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手枪虾:超级动力甲壳动物 – 译学馆
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手枪虾:超级动力甲壳动物

Pistol Shrimp: The Super-Powered Crustacean

没有比手枪虾更狠的角色了
Nothing is more badass than a pistol shrimp.
我知道我常说这句话
I know we all used that line a lot.
但这是只仅有我的食指大的虾
But this is a shrimp for size of my index finger.
它以气泡为武器
That creates wepnets, bubles that
进行觅食
are almost as hot as the surface of the sun
气泡温度接近太阳表面
in order to get some lunch.
Animalogic——由丹尼尔·迪福主持并讲解
大家好 我是丹妮尔·迪福 你现在收看的是Animalogic
Hi, I’m Danielle Dufault and you’re watching Animal Logic.
手枪虾或者说我们说鼓虾
The Pistol Shrimp, or our Alpheidae
隶属于世界各地常见的枪虾科
are a family of snapping shrimp found all over the world,
主要分布在热带和温带海洋的浅水区
primitively mainly in tropical and temperate waters.
首先你可能会注意到
The first thing you might know that is about
手枪虾那一对滑稽的不对称的螯足
pistol shrimps are their calmecally
从而联想到《辛普森一家》中的场景
A certain some samsara comes into mind.
手枪虾很小
Pistol shrimp are pretty tiny,
身长约5厘米
measuring up to 5 cm long
它们的巨螯占据一半身体
and their large cloth is about half of their body link.
这对螯就是它们名字的由来
This Klose is where they get their name from.
不同于绝大部分的虾
Unlike most shrimp,
手枪虾的螯足并不是钳状的
pistol shrimp don’t have pensers at their end of clock.
而是一套
Instead, they have a mechanism
类似锤子和铁砧的机制
similar to a hammer and an unveil.
“锤子”90度后扳被称为“dactyl(大螯)”
The hammer called the deadlocked 90 degrees,
另一端固定不动的“铁砧”被称为“probus(小螯)”
hinge away from the anvil call the propose which never moves.
手枪虾的一块肌肉负责将大螯扳开
One muscle pulls the dead away from the propose
另一块肌肉负责把两螯重新并拢
and the other pulls them together.
这场拔河制造了极大张力
This tough of work creates massive amount of attention
以至于在松力的一瞬间
that would win at least causes the hammer to
促使“锤子”向后猛甩
fly backwards incredibly fast.
“锤子”向后甩的速度
The hammer will fly back
高达每小时115公里
and it speed up to 115 kilometers per hours.
速度之快可以将水破开
Just so fast, a terrorist water of hard.
形成一股喷射的水流
creating a
这股水流形成一个小范围的低压区
the struck string creates a small area of low pressure,
其中压力远比水压要低
which is lower than the vapor pressure of the water.
附近的气泡进入这个低压区
Nearby air bubbles would enter the slow pressure areas,
进而高速膨胀
causing them roughly to expand,
最终形成了“空穴气泡”
creating what’s known as a cavitation bubble.
这个大气泡身边包围着正常压力下的水
The smartish bubble is surrounded by regular pressure water,
这些水压缩着大气泡 直至其爆炸
which can compress the large bubble causing it to blow.
正是这个高速破裂的气泡
It’s this repidly cleb bubble
制造了你听到的“砰”的一声
that causes poping sound you hear
而不是“锤子”和“铁砧”
no the hammer and
气泡的爆炸会吓得手枪虾的猎物肝胆俱裂
The claps of the bubble is absolutely devastating to their prey.
在这极短的时间和极小的范围里
For incredibly breathing out of time and an incredibly small area,
这场爆炸将会高达4000摄氏度
the explosion will reach to temperature upwards 4,000 Celsius.
作为对比
For comparison,
岩浆仅有1000摄氏度
lava is 1,000 degree Celsius
而太阳表面是5500摄氏度
and the surface of sun is 5,500 degree Celsius.
这场爆炸制造的高温不会持久
They may not happen for very long
也没有多大范围的影响
and it does not have a very large area of impact.
但已经足够完成
But it’s enough to get the job done,
杀死并肢解猎物的任务
dismembering and killing their prey.
它们曾被称为武器化气泡
They have been described in the past as recognized bubbles.
这也许能解释
This might have explained
杰尼龟的气泡究竟威力如何了
how squirrel damage of a bubble attack.
空穴气泡的破裂制造一个有趣的副产品
The closely crabs bubble have an interesting by products
“声致发光”
so illuminacent
气泡在破裂前发出了一束光
the bubble flash of light
没人知道是为什么
for clapping and no one knows why. Not even the recondite
哪怕是《瑞克和莫迪》的粉丝也不知道
第一个观察到此现象的科学家
the first scientist to abverse the phenomenon
在喝了几瓶啤酒的宿醉后将此命名为
deliver lost for a couple of beer initially made it
“虾致发光(Shrimpoluminescence)”
Shrimpoluminescence
之后不得不遗憾地把它改掉
and then unfortunately had changed it.
这真是太可惜了
which are real shrimp
因为这将成为我最喜欢的词
because I think it’s my new favorite work.
这大螯上排布的小细毛
the giant clos lay that small hairs that
能使其感受到其他手枪虾的喷射水流
If you the created by other pistol shrimp
作为它们之间的交流方式
as a formal communication.
即使是与埋在一堆沙下的邻居
Even with neighbors, blew away in the dental of sand.
但没有哪只手枪虾离得开他们的小帮凶
But no pistol shrimp would be complete without their partners and crabs.
虾虎鱼
That gobbled fish.
住在珊瑚礁中的手枪虾
Pistol shrimp that living coral reefs at often
总是与虾虎鱼以共生关系生存
for sim biolo relationships with goblin fish
他俩分享一个窝
The two
这个窝由手枪虾打理和虾虎鱼守护
which the pistol shrimp maintains whilst goblin fish keeps look out.
如果危险来临 他俩会撤退回窝里
If danger presents itself, the two.. return to their. .
当他俩在窝的保护范围外时
When the two are outside to protection of
手枪虾往往用须抓住虾虎鱼的尾巴
the pistol shrimp would often hold the goblin tail in its tenner.
虾虎鱼的视力更佳
The goblin has a much better vision.
当它注意到反常之处
And if it notices anything isn’t go right,
就会摆摆尾巴通知手枪虾
it will wiggle its tail, letting the pistol shrimp know that
他俩应该回到安全处躲避
they should head back to safety.
这真暖心呀
That warms the heart.
手枪虾中最有趣的种类
One of the most interesting species of pistol shrimp
要属“synalpheus regalis”
is the Senatorial Regardless,
它们生活在澳洲海岸
which lives off the coast of Australia.
这些虾属于真社会性动物
These shrimp’re living eusocieties.
这种非常复杂的社会体系只能从
A very complex social system found only in beast
蜜蜂 胡蜂 蚂蚁 裸鼹鼠
worms, ants, nickmorats.
以及此种手枪虾身上找到
and then this one species of snapping shrimp.
这意味着他们遵循四种特质
This basically means they follow four characteristics.
群体中的成年虾们
The edol. living groups-
照顾着非亲生的宝宝
they care for babies that aren’t their own.
并非所有个体都要参与繁殖
Not individuals get to produce.
并且多代共存
and they live with multiple generations.
这种虾住在海绵中
The senatorial is regarded as living sponges
一个家族有三百多名成员
in colonies of over 300 members.
以它们唯一的女王为中心
center around the single queen.
因为它们用“开枪”
Since they use the snapping for
来捕猎和交流
both hunting and communication.
所以这群家伙可能会相当吵
These colonies can get loud.
群体中心的噪音
The center of the colony
据测量高达210分贝
has been merged 210 desert balls.
作为对比
For comparison,
电锯的噪音仅有120分贝
a chainsaw is only 120 desert balls
而喷气发动机大约有140分贝
and is about 140 deserted balls.
这噪音倒像是树蛙的鸣叫
Much like counter ribbons of treetops
想要占领夜晚的丛林
since it dominate the airways in the jungle at night.
手枪虾的“枪声”穿透了热带浅滩
Pistol shrimps snapping, Hermit the tropical shallows
制造了一道白噪音之墙
creating a world of wide noise.
潜水者将这种白噪音形容为爆竹声
Divers just describe it sounding like a crackling
或是牛奶泼在麦片上的声音
fire or the sound of
这就让在虾群附近测声变得极为困难
This makes it very difficult to measure accustic any area snapping shrimp coloy.
二战期间 美国人就利用了这一特质
During the WWII, the Amaricans took on this and
用虾群作为声墙隐藏他们的潜艇
use pistol shrimp coloies as an accusative to hide their submarines.
从而躲过水听器的探查登陆日本码头
allowing them to by the
手枪虾的死亡气泡制造螯
The pistol shrimps deadly bubble producing claw. It is a great
是物理多领域碰撞的绝佳例子
如果你想深入研究
这些虾背后的物理原理
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遇见水枪虾,一种用气泡做武器捕猎的小虾

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