to be a good friend.
你会知道怎么做一个好朋友
Similarly, having a form of education in mind
同样的 脑海里有教育的相
is going to be very usefull for the teacher
对教师非常有用
It will stop her being buffeted by events and day-to-day pressures
会让她免受事件或日常压力的冲击
she’ll be able to keep in mind where, ideally, she should be going.
她能记住 理想状态下 她应该怎么做
We’ve typically thought of ideals as phantasy projections
我们通常认为理想状态是
that blindly ignore most of what life is actually like.
盲目忽略大部分现实生活的空想
We think of them as the opposite of being realistic.
我们认为它们是现实主义的反面
But Plato sees an ideal as a result of a deep understanding,
但柏拉图认为理想状态是深度层次理解
and careful engagement with reality
和小心的面对现实的结果
Someone setting up an airport would need, in the platonic scheme,
在柏拉图体系中 建设机场的人需要
to have in mind the ideal air traffic control system.
在脑海中有理想的空中交通控制系统
Something optimally effective, efficient and safe.
最有效 高效和安全的系统
This is the person who would, in Plato’s terms,
用柏拉图的话说 就是这个人掌握了
have grasped the form of air traffic control.
空中交通管制的相
We all need to have as many forms in mind as we possibly can.
我们都需要有尽可能多的相在脑海中
Plato is breaking the habitual assumption
柏拉图正在打破这种习惯性的假设
that searching for the ideal is at odds with
追求理想状态和
getting things done in the ruff and tumble of the real world.
在混乱的现实世界中做完事情是有很大差距的
And he’s pushing us to be more exacting about where we are trying to head to.
他推着我们更兴奋地去往我们想去的地方
If an ideal seems utterly distant and hopeless,
如果说理想看上去太遥远了 根本没有希望
maybe the problem isn’t that it’s too idealistic,
问题可能不是因为它太理想化了
but in a strange, but important, way
而是从某种奇怪且重要的角度看
actually not idealistic enough.
实际上还不够理想化
That is, we have not quite yet discovered the form.
也就是说 我们还没有发现这个相
We shouldn’t abandon our ideals,
我们不应该抛弃我们的理想
we should get more ambitious about them
我们应该对他们更有信心
And Plato’s philosophy is on hand to help us.
柏拉图哲学正在旁边帮助我们

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视频概述

帕拉图告诉我们深思熟虑之后制定理想事物的相,在现实生活中判断两者之间的差距,然后不断想着理想前进。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MgotDFs6cdE

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