September 4th 1914
After a month of fighting, the nations of Europe now all knew that this was a new type of war,
with carnage on a scale never before seen, but the technology and logistics of
modern warfare also brought with it a whole slew of unforeseen problems,
especially,as the war was about to go global and truly become a world war.
I’m Indy Neidell and this is《The Great War》
Here’s how the war looked at the beginning of the week:
A Russian army had been spectacularly destroyed by the Germans at Tannenberg.
The British and French were retreating to regroup around Paris, the Germans on their heels,
and the whole world was now talking about tales of German and Austrian executions of civilians
in occupied territories.
传统战争都有它清楚的难处 对吗？运输 补给
Traditional war had always had its fair share of difficulties, right? Transportation, supplies,
and communications always seemed to go wrong,and world war one was no exception,
but we begin to see that almost anything could screw up the best-laid plans on an extraordinary scale.
Let’s look at the war in the east:
The Russian army may have just suffered a catastrophic defeat against Germany,
but they were doing a lot better against Austria-Hungary. Now the Russians outnumbered the Empire roughly
750,000 to 500,000 in troops and had an even greater advantage in machine guns and artillery.
Austria-Hungary though had won two quick victories over the Russians, but it was all downhill from there.
Austrian Chief of Staff Conrad von Hotzendorf was over-confident,
and he had a complicated plan to let the Russians in the south advance
and then swing round them in the north.Hotzendorf was one of the major Austrian war hawks,
dreaming of a glorious empire that stretched down to Africa and even to the Middle East,
but in practical terms he was a terrible general.
He sort of ignored the fact thatthe Russians were heavily reinforcing in the north,
by September 1st they began to bear down on Conrad with close to twice
as many men as the Austrians had. Russia took Lemberg
——one of the largest cities of the Austro-Hungarian Empire on September 3rd
and Austria was forced to retreat to the Carpathian foothills.
到目前为止在这场战争中 奥匈帝国一直是处于一个不断的灾难状态 部分是因为
So far this war, Austria-Hungary had been in a constant state of disaster, partly because
过分扩张 另一部分是因为统治者的无能 这点无法改变 但是仍然有
of overstretch and partly because of incompetence. This wouldn’t change, but there were also
totally unforeseen problems- chronic language difficulties being a big one. The Austrian
军队拥有来自帝国各地的士兵 匈牙利人 捷克人 波斯尼亚人
army had soldiers from all the many nations of its empire, Hungarians, Czech, Bosnians,you
name it, and troops from one region would repeatedly attack others of its own army,
mistaking them for Russians because of their unfamiliar language. And the Slavic troops
有时会轻易地逃跑 因为他们被迫使去攻打其他斯拉夫人 有时甚至
would simply desert at times because of being made to fight other Slavs, and sometimes even
join the Russian army.
还有 东欧土地辽阔-小分队会走失 有时候
There were also the huge open spaces of eastern Europe- units would become lost, sometimes
for days, and just finding the enemy was a daunting task.
现在沙皇俄国 有自己的问题 虽然他们有无尽的男人当兵
Now Russia,had problems of its own, though- although it had an endless supply of men, it could
only afford to feed and clothe a fraction of them in an army, so you could avoid the
draft for a variety of reasons. Like if you were the family’s main breadwinner. So in
因此在八月初 举个例子 两百万俄国人突然都结婚了 这将会非常有意思
early August, for example, two million Russians suddenly got married, which would be funny
if the ones who went to war weren’t all dying.
The problems of modern warfare were also being felt in the west, but in different ways.
The Franco-British retreat had started. British Commander John French was considering retreating
beyond Paris, though, and when he learned that the last Belgian fortress had fallen
to the Germans, he thought of abandoning the whole thing and retreating all the way to
后撤到大西洋海岸的圣纳泽尔(法国西南港市) 可见 对于其他协约国 他心中只有鄙夷
St. Nazaire, on the Atlantic Coast. Seriously. He had nothing but disdain for his allies,
especially his opposite number French General Lanzerac. Commander French said that the French
army was the sort of people that he did not wish to continue fighting with… which is
insane! They were at war!
But the retreat was really well managed. No big guns were captured and there was never
any threat of being surrounded. Part of this was that the French Army now had a huge advantage-
the French railway system. They could move around troops lots faster than the Germans
could follow on foot.
And follow on foot they often had to do. The automobile was still a fairly new creation,
and most of the thousands of German trucks used broke down this month. The Belgians had,
of course, sabotaged their own railways. It would take weeks for the Germans to get them
in order again.
The Germans had problems not only with their cars, but also big ones with their horses,
由于饥饿和精疲力尽 马都倒在了路边 但是
which by this point were dropping dead on the roadside from hunger and exhaustion, but
were needed to haul the dreaded German guns.
The German armies were following the sweep of the Schlieffen Plan, but on September 2nd
this changed. Instead of going to the west of Paris, they were now diverted to head east
of it. This was because of good defense. One German army was stopped by Lanzerac at Guise
and forced to head southeast, and the other had faced strong British resistance the whole
way and the sweep was abandoned.
Lanzerac was a very cautious general, and though he was repeatedly ordered by his superiors
在大撤退时进行反击 他也不这样做 他说他想等到了开阔地段
to counterattack during the retreat, he wouldn’t, saying he wanted to wait until open ground
再运用他的大炮 最后 即使朗雷扎克成功阻挡德国军前进
to use his artillery. Eventually, even with Lanzerac’s success stopping the German advance,
he was removed from command for being too cautious.
British Commander French was happy when Lanzerac was relieved of command, but he was far from
happy when Lord Kitchener, British Secretary of State for War himself, had arrived in full
Field Marshall dress uniform at the end of August to meet directly with French and tell
并且告诉他好好和他的联盟一起合作 而不是仅仅是安全撤退 英军
him to damn well work together with his allies, and not simply retreat to safety. The British
remained near Paris.
The Schlieffen Plan as it was conceived might have been successful if Moltke hadn’t diverted
施里芬计划可能会成功 – 他把军队推进与沙皇俄国作战
so many of his troops away- he had pulled away troops to fight the Russians, troops
攻打安特卫普 攻击那慕尔要塞…但是这是战争 所以当军队到达
for Antwerp, for the fortress of Namur… but that’s war, so as the armies neared
Paris, the German armies were now reduced in size to below that of the French and British
and they were much lower in ammunition.
You can see that this was a bed of roses for nobody at all, and something else we start
to see around now: this war was no longer a European land war, but was becoming an actual
world war on both land and sea.
Japan and Britain had had an alliance since 1902, and in mid August Japan demanded Germany
withdraw her warships from Chinese and Japanese waters and hand over the port of Tsingtao.
8月23日 日本向德国公开宣战 日本登陆了两万三千军队
On August 23rd, Japan declared war on Germany.The Japanese landed 23,000 troops beginning September
9月2日围攻青岛 持续了一整个秋天 威廉二世说
2nd for the siege of Tsingtao, which would last all autumn. Kaiser Wilhelm said, “it
would shame me more to surrender Tsingtao to the Japanese than Berlin to the Russians.”
He said a lot of stuff like that.
New Zealand had its first engagement of the war, occupying German Samoa on August 29th
to take the radio station there, one of several stations the Germans had in the Pacific. The
occupation took place without fighting, but it brought the war to the Pacific. This was
not the first seizure of a German colony during the war, though, Togo having surrendered to
the British and French three days earlier.
对英国自己的领土家园来说 这是一次危险时刻 自从整个专业化
And for Britain on her home islands this was a dangerous time. Since the entire professional
army had been sent to Belgium, and Germany had plenty of troops available to land in
英格兰的东岸 这是一场有预谋的入侵 幸运的是
the east of England, there was a prospect of invasion, and with a bit of luck an invading
入侵袭击可能会躲避皇家海军 但是8月28日 在赫里戈兰 三艘德国巡洋舰
force might elude the Royal Navy, but on August 28th, at Heligoland, three German cruisers
被英国摧毁了 英国毫发无损地结束了这次威胁 这是第一次
were destroyed by the British without a ship sunk, ending the threat. This was the first
真正的海军参战 就像你们知道的那样 离战争结束还很远
real naval engagement of the war, and as you all know, it was very far from the last.
So now we have an actual world war on three continents, which brings with it all of the
new problems of modern warfare, and though many of them are still connected with transportation,
和通讯 供应 甚至语言都紧密相关 和从前大不相同
communication, supplies, and even language, they’re on a scale like never before, and
就像所有的战争问题都以生命为代价 我们会看到成百万的人因战争死去 与此同时他们的国家
just as all problems in war cost lives, we’ll see millions die as nations try to get a grip
on 20th century warfare. We will see you next week.
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