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白色污染:人类正在将世界变成塑料 – 译学馆
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白色污染:人类正在将世界变成塑料

Plastic Pollution: How Humans are Turning the World into Plastic

当上帝赋予Midas国王一个愿望时
When the gods granted king Midas one wish,
他希望他碰到的任何东西都变成金子
he wished that everything he touched would turn to gold.
Midas很开心 树 石头 建筑物都变成了金子
Midas was delighted. Trees, rocks, buildings all gold.
但很快他惊恐地发现他的食物也都变成了金子
But soon he found in horror that his food turned into gold as well.
当他想抱住她的女儿来缓解悲伤时
When he hugged his daughter to soothe his pain,
他已经来不及并意识到了自己的错误
he realized his mistake too late.
世上最有钱的人遭受着挨饿 心碎 孤独
The richest man in existence was starving, heartbroken and alone.
人类也被赋予了同样的愿望
Humanity got a similar wish granted when we
当学会怎么把棕色发臭的黏状物变成魔法 塑料
learned how to turn brown stinky goo into magic – plastic. Cheap,
它廉价 无菌 方便 改变了我们的生活
sterile and convenient it changed our lives
但这项科技奇物变得有些不受控制
But this wonder of technology got a little out of hand.
塑料充满了我们的环境
Plastic has saturated our environment.
它入侵了我们吃的动物
It has invaded the animals we eat and
现在 可以从我们的身体中被发现
now it’s finding its way into our bodies.
[悦耳的开场音乐]
[Catchy intro music]
塑料是什么?
What is plastic?
历史中 人类使用自己发现的
For most of our history humans used stuff we found
天然物品去制作我们需要的东西
in nature to build the things we needed.
但大约100年前 塑料的发明改变了一切
But the invention of plastic roughly 100 years ago completely changed our world.
塑料由聚合物制成 即由重复的分子组成的链状化合物
Plastic is made from polymers – long repeating chains of molecule groups.
大自然中 聚合物无处不在 细胞壁 丝绸 头发 昆虫壳 DNA
In nature, polymers exist everywhere: the walls of cells, silk, hair, insect carapaces, DNA.
但也能创造他们
But it’s also possible to create them.
通过分解原油并重组他们
By breaking down crude oil into its components and Rearranging them,
我们可以构成新合成聚合物
we can form new synthetic polymers.
新合成聚合物有着非凡的特性
Synthetic polymers have extraordinary traits.
它们很轻 耐用 可以被塑造成任何形状
They are lightweight, durable and can be molded into almost any shape.
不需耗费大量时间人力 就可以轻易生产大量塑料
Not requiring time-consuming manual work, plastic can be easily mass-produced
原材料也可以被轻易地找到
and its raw materials are a vailable in vast amounts
并且十分廉价 于是 塑料的黄金时代开始了
And incredibly cheaply, and so the golden era of plastics began
人造树胶用于制作做机械零件
Bakelite was used for mechanical parts,
PVC水管 电动齿轮和箱子
PVC for plumbing electric gears and cases,
抗破碎的丙烯酸玻璃
Acrylic is a shatter resistant alternative
用于制作袜子和战争装备的尼龙
to glass and nylon for stockings and war equipment
如今 几乎所有东西 至少一部分都是塑料制的
Today almost everything is at least partly made from plastic.
我们的衣服 电话 电脑 家具 家用电器 房子和汽车
Our clothes, phones, computers, furniture, appliances, houses and cars.
塑料已不再被视为革新性材质 转而成为垃圾
Plastic has long ceased to be a revolutionary material instead it became trash.
咖啡杯 塑料包或用来包裹香蕉的东西
Coffee cups, plastic bags, or stuff to wrap a banana.
我们没有仔细思考这个现象
We don’t think about this fact a lot.
塑料只是在我们眼前出现然后消失
Plastic just appears and goes away.
不幸的是 它并没有
Unfortunately, it doesn’t.
因为合成聚合物太耐用了
Since synthetic polymers are so durable,
塑料需要花费500到1000年去分解
plastic takes between 500 and 1,000 years to break down.
但不知怎么地我们不约而同地使用超韧的材料
But somehow we collectively decided to use this super tough material
来制作将来会被丢弃的东西
for things meant to be thrown away.
40%的塑料被用作包装
40% of plastics are used for packaging.
在美国
In the United States,
每年被生产的包装纸占了垃圾的三分之一
packaging makes up 1/3 of all the waste that is generated annually.
自从塑料被发明 我们生产了大约83亿公吨的塑料
Since its invention, we have produced about 8.3 billion metric tons of plastic.
仅在2016年就已经制造了33.5亿吨
335 million tons in 2016 alone.
从1907年起超过63亿公吨的塑料变成垃圾
More than 6.3 billion metric tons of plastic have become waste since 1907.
把它们堆积在一个地方的话
Piled up in one place,
可以做成一个边长1.9千米的立方体
that makes a cube with a side length of 1.9 kilometers.
那我们可以对这些垃圾做什么呢?
So what did we do with all this waste?
9%被回收 12%被烧毁
9% was recycled, 12% burnt.
但79%的依然在那里
But 79% of it is sticking around still.
很多塑料最终进了海洋
A lot ends up in the ocean.
每年大约800万吨
Around 8 million tons a year.
塑料太多了以至于
That’s so much plastic
到了2050年会超过海洋里所有的鱼的重量
that it will outweigh all the fish in the ocean by 2050.
因为它无处不在
Because it’s everywhere,
所以会有海洋生物被塑料困住或误吞塑料
marine animals keep getting trapped in plastic and swallowing it.
在2015年已经有90%的海鸟吞食了塑料
In 2015 already 90% of seabirds had eaten plastic.
很多动物因胃中充满无法消化的塑料而遭受饥饿
Many animals starve with stomachs full of indigestible trash.
2018年一头死去的抹香鲸被冲上西班牙海岸
In 2018 a dead sperm whale washed up in Spain.
它吃了32公斤的塑料袋 网和一个鼓
He had eaten 32 kilos of plastic bags, nets and a drum
这个噩耗登上了很多杂志封面的同时
While this is tragic and makes for great magazine covers,
以一种不显眼的方式
there’s an even more widespread,
这些塑料在更广泛地传播
invisible form of plastic.
塑料微粒
Microplastics
塑料微粒是小于5毫米的碎片
Microplastics are pieces smaller than 5 millimeters
有一些被用于化妆品和牙膏中
Some of them are used in cosmetics or toothpaste,
但更多的来自持续暴露在紫外线下的漂浮垃圾
but most result from floating waste that is constantly exposed to UV radiation
接着崩解成为越来越小的碎片
And crumbles into smaller and smaller pieces
像这样的粒子有51万亿漂浮在海洋
51 trillion such particles float in the ocean,
它们可以能被各种海洋生物更轻易的吞食
Where they are even more easily swallowed by all kinds of marine life.
这引起了科学家的注意
This has raised concerns among scientists,
特别是被添加到塑料的化学物质对于健康的风险
especially about health risks from the chemicals that are added to plastic.
例如BPA使塑料瓶子变得透明
BPA for example makes plastic bottles transparent
但这很明显会妨碍我们的内分泌系统工作
But there’s also evidence that it interferes with our hormonal system.
DEHP让塑料变得更柔韧
DEHP makes plastics more flexible,
但可能致癌
But may cause cancer.
如果塑料微粒变成了毒药这就很不好了
It would be pretty bad if micro plastics are toxic,
因为它们漫游在食物链里
because they travel up the food chain.
浮游生物吃塑料微粒 小鱼吃浮游生物
Zooplankton eat micro plastic. Small fish eat zooplankton.
牡蛎也是
So do oysters,
蟹类和掠食性鱼类 它们都是我们的食物
crabs and predatory fish and they all land on our plate.
塑料微粒可以在蜂蜜
Micro plastics have been found in honey, in
海盐 啤酒 自来水中被发现
sea salt, in beer, in tap water
还有围绕在我们身边的灰尘里
and in the household dust around us.
在80%的婴儿和几乎所有成年人体中
8 out of 10 babies and nearly all adults
可检测到大量邻苯二甲酸酯 即一种常用的塑料添加剂
have measurable amounts of phthalates, a common plastic additive in their bodies.
93%的人的尿里有BPA
And 93% of people have BPA in their urine
迄今为止 这是一些科学所不确定的事情
There is little science about this so far and right now it’s inconclusive.
在恐慌被证实之前我们需要更多的调查
We need a lot more research before panic is justified.
但是保险来讲
But it is safe to say that a lot
很多我们未能预料的事情会发生
of stuff happened that we didn’t plan for.
并且失去控制
And we have lost control
过量的塑料在一定程度上来说是可怖的
Over plastic to a certain extent which is kind of scary.
但我们仅仅禁止塑料就行了吗?
But just to make sure we should simply ban plastics, right? Unfortunately,
不幸的是 这比想象的还复杂得多
it’s a bit more complicated than that.
塑料污染不仅仅是我们面临的环境挑战
Plastic pollution is not the only environmental challenge we face.
一些我们用于替代塑料的材料
Some of the substitutes we’d use
在其他方面有着比塑料更大的环境冲击
for plastic have a higher environmental impact in other ways.
举个例子 根据丹麦政府最近的一项研究
For example: according to a recent study by the Danish government,
制作一个一次性塑料袋所需能源很少
making a single-use plastic bag requires so little
和排放很少的二氧化碳
energy and produces far lower carbon dioxide emissions
而对于一个可重复利用的棉质包
compared to a reusable cotton bag,
你需要使用它7100次才足以
that you need to use your cotton bag 7 thousand 100 times
产生比使用塑料袋更低的环境影响
before it would have a lower impact on the environment than the plastic bag.
我们被迫进行一个复杂的权衡
We’re left with a complex process of trade-offs.
任何东西在某种方式上都会有一个影响
Everything has an impact somehow,
在它们之间找到一个正确的平衡很难
and it’s hard to find the right balance between them.
塑料也有助于问题的解决
Plastic also helps solve problems
当我们没有更好的解决方案时
that we don’t have very good answers for at the moment. Globally,
在全球 1/3被生产出来的食物
one-third of all food that’s
没有被食用并腐败
produced is never eaten and ends up rotting
它们被填埋并产生沼气
away on landfills where it produces methane.
为了避免食物被糟蹋
And the best way of preventing food from spoiling
以及不必要的浪费 最好的办法仍是塑料包装
and avoiding unnecessary waste is still plastic packaging.
同时也要注意到如今全世界的
It’s also important to note where the vast majority
主要塑料污染来源
of the world’s plastic pollution is coming from right now.
90%的塑料污染通过
90 % of all plastic waste entering the ocean through rivers comes
亚洲和非洲的十条河流进入大海
from just ten rivers in Asia and Africa.
每年 仅是中国长江就将150万吨的塑料
The Yangtze in China alone flushes 1.5 million tons
冲入海洋里
of plastic into the ocean each year.
像中国 印度
Countries like China, India
阿尔及利亚以及印度尼西亚这样的国家 在近几十年来
Algeria or Indonesia industrialized at an impressive pace
工业化的步伐让人印象深刻
in the last few decades,
数十亿的人的生活正在转变
transforming the lives of billions of people
发展进程太快
This development was so fast,
以至于垃圾处理设施不能跟上脚步
that the garbage disposal infrastructure couldn’t keep up
收集并回收发展所带来的新垃圾
with collecting and recycling all the new waste this brought
如果欧洲和美国的政客
If politicians in Europe and the
想解决这个问题
US want to address this issue,
那么 在发展中国家投资基础建设
investing in infrastructure in developing countries is just as important
和在国内对抗塑料污染一样重要
as fighting plastic pollution at home
通过参加竞选和重新设计产品
with campaigns and redesigning products to minimize unnecessary
使不必要的塑料产品最少化
plastic production.
事实就是 如果我们一直
The bottom line is, as long as we
不将解决塑料污染作为全球性问题
don’t address plastic pollution from a global perspective,
那么我们将无法完全解决它
we will not solve it.
塑料污染是个复杂的问题
Plastic pollution is a complicated problem.
我们发现了这种神奇的材料
We found a magic material and
然后我们因它有了很棒的生活
we had a really good time with it,
但我们需要谨慎 不然就会和Midas一样
But we need to be careful or just like Midas,
在这个世界中消失
we’ll end up in a world
这是我们都所不希望的
that we didn’t wish for.
你的个人日常行为仍有着巨大的影响
Your individual daily actions still have a huge impact.
你的行为很重要!
What you do matters!
拒绝一次性塑料
Refuse disposable plastics.
说服你的朋友和家人也这么做
Convince your friends and family to do the same.
让公司和政客们去采取必要的措施
Pressure companies and politicians to take the necessary
来使海洋保持干净和食物安全
steps to keep our oceans clean and our food safe.
齐心协力我们就能打败塑料污染!
Together we can beat plastic pollution!
这个视频由联合国环境规划署和清理海洋运动赞助
This video was a collaboration with UN Environment and their clean seas campaign.
如果你想采取行动来扭转塑料的局势
If you want to take action to turn the tide on plastics,
在cleanseas.org网站做出你的承诺
go to cleanseas.org and make your pledge.

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视频概述

白色污染的问题越来越严重,塑料已经变成世界性的威胁,请加入我们和我们一起对抗他,共同守护地球美好环境!

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Licia

审核员

审核员 EY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RS7IzU2VJIQ

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