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叛逆设计者的颂歌 – 译学馆
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叛逆设计者的颂歌

Pirates, nurses and other rebel designers | Alice Rawsthorn

设计既难以定义 又难以描述
Design is a slippery and elusive phenomenon,
且不同时期 它的意义也不同
which has meant different things at different times.
但凡真正有启发性之作却有共通之处:
But all truly inspiring design projects have one thing in common:
它们皆始于梦想
they began with a dream.
梦想越是大胆
And the bolder the dream,
就越是需要巧妙的设计技艺来实现它
the greater the design feat that will be required to achieve it.
而这就是为何最伟大的设计师也总是
And this is why the greatest designers are almost always
最大的梦想家、叛逆者和革新者
the biggest dreamers and rebels and renegades.
这样的例子历史中比比皆是
This has been the case throughout history,
公元300年前
all the way back to the year 300 BC,
一个十三岁的孩子成为了
when a 13-year-old became the king
一个亚洲偏远贫穷小国国君
of a remote, very poor and very small Asian country.
他梦想通过武力征服
He dreamt of acquiring land, riches and power
获得土地、财富和权力
through military conquest.
而他的设计能力
And his design skills —
对于他实现梦想必不可少——尽管听起来不可能
improbable though it sounds — would be essential in enabling him to do so.
那时
At the time,
所有武器都是按不同规格手工制造的
all weapons were made by hand to different specifications.
而当一个弓箭手在战斗中用完箭后
So if an archer ran out of arrows during a battle,
他们不一定能用自己的弓 射出其他人的箭
they wouldn’t necessarily be able to fire another archer’s arrows from their bow.
这就意味着他们将在战斗中后继乏力
This of course meant that they would be less effective in combat
同时也很容易受伤
and very vulnerable, too.
嬴解决了这个问题
Ying solved this problem
他坚持所有弓和箭都要设计得一模一样
by insisting that all bows and arrows were designed identically,
如此便能交换使用
so they were interchangeable.
同样他也统一了剑、斧、矛、盾
And he did the same for daggers, axes, spears, shields
和其它各式武器
and every other form of weaponry.
他武装精良的军队打赢了一场场战斗
His formidably equipped army won batter after battle,
在15年里
and within 15 years,
他的小国家成功征服了
his tiny kingdom had succeeded in conquering
所有更大、更富、更强的邻国
all its larger, richer, more powerful neighbors,
建立了强大的中华(秦)帝国
to found the mighty Chinese Empire.
如今 当然没有人
Now, no one, of course,
会想到把嬴政描述成那时的设计家——
would have thought of describing Ying Zheng as a designer at the time —
为什么会呢?
why would they?
但是赢在不知不觉中本能地
And yet he used design unknowingly and instinctively
运用了高度的技巧
but with tremendous ingenuity
实现了他的目标
to achieve his ends.
还有另一个看似不可能 却偶然造就的设计家
And so did another equally improbable, accidental designer,
他也是用武力得到了他想要的
who was also not above using violence to get what he wanted.
他就是爱德华·蒂奇 以“英国海盗黑胡子”的称号为人所熟知
This was Edward Teach, better known as the British pirate, Blackbeard.
那是一个海盗的黄金时代
This was the golden age of piracy,
像蒂奇那样的海盗能够威慑公海
where pirates like Teach were terrorizing the high seas.
当时殖民地贸易繁荣
Colonial trade was flourishing,
海上劫掠很是有利可图
and piracy was highly profitable.
像蒂奇这样更加聪明的海盗意识到 为使利益最大化
And the smarter pirates like him realized that to maximize their spoils,
他们要残忍地攻击敌人
they needed to attack their enemies so brutally
以使敌人一见之下就投降
that they would surrender on sight.
也就是说
So in other words,
他们可以不费一枪一弹
they could take the ships without wasting ammunition,
不伤一兵一卒地夺取船只
or incurring casualties.
所以爱德华·蒂奇变得残忍无情
So Edward Teach redesigned himself as Blackbeard
把自己重塑成黑胡子
by playing the part of a merciless brute.
他穿沉重的外套 戴大帽子 以突显身高
He wore heavy jackets and big hats to accentuate his height.
他留浓密的黑胡子以模糊他的脸
He grew the bushy black beard that obscured his face.
他把手枪背带搭在肩上
He slung braces of pistols on either shoulder.
他甚至把点燃的火绳系在帽檐上
He even attached matches to the brim of his hat and set them alight,
这样在海盗们准备攻击时 火绳就会威胁着咝咝作响
so they sizzled menacingly whenever his ship was poised to attack.
就像当时很多海盗
And like many pirates of that era,
他挂的旗帜上印有恐怖标志
he flew a flag that bore the macabre symbols
一个骷髅头与一对交叉着的骨头
of a human skull and a pair of crossed bones,
这些图案几百年来在很多文化中都代表死亡
because those motifs had signified death in so many cultures for centuries,
即使是公海这没有法制、没有文化之地
that their meaning was instantly recognizable,
它们的含义也能立即被理解
even in the lawless, illiterate world of the high seas:
投降 否则你会受到惩罚
surrender or you’ll suffer.
因此那些明智的受害者一看就投降了
So of course, all his sensible victims surrendered on sight.
这样看来
Put like that,
就很容易理解为何爱德华·蒂奇和他的海盗朋友们
it’s easy to see why Edward Teach and his fellow pirates
会被当作现代传播学的设计先驱
could be seen as pioneers of modern communications design,
以及为什么他们的死亡标志
and why their deadly symbol —
[笑声]
[Laughter]
还有——
there’s more —
为什么他们头骨和交叉骨头的死亡标志
why their deadly symbol of the skull and crossbones
会成为现今标识的前身
was a precursor of today’s logos,
而不是我身后立着的大的红色字母
rather like the big red letters standing behind me,
当然 这些字母传播着不同的信息
but of course with a different message.
[笑声]
[Laughter]
设计也被一个同样聪慧、同样看似不可能的设计家
Yet design was also used to nobler ends
用于更加崇高的目标
by an equally brilliant and equally improbable designer,
她就是十九世纪的英国护士 弗洛伦斯·南丁格尔
the 19th-century British nurse, Florence Nightingale.
她以为所有人提供良好的医疗护理为使命
Her mission was to provide decent healthcare for everyone.
南丁格尔生于英国的一个豪富之家
Nightingale was born into a rather grand, very wealthy British family,
克里米亚战争时 她志愿去军医院工作
who were horrified when she volunteered to work in military hospitals
她的家人都感到震惊
during the Crimean War.
一到战地医院 她很快意识到
Once there, she swiftly realized
很多病人并非死于战争受伤
that more patients were dying of infections that they caught there,
而是死于在
in the filthy, fetid wards,
肮脏恶臭的病房中的感染
than they were of battle wounds.
所以她为能设计和建造出更加干净、明亮、通风的诊所
So she campaigned for cleaner, lighter, airier clinics
而参与各种活动
to be designed and built.
回到英国后
Back in Britain,
她发起了又一次运动
she mounted another campaign,
这一次是为了建立平民医院
this time for civilian hospitals,
并坚持使用同样的设计准则
and insisted that the same design principles were applied to them.
这所南丁格尔医院
The Nightingale ward, as it is called,
几世纪来都对医院设计起了决定性影响
dominated hospital design for decades to come,
一些原理沿用至今
and elements of it are still used today.
但是从那以后
But by then,
设计就被当作工业时代的一种工具
design was seen as a tool of the Industrial Age.
它变得正式和专业
It was formalized and professionalized,
但也受到了局限
but it was restricted to specific roles
它被普遍用于商业目标
and generally applied in pursuit of commercial goals
而不是被自然地使用
rather than being used intuitively,
如同弗洛伦斯·南丁格尔、黑胡子和嬴政的做法一样
as Florence Nightingale, Blackbeard and Ying Zheng had done.
到二十世纪
By the 20th century,
这种商业思维非常强势
this commercial ethos was so powerful,
以至于任何背离它的设计家
that any designers who deviated from it
都冒着被看作怪人或颠覆者的危险
risked being seen as cranks or subversives.
他们中有一个我崇拜的伟大设计家
Now among them is one of my great design heroes,
杰出的拉兹洛·莫霍利·纳吉
the brilliant László Moholy-Nagy.
他是匈牙利艺术家和设计家
He was the Hungarian artist and designer
他关于科技对日常生活影响的著名实验
whose experiments with the impact of technology on daily life were so powerful
依然影响着我们手机电脑上的数字图像设计
that they still influence the design of the digital images we see on our phones and computer screens.
在20世纪20年代的德国 他使包豪斯艺术学院变得激进
He radicalized the Bauhaus Design School in 1920s Germany,
所以多年后 当他努力要在芝加哥
and yet some of his former colleagues shunned him
建一所新的包豪斯时 之前的一些同事都躲着他
when he struggled to open a new Bauhaus in Chicago years later.
莫霍利想法的大胆和深刻是前所未有的
Moholy’s ideas were as bold and incisive as ever,
但他用于设计的方法太过于试验性质
but his approach to design was too experimental,
就如他坚持见证他的想法一样 用他的话说
as was his insistence on seeing it, as he put it,
这是一种态度 而不是合时宜的一种表达
as an attitude, not a profession to be in tune with the times.
遗憾的是 另一位特立独行的设计者
And sadly, the same applied
理查德·巴克敏斯特·富勒 也有同样遭遇
to another design maverick: Richard Buckminster Fuller.
他还是一位优秀的设计预见者
He was yet another brilliant design visionary
和设计活动家
and design activist,
他致力于设计一个可持续发展的社会
who was completely committed to designing a sustainable society
这种设计思想如此具有远见
in such a forward-thinking way
以至于在20世纪20年代
that he started talking about the importance of environmentalism
他就开始讨论环保对于设计的重要性
in design in the 1920s.
虽然他如此努力
Now he, despite his efforts,
但他一直被很多人嘲笑为设计领域的怪人
was routinely mocked as a crank by many in the design establishment,
诚然
and admittedly,
他的一些实验失败了
some of his experiments failed,
比如从没有飞起来的飞行汽车
like the flying car that never got off the ground.
然而 测地圆顶
And yet, the geodesic dome,
他用作紧急庇护所的设计方案
his design formula to build an emergency shelter
所用的材料是木片、金属、塑料、
from scraps of wood, metal, plastic,
小块的树木、旧毯子、塑料薄膜
bits of tree, old blankets, plastic sheeting —
几乎包括那时能用的任何东西
just about anything that’s available at the time —
乃是人道主义设计的最大壮举之一
is one of the greatest feats of humanitarian design,
此后给在绝境中的无数人
and has provided sorely needed refuge
提供了亟需的庇护
to many, many people in desperate circumstances ever since.
如今 是巴克和莫克霍利这些激进设计家的勇气和热情
Now, it was the courage and verve of radical designers like Bucky and Moholy
在吸引我深入设计领域
that drew me to design.
我生涯最初是一个新闻记者和国外通讯记者
I began my career as a news journalist and foreign correspondent.
我写政治、经济、商业事务
I wrote about politics, economics and corporate affairs,
本可以选择专攻其中的任一领域
and I could have chosen to specialize in any of those fields.
但是我选择了设计
But I picked design,
因为我相信它是我们可以用来
because I believe it’s one of the most powerful tools at our disposal
提高生活质量最有力的工具之一
to improve our quality of life.
谢谢 同为TED的设计爱好者们
Thank you, fellow TED design buffs.
[掌声]
[Applause]
就像我欣赏专业设计家
And greatly as I admire the achievements of professional designers,
非凡绝妙的成就一样
which have been extraordinary and immense,
我同样相信
I also believe
设计很大程度上受益于独创能力
that design benefits hugely from the originality,
思考水平
the natural thinking
还有反抗者和叛逆者的智慧
and the resourcefulness of its rebels and renegades.
我们正生活在设计领域中引人注目的时刻
And we’re living at a remarkable moment in design,
因为这正是两个阵营越走越近的时刻
because this is a time when the two camps are coming closer together.
甚至是数字科技中最基本的进步
Because even very basic advances in digital technology
也能使它们逐渐独立地运用于
have enabled them to operate increasingly independently,
追求更有抱负、更不拘一格的目标
in or out of a commercial context,
不管是否处于商业环境
to pursue ever more ambitious and eclectic objectives.
所以从理论上来说
So in theory,
像众筹、云计算、社交媒体这些平台
basic platforms like crowdfunding, cloud computing, social media
为专业设计师们提供更多自由空间
are giving greater freedom to professional designers
也为即兴设计师们提供更多资源
and giving more resources for the improvisational ones,
并且很有可能
and hopefully,
对他们想法的接受度会高一些
a more receptive response to their ideas.
我最喜欢的一些例子是在非洲
Now, some of my favorite examples of this are in Africa,
那里新一代的设计家们
where a new generation of designers
正在开发难以置信的医疗设备网络技术
are developing incredible Internet of Things technologies
以实现弗洛伦斯·南丁格尔改善医疗的梦想
to fulfill Florence Nightingale’s dream of improving healthcare
在这些国家中 人们接触到手机的机会
in countries where more people now have access to cell phones
比用到干净自来水的还要多
than to clean, running water.
这些设计师中就有亚瑟·张
And among them is Arthur Zang.
一个喀麦隆年轻的设计工程师
He’s a young, Cameroonian design engineer
他把平板电脑变成了移动心脏监测设备——
who has a adapted a tablet computer into the Cardiopad,
心脏监测平板
a mobile heart-monitoring device.
它可以用来监测偏远农村地区的病人的心脏
It can be used to monitor the hearts of patients in remote, rural areas.
数据通过蜂窝网络
The data is then sent on a cellular network
传送到几百英里外设备齐全的医院
to well-equipped hospitals hundreds of miles away
用于分析
for analysis.
如果那里的专家识别到任何问题
And if any problems are spotted by the specialists there,
就会推荐合适的治疗方法
a suitable course of treatment is recommended.
这当然省去了很多病人
And this of course saves many patients
长途跋涉去医院做的昂贵又无意义的检查
from making long, arduous, expensive and often pointless journeys to those hospitals,
并使他们的心脏
and makes it much, much likelier
其实更有可能接受检查
that their hearts will actually be checked.
亚瑟·张八年前开始研究心脏监测平板
Arthur Zang started working on the Cardiopad eight years ago,
那是他大学最后一年
in his final year at university.
但是他没能从任何传统途径
But he failed to persuade any conventional sources
获得投资以启动项目
to give him investment to get the project off the ground.
他在脸书网上公布了他的想法
He posted the idea on Facebook,
一个喀麦隆政府官员看到了公告
where a Cameroonian government official saw it
并成功为他担保了一份政府拨款
and managed to secure a government grant for him.
亚瑟现在不仅在研究心脏监测平板
He’s now developing not only the Cardiopad,
还有针对不同情况的其它移动医疗设备
but other mobile medical devices to treat different conditions.
他并不是一个人
And he isn’t alone,
因为还有很多其他激情的、富有想象的设计家
because there are many other inspiring and enterprising designers
在推行他们自己不同凡响的项目
who are also pursuing extraordinary projects of their own.
最后让我们看看其中一些
And I’m going to finish by looking at just a few of them.
有一个是 皮克眼科检查
One is Peek Vision.
由肯尼亚的一组医生和设计家
This is a group of doctors and designers in Kenya,
开发了自己的医疗设备网络
who’ve developed an Internet of Things technology of their own,
用于便携式眼科诊断
as a portable eye examination kit.
还有加布里埃尔·马赫
Then there’s Gabriel Maher,
他正在开发一种新的设计语言
who is developing a new design language
让我们能够清楚表达性别认同的细微变化
to enable us to articulate the subtleties of our changing gender identities,
并且无需依赖传统形式
without recourse to traditional stereotypes.
大量设计家正从更多自由的渠道中
All of these designers and many more are pursuing their dreams,
追寻梦想
by the making the most of their newfound freedom,
遵循专业设计家的准则
with the discipline of professional designers
和叛逆者、革新者的智慧
and the resourcefulness of rebels and renegades.
让我们都从中获益
And we all stand to benefit.
谢谢
Thank you.
[掌声]
[Applause]

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视频概述

在这对叛逆设计者的颂歌中,Alice Rawsthorn强调了从黑胡子到弗洛伦斯·南丁格尔这些看似不可能的设计英雄的作品。通过区分这些大胆的思考家和一些现代早期的预见者如巴克敏斯特·富勒,Rawsthorn展现了最伟大的设计家通常是最叛逆的。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vC1uxXvPG0Q

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