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黑死病二三事

Plague 101 | National Geographic

Plague is notorious
鼠疫臭名昭著
for causing mass sickness and devastation.
因其造成大规模疫情和破坏
But as much tragedy as the disease has caused,
即便它造成的悲剧数不胜数
it also helped drive crucial scientific and social progress.
它也推动了重要的科学及社会进步
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
鼠疫是由耶尔森氏杆菌引起的传染病
It mainly affects rodents, and spreads by way of insects.
它主要影响啮齿动物 并通过昆虫传播
Because of these insect carriers,
这些携带病菌的昆虫
plague has been passed onto humans
将鼠疫传给人类
with devastating consequences.
并造成了灾难性的后果
Three major plague pandemics have occurred in human history.
人类历史上曾发生过三次大型鼠疫
And while they occurred centuries apart,
虽然发生时间相隔几个世纪
they shared similar traits that paved the way for the spread of disease.
但都以相似的方式 促成了疾病的传播
One cause of plague pandemics
鼠疫流行的其中一个原因
was the rise of international trade.
便是国际贸易的兴起
Trade routes connected once-isolated communities
贸易路线连接了曾经分隔的社区
and created large economic networks.
并建立了庞大的经济网络
But by facilitating the movement of goods between communities,
促进货物在地区间流动的同时
trade routes also facilitated the movement of germs.
贸易路线也促进了病菌的传播
International trade was an impetus for the first plague pandemic on record,
国际贸易推动了首次记录在案的鼠疫爆发
the Plague of Justinian.
查士丁尼鼠疫大流行
In the sixth century, outbreaks began in Egypt
公元六世纪 鼠疫在埃及爆发
and, thanks to land and sea trade routes,
并通过海陆贸易线
they spread throughout the Byzantine Empire.
散播蔓延至整个拜占庭帝国
Named after the emperor at the time,
该流行病以当时在位的君主为名
the Plague of Justinian is estimated to have wiped out about half of Europe’s population.
据估计 查士丁尼鼠疫几乎夺去了欧洲半数人口的性命
Growing economies also made way for urbanization and a rising urban population.
经济增长加速城市化 城市人口数攀升
This resulted in crowded neighborhoods
这也导致了社区人口过于密集
and the accumulation of waste,
以及垃圾的堆积
which created unsanitary living conditions.
使当地的生活条件脏乱不堪
Cities and their residents essentially
整个城市及其居民
became incubators for germs and diseases.
基本成了病菌与疾病的温床
This was particularly evident in the second
这一点 在第二次爆发的
and most infamous plague pandemic.
臭名昭著的鼠疫流行中尤为明显
In the 14th century,
在十四世纪
Europe was experiencing an economic and population boom,
欧洲的经济繁荣 人口激增
especially in cities.
尤其是城市区域
Proper waste management did not exist at the time,
因为当时并没有完善的垃圾管理系统
making cities vulnerable to disease.
使得城市易受疾病侵袭
After trade routes brought plague from Asia,
鼠疫通过贸易路线从亚洲传出
where it killed millions in China and the Middle East,
在中国及中东地区 上百万人因此丧命
the disease wiped out about a third of Europe’s population,
这次鼠疫杀死了约三分之一的欧洲人口
earning itself the moniker, the Black Death.
因此它又得名黑死病
What also aided in the transmission of the disease
医学知识的匮乏
was the lack of medical knowledge.
也是疾病传播的原因之一
For most of human history,
纵观大部分人类历史
the cause of illnesses, germs, was unknown,
疾病的病因——细菌 都是未知的
making sicknesses like the plague a mystery.
使得鼠疫这类的疾病成了难解之谜
This lack of knowledge drove the spread of disease
这种认知匮乏导致疾病的传播
as recently as the 19th century.
一直持续到十九世纪
Outbreaks in northwest India
印度西北部疫情爆发
eventually reached major port cities in China.
最终蔓延到中国的主要港口城市
In just over a century,
仅仅一个多世纪
plague was exported throughout the globe
鼠疫传播到全球各地
and caused outbreaks in every continent except Antarctica,
除南极洲外 各大洲都爆发了疫情
making it the most widespread pandemic in history.
使之成为历史上传播最广泛的流行病
This plague pandemic, however, was the last.
然而这也是鼠疫的终结
In 1894, scientists discovered the bacteria behind the plague outbreaks.
1894年 科学家们发现了鼠疫爆发背后的始作俑者
Their discovery helped further developments in microbiology,
他们的发现推动了微生物学
medicine, urban planning, and sanitation methods,
医学 城市规划和卫生法规的进一步发展
which led to the treatment and prevention of the disease.
以及疾病预防和治疗的进步
Economic expansion, urbanization,
经济扩张 城市化
and a lack of medical knowledge
以及医学知识的缺乏
contributed to the disastrous spread of plague.
导致了鼠疫的灾难性传播
In turn, however, the disease helped catapult
反之 这种疾病也推动了科学
crucial advancements in science and public health,
和公共卫生领域的重大进展
very well making plague pandemics a thing of the past.
将鼠疫永久地封存进历史

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黑死病的介绍~

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翻译译者

刘小贵

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MYnMXEcHI7U

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